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Keramic Studio 


Volume Seven 



(All %ights Reserved) 




MAY 1905 


Morning Glory F. B.Aulich 3 

Spiderwort^ EmmaA. Ervin 10-11 

Grapes Maud E. Hulbert 15 

Nut Bowl in French Chestnuts Jeanne M. Stewart 19 

Trilhum Mary Burnett 23 

JUNE 1905 

Roses Maud E. Hulbert 

Wild Sun Flower Hannah B. Overbeck . 

Red Raspberries Mary Burnett 

Poppy Plate Louise M. Smith 



JULY 1905 

Tobacco Plant or Nicotina Eunice Eaton 51 

Snowberry Frederick Wilson 54-55 

Small Roses for Plate Borders Maud Meyers 57,58,71 

Carnations I. M. Ferris 59 

Wild Carrot Mary Alley Neal 62 

Arbutus or May Flower Mary Alley Neal 62 

Roses Henrietta Barclay Paist 71 

AUGUST 1905 

Spanish Needle Austin Rosser 82-83 

Pink Begonia Emma A. Ervin 86 

Lillium Philadelphicum Edith Alma Ross 

Gooseberry Plate Louise M. Smith 

Gold Locks K. E. Cherry 



Stein in Black Raspberries Jeanne M. Stewart 99 

American Beauty Roses Blanche Van Court Schneider. .. 105 

Mountain Ash S. Evannah Price 110 

Mariposa Lily Emma A. Ervin 113 

Trumpet Flower Mary Burnett 115 

Oak Leaves and Acorn S. Evannah Price 116 


Fringed Gentian Mary Turner Merrill 125 

Tulip Tree Blossoms Paul Putzki 126 

Blackberries Sarah Reid McLaughlin 127 

White Nicotina or Tobacco Plant Mary Burnett 128 

Hops for Stein Henrietta Barclay Paist 130 

Red Raspberries The Misses Miles 131 

Red Raspberry Plate Jeanne M. Stewart . 137 



Norwegian Poppies Jeanne M. Stewart 145 

Grapes for Stein Maud E. Hulbert 157 

Gooseberries Sarah Reid McLaughlin i 161 


Holly Berries Jeanne M. Stewart 169 

Holly, Mistletoe and Oranges for 

Plate Border Anne Seymour Mundy 173 

Mistletoe Plate Jeanne M. Stewart 175 

Strawberries Ida M. Ferris 185 


Gooseberries Paul Putzki 193 

Peaches Sarah Reid McLaughlin 197 

Norwegian Blueberries for Fruit 

Plate Jeanne M. Stewart 199 

Fruit Borders Anne Seymour Mundy 202 

Landscape, Suggestion for Stein George H. Clark 203 

Currants for Stein M. MuUany 203 

Apples Sarah Reid McLaughlin 204 

Chestnuts Mary Burnett 206 

Raspberries Ida M. Ferris 207 

Cherries Mary Burnett 208 


Carnations Alfred F. Rhead 215 & 230 

Tiger Lily Sarah Reid McLaughlin 221 

Thistles Frederick G. Wilson 225 

Poinsettia Mariam L. Candler 229 

MARCH 1906 

Toilet Set in Violets Edith Alma Ross 

Shells and Seaweed Henrietta Barclay Paist 

Flaming Bush Henrietta Barclay Paist, ... 

Pasque Flowers, Western Anemone 

Fall Anemone Maud E. Hulbert, Emma A. Er- 
vin, Russell Goodwin 247-249 

Beech Nuts Mary Alta Morris 252-253 

APRIL 1906 

Lilac F. B. Auheh 

Colorado Shooting Star Emma A. Ervin 

Mariposa Lilies Maud E. Hulbert 





MAY 1905 

Wasp Designs , From "Art et Decoration" 2 & 18 

Plate Design in Gold with Red Out- 
line Lydia E. Smith 5 

Borders in Blue and White S. Evannah Price 6 

Decorative Study of Lilac Russell Goodwin 8 

Horse Chestnut Design for inside of 

BoAvl Lucia A. Soule 8 & 9 

Pitchers Minna Meinke, Austin Rosser, 

Mary and Hannah Overbeck, 
Alice Sharrard, Ophelia Fo- 
ley 12,13,14 

Rooster Design for Bowl Olive Sherman 18 

JUNE 1905 

Decorative Study of Tansy Maud M. Mason 29 

Child's Set (bowl, pitcher, tray) Mary F. Overbeck 31-33 

Tile Alice Witte Sloan 32 

Mushroom Plates Hannah and Mary Overbeck, 

Sabella Randolph, Russell 
Goodwin. Harriet P. Burton, 
Ahce Woodman, Alice Joslin, 

Austin Rosser 34 

Class in Design, fully illustrated Maud M. Mason 35-37 

Wild Sun Flower Hannah B. Overbeck 40-41 

JULY 1906 

Bowl in Blue and Grey Marie Crilley Wilson 51 

Class in Desi,gn (continued) Maud M. Mason 53-54 

Rose Plate Alice Witte Sloan 60 

Wild Carrot Russell Goodwin 63 

Decorative Landscape Henrietta Barclay Paist 64 

Tile, Peacock Feather Margaret Overbeck 64 

AUGUST 1905 

Decorative Study of Hollyhocks Hannah Overbeck 75 

Wild Rose Design for Cup and Sau- 
cer Edith Alma Ross 77 

Butterfly Plate Emma A. Ervin 79 

Decorative Study of Phlox Russell Goodwin 80 

Fish Platiers Minna Meinke and Mary Over- 
beck 81 & 87 

Design for Cup and Saucer Charles Babcock 84 

Fruit Plate Adeline Lienau 85 

Milk Pitcher in Blue and Green Alice B. Sharrard. 90 

Sagittaria Design for Plate Katherino Sinclair 91 


Pitcher in Grey Blue Tones Alice B. Sharrard... lOO 

Pomegranate Design for Plate Leta Horlocker 101 

Plate Design Robert W. Hoel 104 



Marmalade Jars, Bee Design Russell Goodwin, Hannah Over- 
beck, Alice Sharrard 106-109 

Child's Bowl and Plate, Conventional- 
ized Pussy Cat and Tree Elsie Binns Ill 

Beetle Designs From "Art et Decoration" 114 


Bowl or Plate Design in Gold and 

White Edith Alma Ross 121 

Horse Chestnut Design for Pitcher Russell Goodwin 127 

Tobacco Jars, Tobacco Plant Design Russell Goodwin, Emily Hassel- 

meyer, Bertha Drennen, Lucia 

Jordan 129 

Bowl, Bird Design Emma A. Ervin 136 

Plate in Grey Greens (wildroses) Maud Myers 138 


Begonia Design for Plate Charles Babcock 147 

Decorative Sketches of Hawthorn Ber- 
ries, Cherries, Pears, Crab Apples, 
Mountain Ash Berries, Orange 

Leaves and Currants Nancy Beyer, Hannah and Mary 

Overbeck, Alice Witte Sloan, 

Russell Goodwin 149-151 

Steins, Fruit Design Marie Crilley Wilson, Nancy 

Beyer, Russell Goodwin, Al- 
ice Witte Sloan, Hannah and 
Mary Overbeck, Alice B. 

Sharrard 152-155 

Cobfea Design for Border Henrietta Barclay Paist 155 


Designs for Child's Sets, Plates, Bowls, 

Cups, Candlesticks. Pitchers, etc Margaret and Mary Overbeck, 

Ophelia Foley, F. Alfred 
Rhead, Marie Crilley Wilson, 
Henrietta Barclay Paist, Sa- 
bella Randolph, Lottie 
Rhead, Alice Witte Sloan ....171-186 

Orange Design, for Cup and Saucer Minna Meinke 174 

Strawberry Plate in Grey Blues Maud Meyers 184 

Apple Design for Plate Minna Meinke 186 




Fruit Borders Henrietta Barclay Paist 

Marmalade Jar in Browns Minna Meinke 

Black Haw Studies and Pitcher De- 
sign Hannah Overbeck 200-201 

Punch Bowl, Fruit Design Helen Patterson 205 


Punch Bowls Marie Crilley Wilson, Ophelia 

Foley, Alice Witte Sloan, Sa- 
bella Randolph, Hannah Over- 
beck, Beatrice Witte Rave- 
nal, Russell Goodwin 217-226 

Punch Cups RusseU Goodwin. Sabella Ran- 
dolph, Ophelia Foley, Alice 
Witte Sloan, Mary Overbeck, 
Beatrice Witte Ravenal 227 

Jack-in-the-Pulpit Border Henrietta Barclay Paist 228 

MARCH 1906 

Wistaria Study and Designs for Bowls 

and Pitcher Marie Ci-illey Wilson 241-242 

Hollyhock for Border, Vase and Bon- 

bonniere Minna Meinke 244 

Stork Border for Stein Henrietta Barclay Paist 248 

Acorn and Wild Carrot Borders Hannah Overbeck and Ahce 

Witte Sloan 2.50-251 

Porridge Set 250-251 

Blue Bell Cup and Saucer F. Alfred Rhead 253 

Children's Bowls in Blue and White. ...Ahce Witte Sloan 254 

Tea Tile Florence E. Segsworth 254 

APRIL 1906 

Jar in Fleur de Lis Russell Goodwin 263 

Dandelions, White and Yellow Moc- 
casin for Borders Henrietta Barclay Paist 265 

Tiles Edith Alma Ross and F.Alfred 

Rhead 265 

Jonquils .' Henrietta Barclay Paist 267 

Poplar Designs for Vase Sabella Randolph 271 

Bowl in Fleur de Lis Helen Patterson 272-274 


MAY 1905 

Wood Carving — I Elizabeth Saugstad 20-21 

The Art of Enameling on Metal — I Laurin H. Martin 22 

Bellows in Metal and Wood, Wood 

Trays 23 

JUNE 1905 

The Art of Enameling on Metal— II.... Laurin H. Martin 42-43 

Wood Carving— II Elizabeth Saugstad 44-45 

JULY 1905 

Candlesticks, Old and New 66-67 

Y. M. C. A. Exhibition 67 

Baskets by American Indians From "Aboriginal American 

Baskets. ' ' by Dr. Otis S. Ma- 
son 69 

Jewelry at the St. Louis Exposition 70 

AUGUST 1905 

Wood Carving — III Elizabeth Saugstad 

Pratt Institute Exhibition 



Rug Making at Home— I Helen R.Albee 117-118 

Rug Making at Home— II Helen R. Albee 139-141 


Carved Wood Trays Haswell Clarke Jeffery 162 

Silver, Leather, Jewelry, for Christmas 

Gifts 163-164 

Newcomb Embroideries 164-165 


The Making of a Metal Paper Knife Emily F. Peacock 187 

Rug Making at Home — III Helen R. Albee 187-189 


The Making of a Silver Spoon Harry S. Whitbeck 209-211 

Oxygen Used to cut Metals 211 

New Process for Inlaying Metals 211 


Wood Carving (Finishing)— IV Elizabeth Saugstad 231-232 

The Deerfield Arts & Crafts Society 233 

A Woven Raffia Basket Madge E. Weinland 234 

MARCH 1906 

Working in Leather Winifred Wilson 255-257 

Suggestions for Leaded Glass 258 

APRIL 1906 

The Making of a Candlestick Frank G. Sanford 275 

Exhibition of Arts and Crafts in the 

Art Institute, Chicago 278 



MAY 1905 


The Beginner in Conventional Work... (Continued from April 1905).... 1 

Tea and Coffee Cups Prof. Chas. F. Binns 4 

Ceramics at the St. Louis Exposition (continued) 7-8 

Algerian Pottery Randolph J. Geare 16-17 

JUNE 1905 

Exhibition of the N. Y. Society 25-28 

Glass Making Among the Ancients 30-32 

JULY 1905 

Conventional and Naturalistic (editorial) 49-50 

Difficulties we can overcome in the 

useoflustres Fanny Rowell 56 

Ceramics at the St. Louis Exposition (continued) 61 

AUGUST 1905 

Early Indian Pottery C. H. Robinson 73 

Ceramics at the St. Louis Exposition (continued) 76-77 


Snow Crystals 

Ceramics at the St. Louis Exposition (continued) . 

... 97-98 


The Class Room I (A palette and its use) 120-125 

Ceramics at the St. Louis Exposition (continued) 132-1.36 


The Class Room 11 (Enamels) 144-151 

Ceramics at the St. Louis Exposition (concluded) 158-160 



The Class Room III (Gold work, also preparation of Roman gold, Liq- 
uid Bright gold and Burnish .silver 167-173 


The Class Room IV (Gold work, continued) 192-198 


The Class Room V (Lustres) 214-222 

An Easily Constructed Banding 

Wheel H.C. terMeer 224 

MARCH 1906 

The Class Room VI (Lustres, continued) 238-241 

APRIL 1906 

The Class Room VII (Firing) 261-267 

Tin Enameled Wares I Chas. F. Binns. 268 

Tin Glazed Ware, a pottery httle known in the U. S. (Editorial and ex- 
tracts from Pottery Gazette) 272 


Mountain Ash Pitcher (Semi-Natural- 
istic) K. E. 

Poppies (Naturalistic) Maud 

Rarebit Plate (Conventional) Helen 

Crab Apples (Semi-Naturalistic) K. E. 

Pine Cones (Naturalistic) F. B. 

Apples (Naturalistic) Maud 

Gooseberry Plate (Conventional) Mabel 

Oranges (Naturalistic) Maud 

Larkspur (Naturalistic) Laura 

Punch Bowl (Conventional) Marie 

Phlox (Naturahstic) Paul 

Iris (Naturalistic) Laura 

Cherry May 1905 

M. Mason June 1905 

Patterson July 1905 

Cherry August 1905 

Aulich September 1905 

M. Mason October 1905 

C. Dibble November 1905 

M. Mason December 1905 

B. Overly January 1906 

Crilley Wilson... February 1906 

Putzki March 1906 

B. Overly April 1906 

Anniversary number 



MR. F. B. AULICH .s* ^ j* ^ j« ^ 

MR. CHAS. F. BINNS J^ J^ ^ jf^ j^ 

MISS MARY BURNETT ^ j^ jf^ jf^ 

MRS. K. E. CHERRY ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 

MRS. EMMA A. ERVIN.J6 ^ j» .^ ^ 


MR. R. I. GEARE J^ jf^ Jt Jt jt ^ 



MR. LAURIN H. MARTIN j^ j^ ^ jt 


MRS. S. E. PRICE J^ j^ j^ ^ \^ 







hSrt— r ■ 

MAY. MCMV Price 35c Yearly Subscription $3.50 

h noMTHLY nmmi for tme potter and decor/mor- 

[ The entire contents of this Magazine are co'bered by the general copyright, and the articles mast not be reprinted ')»fthoui special permission. ] 





League Notes 

Belle Bamett Vesey 


Tiie Beginner in Conventional Work 


Pitcher in Mountain Ash Berries (supplement) 

K. E. Cherry 


Morning Glory 

F. B. AuHch 


Tea and Coffee Cups 

Chas. F. Binns 


Plate Design in Gold and Red 

Lydia E. Smith 


Borders in Blue and White 

S. E. Price 


Louisiana Purchase Exposition. Ceramics (continued) 



Russell Goodwin 



Lucia A. Soule 



Emma A. Ervia 


The Problem of the Water Pitcher 

Mimia Meinke and others 



Maud E. Hulbert 

10 and 15 

Algerian Pottery 

R. I. Geare 



Olive Sherman 


Nut Bowl in French Chestnuts 

Jeanne M. Stewart 

10 and 19 

The Crafts— Wood Carving 

EUzabeth Saugstad 



L. T. C. Martin 


Bellows in Metal and Wood 


Wood Trays 

Harwell Jeffrey 


Answers to Inquiries 


Indian Pipe Tile Design 

C. M. O'Hara 



Mary Burnett 


Answers to Correspondents 




How about that Renewal ? 
Do it now I 




)^V^ : , ■,::':;■ E$TABU5«RD -mar '^ ■ •. '■■ -'- ^"'^-'V^V^^B 




$3.00 Postpaid 


Vol. VII, No. I 


May 1905 

HE Problem of the water pitcher in 
Morning Glories was a popular one 
and many interesting solutions were 
offered, the weakest points with 
most competitors being the shapes of 
the pitcher and the handle. A water 
pitcher should be "fat and squatty'' 
so that it can hold a good supply of 
water and a large piece of ice, the 
handle shoidd be simple and strong 
and large enough to get a good grasp. The top of the pitcher 
should curve inward slightly, this gives strength and a^'oids 
cracks and nicks. 

The first prize was awarded to Minna Meinke, Roclcville 
Center, L. 1. The grey tones were finely balanced, the color 
schemes clever and original, the shape good although it might 
have closed a little at the top . The border was in good proportion 
to the piece, the design cleverly handled and simplj' treated. 

The second prizes were awarded to Hannah Overbeck, 
Cambridge City, Indiana, and Austin Rosser, Butler, Missouri. 

Miss Overbeck's pitcher was good in shape though the 
handle might have been better. The proportion of the border 
to the piece was also good, the design cleverly conventionalized 
from the morning glory seed, the balance of greys was good 
although the grey of the main motif was a little too strong. 

Miss Rosser's j)itcher was good in shape but the handle 
was too small and the mouth would not hold water an inch 
from the top. The greys were good and the design clever 
but not so restful as the other second prize. 

Mentions were given to Ophelia Foley, Mary Overbecl<, 
Minna Meinke, Austin Rosser and Alice Sharrard. 

Miss Foley's color schemes were very fine^ perhaps the 
best of all, but the designs were not restful, the lines moving 
in too manj' directions and the shapes of the pitchers were not 
very good and appropriate rather to a milk pitcher than to 
a water pitcher. 

The pitchers submitted bj^ Miss Mary Overbeck were iDetter 
in shape but the handles were not well thought out. The 
designs were simple and good and the color schemes fair. 

Miss Meinke's second pitcher was similar in shape to 
the prize one, though the handle was not so good and the 
greys not so well balanced, or the design so harmonious, the 
treatment was rather Egyptianesque both in drawing and 
color which was in rich green, blue and black. 

The second pitcher by Miss Rosser was rather a milk 
pitcher and the mouth had the same defect as the second 
prize. The conventionalization was very clever. 

Miss Sharrard's pitcher was also for milk rather than 
water, but as it was submitted without a color scheme it was 
impossible to judge of its full value. 

We missed some of our old good competitors and hope 
they will enter the lists again. 


The Problem for the September competition, closing July 
15th, will be a marmalade jar with a conventionalized decora- 
tion of bees. Studies of the wasp from "Art et Decoration" 
in this issue will be suggestive in this connection. The bee 
motif may be used alone or in combination with any floral 
motif. One section at least must be given in color. 


THE annual meeting will be held on the lOth and nth of 
May as previously announced, but the date of the open- 
ing evening reception will be the i ith in.stead of the 9th of May. 
The erection of a Fine Arts Building at Portland has given 
us more time, and we now hope to speed the Traveling 
Exhibition on its way before responding to that call. Mrs. 
Cross will keep members ittformed regarding it. 

In the course of a week or ten days, the schedule for the 
Traveling Exhibition will be mailed to the clubs by Mrs. 
Bergen, Chairman of Transportation. The first nine places 
are listed, according to request, and time arrangements for 
others that have given no preference will be made with utmost 
care. The cordial replies to her letters augur well for our 

Belle Barnett Vesey, 




THE same method is followed where several colors or tones 
are desired. Where it is advisable to use a gold outline, 
the enamel or color had better be first fired as it takes skill and 
practice to put on a fine gold outline; if raised paste for gold 
is to be used it may be put on for the first fire after the decorator 
has gained a steady hand, then it may be gilded in the second 
fire, at the same time retouching the enamel or color where 
needed. However, after practice, the entire work can be done 
in one fire; when the enamels or colors are thoroughly dried 
the paste outline may be put on, avoiding touching; then where 
the paste is thoroughly dried the gold may be put on in two 
coats — for a flat gold outline three coats are safer. 

When soft enamels are to be used it is better to do the 
raised gold work first and fire it, then put in the enamels, a 
second fire for soft enauiels should be av'oided althoiigh some 
stand a second fire. 

If the design is to be executed in lustre and gold with black 
outlines the method to follow is to put the lustre wherever ' 
desired, dry and clean off where the lustre overlaps the draw- 
ing, then put in the gold background or parts of design; dry 
thoroughly, clean out the outline with a knife or pointed stick 
where necessar3^ Then go over the outlines witli yoiu- black 
paint twice before firing. 

If the design selected is one of those carried out in the 
soft harmonies of the latest schools of decoration, the pro- 
cedure is as follows: Tint the plate all over a soft cream or 
whatever prevailing tone you may have selected, sometimes 
the border is tinted a deeper tone than the center of the plate. 
After this is fired, draw your design and fill in the colors of 
the design, and if it is necessary go over the background color 
also. Then take your powder color and dust it over the 
painted portions to bring them together. An example will 
better illustrate this method. Take the bowl of the prize 
design child's set by Marie Crilley Wilson in the December 
Keramic Studio. First tint all over a soft cream tone and 
fire. After firing draw the design delicately with India ink, 
use as large a square shader as convenient, so as to avoid show- 


ing brush strokes, and lay in the house and grass plot with a 
thin wash of yellow brown, the roof, path and horizon line of 
trees with a thin wash of pompadour, the trees and outlines 
with royal green or moss green. Then take the yellow brown 
powder color and dust lightly over the entire border as much as 
the painted color will hold. After firing tint the plate deli- 
cately all over with pearl grey and then dust it with the same 
color and fire, if you find then that you have greyed your color 
too much you can repeat the work of the second fire. It is 
only by repeated fires that the desired softness of texture will 
be obtained. Any other color scheme can be worked out in 
the same way. 

When heavy dusted color is used in a design it is always 
best to do the dusting first where desired, then clean out the 
parts not to have the dusted color. Do not dust too heavily 
or it will chip if not in the first, then in a later fire — rely on re- 
peated dustings to get the desired depth of color rather than 
try to get it in one dusting. When gold grounds are used, 
they should be put on last and usually require two good coats 
for the first fire and one good coat in the second fire. Gold 
outlining may be done only on the white china or on fired light 
tones, or by the use of paste for raised gold. If enamel jewels 
are used, the paste settings are fired first and the enamel put 
in after the paste is gilded. Black outlines as well as gold 
usually require to be gone over twice, the second time being 
after every thing else is finished. 

When used in combination with lustre, mix the powder 
black with a thin syrup of sugar and water, then the outline 
can be put right on the lustre without any danger to the latter. 
Unless extreme care is taken turpentine will run a little on the 
lustre and make a white edge to the outline. Directions 
for raised paste will be found in the January, 1905, Keramic 
vStudio. An article on Enamels Avill be published next month. 






BERRIES— (Supplement) 

K. E. Cherry 

OUTLINE design with black, and fire. Second fire. Light 
leaves: Moss Green, two parts; Grey for flesh, one part. 
Dark leaves, add to the above for light leaves, Brown Green. 
Berries: Yellow Red for lights. Blood Red for shadows. 

Third fire. Oil the pitcher with special oil, pad this quite 
well, and when tacky (almost dry), dust through border, with 
mixture of three parts Pearl Grej^ one part Yellow Brown. 
Below border with mixture of two parts Pearl Grey, one of 
Meissen Brown, one of Grej' for flesh; use same color for han- 
dles and bottom. 

Fourth fire. Retouch berries and leaves with same colors 
as used when laying them in, and strengthen the lower part 
of pitcher and very top edge and handle with mixture of Yel- 
low Brown one part, Brown Green one part, Shading Green 
one part, and one of Grej' for flesh. 


An accoimt of the exhibition of overglaze painting and 
pottery at the National Arts Club will be given in June issue. 
The exhibition will last iintil May 8th. 


F . B. Aulich 


THIS frail but beautiful flower is not universally a favorite 
as the rose is, still I tliink it is so wonderfully delicate 
that one can not help admiring it. The center is the 
hardest part to paint. Use Rose for the lighter flowers and 
buds. Turquoise Blue, Dark Blue and Blue Violet for the 
dark. The background should be kept in airy colors like 
Blue Green, Yellow Green and Grey for white roses. 








heramic studio 


Charles F. Binns 

IN the recent competition for a design for the decoration of a 
tea cup and saucer it was expressly stated that the shape 
of the cup itself was not part of the competition. The draw- 
ings sent in, however, suggest to a practical potter the idea 
that many persons who design decorations for pottery have 
but little idea of the methods by which pottery is produced or 
of the conditions obtaining in its manufacture. 

In designing a decoration the first requirement is a 
knowledge of the form to which the surface treatment is to be 
adapted. This form should be a natural outgrowth of the 
raethod of manufacture and of the nature of the material itself. 
Every substance which is used by the artisan has its possi- 
bilities and its limitations, every method has, likewise, the 
same. By a process of elimination and evolution certain 
methods are applied to certain wares and a knowledge of these 
is the first need of the designer. 

Cups are made by two processes, on the wheel or by casting 
and in both cases it is advisable if not absolutely necessarj^ 
that the piece should be removable from a mold which is in 
one part. This means that no part of the cup is of larger 
diameter than the top and also that no part shall be so under- 
cut as to bind in the mold. Molds can be divided vertically 
into two or three parts but this entails great expense in the 
manufacture. In the case of cups made on the wheel the use 
of the turning lathe makes it possible to change the outline 
quite appreciably after the cup leaves the mold. For in- 
stance in shapes II and IV a roll foot could be made by allowing 
a sufficient substance in the making and having the foot 
shaped by the turner. 

A cup intended for casting should have as simple a foot 
as possible. The inside line of a cast cup is parallel to the 
outside line so that a prominent foot means a deep recess 
inside. Shapes I and V are suitable for casting, the others 
less so. No. II being very unsuitable because of the deep, 
narrow foot. Now it will undoubtedly be claimed that these 
shapes are not new. They do not pretend to be, but, never- 
theless, shapes like these constitute ninety-nine hvmdredths of 

I > r n 

^^ 1 



all the tea cups manufactured for the simple reason that X\\cy 
have stood the test of time and have proved themselves. 

Every now and then some odd shape is brought out which 
is new, but after one or two dozens have been sold it is relegated 
to a dark corrier and the old favorite prevails once more. At 
the same trme-there are many variations which may be wrought 
in these shapes;- The proportion of diameter to heiight, the 
play of. curve, the height of foot, all afford an opportunity for 
the artistic mind. Only let the limitations of manufacture 
be borne in mind. 

In handles a similar deficiency is observed. Not one 
designer in ten seems to remember that a handle is to be taken 
hold of. In a large cup it should be possible to put a finger 
through the handle, in a very small one it is possible to lift it 
comfortably between finger and thumb. 

A handle is nrade in a mold which consists of two parts. 
These parts are pressed together and the handle is shaped 
between them. Nothing therefore is admissible in a handle 
which cannot be expressed in this kind of a mold just as a coin 
is formed by a double die. 

Handles are classed in three groups, the open or bow 
handle (Figures VII to XI) , the ringhandle (Figs. XII and XIII) 
and the solid handle (Fig. XIV). The first of these is by far 
the most usual and is capable of wide variation. A few of 
these are given as are adapted to various shapes. No. IX is 
the simple form and is a ver3" popular handle. No. XIII is 
heavy and only suited to large substantial cups. 

One of the most popular handles is No, XII, this has been 
used constantly for the last thirty-five years, certainly, on cup 
No. III. The variation in No. XIII is considerably older but 
has never been so much in demand, probably because it is 
more difficult to make and less easy to use. 

The idea expressed in No. XIV is very attractive but is 
only suited to small coffee cups because of the less certain grip 
which a solid handle gives. It is capable of great variation 
and lends itself well to decorative ideas. 

In such wares as cups and saucers the idea should be to 
make them "livable." If one has to meet these things three 
times a day and to use them they must possess the quality 
of persistence. Not a passing acquaintance only but an 
intimate companion and hence not novelty but durability is to 
be sought — durability, not in the sense of resistance to shock 
but in that satisfying nature which makes one averse to change. 

How much better it is to feel "I always liked that old tea 
set and am sorry it is broken," than to have to say "I am so 
glad that thing is out of the way at last, now we can get some- 
thing nice." 










robineau porcelains 

Mrs. Adelaide ALsop-Robiiieau 
was represented at the Art Palace 
by s e V e n small experimental 
pieces. The illustrations show 
her later work. The body is of 
porcelain fired at cone 9. The 
glazes are mat, the only worl^ of 
this kind at St. Louis being in the 
French section of the Art Palace 
and the Sevres exhibition at "Le 
Petit Trianon." 

The pieces are thrown by 
Mrs. Robineau and the designs 
carved — most of the decoration 
being of straight line ornament 
of Indian inspiration. The mat 
is quite different from any mat on 
a pottery body, having the texture 
rather of a fine skin, delightful to 
THROWN PORCELAIN VASE 12^ ^he touch. The colors are un- 

INCHES HIGH AND STAND IN ,. .^ , ,, , r .1 j 

MAT GLAZES -ADELAIDE ALSOP l^^^^^^d, the most frequently used 
ROBINEAU bemg a soft light brown shading 


from a grey cream to orange brown. Mrs. Robineau's crystal- 
line glazes were not shown at St. Louis, but a few were shown 
and sold at the late exhibit of the Art Institute in Chicago. 
They are similar to those in foreign exhibits, being, in fact, 
inspired by the directions of M. Doat of Sevres, the colors 
varying from blue and copper green, to yellow brown and 
pearly yellow. 


Henrietta Ord Jones, of the St. Louis Art School, showed 
four pieces of pottery in mat glazes, in the Art Palace; for these 
she received a bronze medal, but the most interesting part of 
her wfork was the exhibit of overglaze by her pupils in the 
Educational Building. These pieces were decorated in a great 
part from Keramic Studio designs, but the manner of appli- 
cation and the careful execution showed a guiding hand of 
unusual skill. 


In overglaze decoration at the Art Palace, New York 
was represented by Mrs. Anna B. Leonard, who received a 
silver medal for the work shown at the last exhibit of the New 
York Society. It is to be regretted that no other prominent 
New York decorators submitted work to the jury, for there 
are manv to do us honor. 




Chicago was represented by Miss Eva Adams, Miss Lillie 
Cole, Miss Mabel Dibble, Mrs. Frazee and Mrs. Frazer, Mrs. E. 
L. Humphrey, Mrs. Amia M. Sessions, Miss Helen M. Topping, 
Mrs. J. E. Zeublin, all members of the Atlan Club, whose careful 
execution and good taste in an oriental style of decoration are so 
well known. 



Kansas City, Mo., was also well represented at the Art 
Palace by Mrs. Mamie Baird, Mrs. Genevieve Coffman. Mrs. 
Laura Gerard, Mrs. McDonald, and Mrs. Dorothea Warren. 
These decorations also were mostly of the Chinese or Persian 
motifs. Other overglaze decorations of National League 
societies were shown at St. Louis, but were so scattered over 
the grounds that it was impossible to find them. 

The Denver Society, we understand, exhibited in the 
Educational Building. 



The Van Briggle pottery had a large exhibit of their 
familiar ware with its waxy mat finish in greens, browns, 
purples and other colors. The newest effects were quaint all- 
over patterns like figures from a cashmere shawl. The recent 
death of Mr. Van Briggle will be a heavy blow to the potterj^, 
but his wife intends to continue the work. Mr. Van Briggle 
received a gold medal and his wife a bronze medal for work 
exhibited in the Fine Arts building. 

We omitted to mention in April issue that Mr. Joseph 
Meyer of Newcomb college, received a silver medal at the St. 
Louis Exposition. 





Tint plate a deep cream tone and fire. Then execute the design in grey green and a dull red. 




Emma A. Ervin 

THIS bright little flower seems deserving of a more attractive 
name and the common one of " Widow's tears " is even 
less attractive. The flowers I have found last summer from 
red to deep royal purple in color, making the plains quite blue 
with their abundance. Their simplicity is easily adapted to 
conventionalism both in color and form, the flowers being 
entirely blue with the exception of the anthers which are 
bright yellow on hairy stems of blue. The long jDointed leaves 
seem to spread themselves so proud like to show the flowers, 
and are quite decorative in themselves often curling inward 
at the end. 


Maud E. Hulbert 

THE light grapes may be green, use Moss Green, Yellow 
Green, Brown Green and Shading Green, Warm Grey and 
Yellow Ochre. The darkest grapes blue. Deep Blue Green, 
Brunswick Black, Deep Violet of Gold and some Violet of Iron 
in the shadowy one and in the ground. The leaves a blueish 
green in the light and where the leaves turn over; browner and 
warmer greens in the deep places, use Deep Blue Green, Moss 
Green, Yellow Green, Brown Green and Shading Green, a little 
Chestnut Brown and Finishing Brown. 


Jeanne Stewart 

THIS bowl will be more effective if painted in the dark 
brown tones in underglaze effect. The burrs should be 
painted in the soft dull greens shading into brown, using 
Yellow Brown, Brown Green, Pompadour and Chestnut Brown, 
with almost the same tones in the leaves. Inside the burr 
is to be seen sometimes a brilliant yellow which serves to throw 
out the dark brown of the nuts. Care must be had to use but 
a touch, a mere accent, as the inside of the burr is dull yellow 
brown shaded with a warm grey. Pompadour and Chestnut 
Brown are used in the nuts with high Hghts wiped out, over 
which a thin tone of Banding Blue is drawn in the second 
painting. Yellow Brown and Stewart's Chestnut Brown alone 
may be used in the background — the middle tone being made 
of a mixture of the two in equal parts. 

To obtain the dark underglaze effect in the background 
pad on the same colors in third fire as used in the second and 
when almost dry dust on the powder color, with a piece of 
cotton, drawing the color lightty over parts of the design 
thrown into shadow. 

PITCHER (Page 12) 

Minna Meinke 

BORDER background a bright green, (Blue Green and 
Apple Green); flowers, Violet with markings of Rose; 
leaves and calyx, Grej^ Green; rose line below edge and on 
handles, body, handles, outlines and edge of pitcher, a rich 
Green Black. 


























Randolph I. Geare 

THE recent spectacle afforded Ijy the rendering of homage 
to the President of France on the ])art of tens of thousands 
of the semi-wild tri1)esmen of Algeria has attracted much 
attention and may l^e of consideral^le political importance. 
Such events at any rate serve to increase public interest in that 
region of Northern Africa. Thus the origin as well as the arts 
and industries of these Libyan tribes are engaging the attention 
of ethnologists, and in this connection allusion may be made to 
an expedition recently made through Algeria by two English- 
men — Messrs. David Randall-Maciver and Anthony Wilkin: — 
their special object being to solve the question of the connection 
of the Chawia and Kabyle tribes with Egypt in prehistoric 
times. The former of these inhabits the Aures mountain 
region, the latter representing in general all the Berber tribes 
in the coast mountains of Algeria. 

Fronr the published results of their investigations it 
seems that no one thing assisted them- in their researches more 
than the native pottery, of which they made a very unique 
collection . In their excellent work en- 
titled "Libyan Notes, " from which the 
accompanying illustrations are tal^en, 
they admit this when they say: /'No 
one who has known how a Greek site 
can be dated by a couple of square 
inches of painted vase, or who has been 
enabled by finding a fragment of red 
Sainian ware to assign a puzzling mass 
of stones to its true Roman period, will 
underestimate the value of pottery." 
Pottery is made in such large quantities 
that at least some of the pieces are sure 
to be preserved from destruction, and 
regions where little else in the way of 
relics can be found, always yield frag- 
ments of the native ware. 

The present stage of civilization 
w^hich a nation has reached may be 
measured to a certain extent by its 
skill in the ceramic art, and in the case 
of primitive peoples this is still more 
apt to be the case. Of course as arts 
increase and develop, the manufacture 
of pottery is hable to be thrown cor- 
respondingh;' into the shade, but with 
primitive races or with people who have 
not advanced very rapidly, their pot- 
tery indicates with great precision the 
degree of culture they have attained, 
and from it can be generally ascertained 
to what extent it has been influenced 
bj^ the civilization of neighboring races. 

Before describing the pottery of 
the tril^es under consideration, it maj^ 
be stated that the studies of the explor- 
ers previously named, resulted in find- 
ing that the modern Berbers are the 
descendants of the races known to the 
early Egyptians and also to the Greeks 
and Libyans, and the Chawia and 
Kabyles are regarded as typical rep- 
resentatives of this stock. Moreover, 
the culture of the Libyans and prehis- 

toric Egyptians has many close reseml^lances, although this fact 
gives but little ground, if any, for inferring that the races are 
identical, and in this connection it is significant that the 
]irehistoric Egyptians were ac(|uaintcd with dexx-lopments of 
arts, other tlian tlie ceramic art, of whicli no trace whatever 
is to be found in Liljya. 

Comparing the two, Kabyle ]Jottery is greatly superior 
to that of the Chawia, since it exhiliits forms and designs which 
are distinctive and characteristic. In general, it is covered 
with a red wash obtained from a native ferruginous earth and 
then decorated in patterns w4th a native white earth. And 
here is found a close resemblance to the polished red pottery 
with white cross-lines found in the prehistoric cemeteries in 
Egypt, while the technique of the decoration in each is also 
said to be identical. Thus, zigzag lines are a favorite design in 
both kinds, as also are latticed triangles, simple chevrons and 
cross-barred lines. There is also much similarity in the .shape 
of the old Egj^ptian and Kabyle pots. 

Both among the Kabjdes and the Chawia all pottery is 
made by the women, and is hand-made. The clay used by the 
former is a compound of two coarse earths which are wetted 




and mixed together. It is first kneaded, then made into rolls. 
These arc placed above each other on a round platter which 
serves as a base. The clay is then manipulated till the desired 
shape is produced, more strips being added if a greater height 
be required. Then the superfluous clay is removed from the 
outside, and the surface is smoothed with a small scraper of 
flat wood. As soon as it is dry, the w^ork of decoration begins. 
First it is burnished with a pebble, after moistening the surface 
with water. It is then painted, three small brushes being 
brought into play, one for laying on broad washes, the others 
for putting on narrow bands and various patterns. Only three 
colors are used, namely, red, white and black, and these are 
obtained from lumps of native earths b\^ grinding them in a 
stone with the aid of water. 

After the pot is painted it is fired. A heap of \vood is 
built up in the air, the pots being placed in the middle, and the 
wood is then set on fire. The process takes only about twenty 
minutes. The pots are then 
taken hot from the fire and 
nibbed over with a yellow resin, 
which has the double effect of 
varnishing and fixing the colors. 

The Chawia pottery, as 
alreadj^ stated, is far inferior to 
that first described, probably 
owing to a lack of inventive 
skill. Indeed, this class of pot- 
tery is confined to forms of the 
most primitive order: e. g. a 
bowl with a simple kind of 
handle and perhaps a spout. 
From this form a cup was 
evolved, the latter may be hav- 
ing- two handles — and this is 
about as far as they have ad- 
vanced in the art. 

As in Kabylia so in Chawia, 
all potteiy is hand-made by 
the women. Taking some 
coarse yellowish clay, the 
woman moistens it with water, 
kneading it with the palm and 
edge of her hand. A lump of 
the clay is then placed on a 
piece of an old crock, for a base, 
and with her thumb she presses 
a hollow in the center of the 
lump, fashioning both outside 
and inside till the required form 
is obtained. After it is dry, the 
pot is fired in much the same 
way as among the Kabyles, 
being afterwards, while still hot, 
rubbed over with a red resin 
called Luk. — probably a raw 
shellac. The form in soine of 
these pots is almost identical 
with that seen in Egyptian pots 
of prehistoric periods; and, 
strange to say, they also reveal 
a very close likeness to early 
European and Italian models, 
and also to pottery found in 
the Torres Straits. 

To make anything hke a 

complete studj^ as to how far other countries in more modem 
times have absorbed these elementary ideas in pottery-mak- 
ing, would require much time, and doubtless the subject will 
receive due consideration at the hands of those best ciualified 
to in\estigate such matters in detail. 

There is no doubt that the forms and designs which have 
been alluded to in this article, found their way later into the 
land of the Moors, whence they spread, through the interme- 
diary stage of Majolica ware, to different parts of Europe, and 
also in post-Columbian times to Mexico and South America. 

An English paper says tliat the Queen of England has 
revived the fashion of amethyst jewelry. She has chosen 
almost exclusively mauve and gray gow^ns for court and even- 
ing wear, frequently Avearing with them the splendid set of 
old amethysts she owns. 



MANY were the symbols employed by the Egyptians to give 
expression to their religious beliefs. The hawk upon the 
head of Horus was symbohc of the flight of that bird toward the 
sun. The scarabceus laid its egg and enclosing it in a little ball 
of mud, placed it out of reach of the waters of the Nile. The 
Egyptian knew not that the ball enclosed an egg; to him, out of 
the earth came a new life, consequently the scaraboeus became a 
sacred symbol of rebirth, resurrection and eternal life. Beside 
being a symbol of immortality, it was emblematic of creative 
power. Scarabs reproduced in stone, gold, ivory or wood and 
of various sizes were used as amulets for the living and the dead , 
They were buried with the mummy in large numbers : those two 
or three inches long were placed over the heart. So placed it 
was believed that they would assist in driving away evil spirits 
during the transmigration stage. And as in the resurrection 
the heart would be the first to receive vitalitj^, the scarab, as the 
sacred symbol of rebirth would be of great significance. In the 
Book of the Dead, a copy of which was buried with every mum- 
my, are found the words : " My heart that comes to me from my 
mother, my heart that is necessary to me for my transformation." 
Other passages of great interest recall parts of the Hebrew 
Scriptures; for instance, we read the translation: "I have 
given bread to the hungry; I have given water to the thirsty; I 
have given clothes to the naked." The Scaraboeus was espec- 
ially sacred to the god Ammon-Ra. It was so much allied to 
the worship of the sun that it was often represented with the 
sun's disk. It was frequently employed in decoration and in 
the hieroglyphic writings, to signify "To be, to become, to 
raise up." 

The Egyptian evidently did not associate death and 
tomb with unmitigated horror. In many pictures found upon- 
the monuments, the departing soul is represented as being trans 
ferred in a boat across the river. Upon the boat is pictured the 
tomb, its doorway almost completely covered by a sail, which is 
the symbol of coming breath or renewed life. The winged sun- 
disk is also a most interesting symbol. It was placed over 
doorways and upon the lintels of passageways and entrance 
pylons. The outspread wings were emblematic of divine pro- 
tective power. On both sides of the disk appears the Uraeus 
serpent to signify royalty. The lotus is one of the most typical 
features in Egyptian decoration. It is represented in every 
imaginable form of outline from the bud to the fidl blossom. 
It is a sjTnbol of resurrection and inunortality. Siicli use of 
svmbols we find in modified form in carh' Christian art. The 

fish is emblematical of Christ, the dove of the Holy Spirit and 
the cock of Christian watchfulness; while the four evangeHsts 
were often represented by the angel, the lion, the ox and the 
eagle. — From Egypt, the Land of the Temple Btnlders, by Walter 

Scott Perry. 


Miss Mabel C. Dibble, of Chicago, will go north about May 
1st to teach for three weeks, and will not resume her Chicago 
classes before June 1st. 


DESIGN OP WASPS, From "Art et Decoration." 












Ujider the management of Miss Emily Peacock, Karol Shop, 22 East i6th St., Nezv York. All inquiries in regard to the various 
Crafts are to be sent to the above address, but zvill be atiszvered in the magazine under this head. 

All questions m.ust he received before the 10th day of month preceding issue and will be answered under "Answers to Inquiries" only. Please do not send stamped 

envelope for reply. The editors will answer questions only in these columns. 




Elizabeth Saugstad 

THERE are those who have a native love and understand- 
Vig of wood and wood-working tools, and if they have also a 
sense of beauty and fitness they possess the prime qualities 
of the true wood carver. Of course a good teacher is to be 
desired, even by the most fortunately endowed; but it is possible 
to go a long way alone if content to begin very simply, go very 
slowly and be ever sensitively alive to all the tools and material 
can teach; for, rightly interpreted, these are the best of 
masters. All that I can hope to do here is to give such general 
but fundamental principles, as will, I trust, afford a growing 
basis, and from which particular problems may be logically 

Wood carving is not only one of the oldest and noblest 
of the artistic crafts, but it is one of the most wholesome and 
altogether delightful; and no material is more "live" and 
responsive than wood to one who knows and loves it and re- 
spects its laws and limitations. To one who does not, there is 
none more maddening and perverse. So the first thing for a 
would-be-carver to do is to get as intimate a knowledge of it 
as possible. Though almost any wood may be carved it is 
not desirable to use that which is coarse grained or brittle; 
nor is very hard, tough wood, like maple, for instance, de- 
sirable for beginners, unless in small pieces, like bread-boards 
or paper knives, where those qualities would be essential. 

The only woods we need consider particularly^ here are the 
four most commonly used and most easily procured: white 
pine, mahogany, walnut and oak. There are several charac- 
teristics which these, as well as all other woods, have in com- 
mon and which must be taken into account from the very 
beginning. They all shrink when they are dried and expand 
under the influence of moisture; and this shrinkage and ex- 
pansion is from side to side, not from end to end, of the grain. 
Provision must be made for this in all cabinet work — par- 

ticularly for panels. Of course wood should be as thoroughly 
seasoned as possible, as otherwise it is likely not only to shrink 
but to warp, and to split at the ends. These are the principal 
points in common. As for particular characteristics, pine 
is so familiar that it needs little description. There is prob- 
ahly no better wood for the beginner, as it cuts easily and 
cleanly and should have very broad and simple design and 
treatment. Being a soft wood and without particular beauty 
in color or texture, elaboration would be inappropriate. 

It is almost impossible to get Spanish or Cuban mahogany, 
which is heavy, hard and finely grained; but, fortunately, 
for the amateur's purpose it is not as good as the softer, lighter 
kinds which are delightful to work. These come between 
pine and walnut in hardness and include almost every degree 
from baywood through the Honduras variations to the heaviest 
and hardest first mentioned. These vary in color also, from 
a pale golden tan through ruddy golden browns to rich dull 
reds. Even the lightest may be stained to the deepest tones; 
but they are very beautiful left in their natviral color with a 
finish of oil and wax, or wax alone. There is also a white 
mahogany but it is rare. 

Although walnut can hardly be called a softer wood than 
oak, it is easier to carve because the grain is more even — that 
is, hard ridges do not alternate with soft and open pores as in 
the other. Walnut is scarce and dear — costing from 20 cents 
a foot upwards, as much as good mahogany. But it is verj' 
beautiful and satisfactory for some purposes, and the expense 
is, after all, not so great for those who can do their own joining. 

Both walnut and mahogan}' admit of a greater richness 
in design and a finer finish than the other woods mentioned 
on account of their fine, close gi-ain and lustrous texture. 
Oak seems to demand designs of greater robustness, and 
directness and simplicity in treatment. English oak is said 
to be finer grained than ours. 

Oak is probably more used than any other wood for 
carving. It is easy to get, strong, durable and beautiful; 
but it is unquestionablj' hard to carve. It is, however, en- 
tirely worth the trouble. It varies very much in grain and 
degrees of hardness and it is well to select pieces for carving 


with great care avoiding those with coarse and open, or 
crooked grain. 

Starting with even so slight a knowledge of the material 
it would seem that it would require the exercise of but a small 
amount of common sense to avoid the misuses and abuses 
to M^hich it is so often stibjected, as often by the "professional" 
as the amateur, because the latter must, perforce, be simpler 
from his limitations, but the former is apt to be carried awaj' 
bj^ his technical skill. But SimpHcity and Directness must 
be the keynote in design and treatment for wood. This will 
prevent the use of designs that should only be built up in 
plastic clay, or for cast metal, or plaster, or chiseled from 

stone. Manj' carvers of great skill and reputation have 
committed these sitas against their material. There is a mania 
for high relief, but one has only to remember the fibrous 
structure of wood to realise how easily projections may be 
chipped and fractured. Of course the degree of relief may be 
varied somewhat with the grain — least in that which is soft or 
brittle and greatest in that which is hard and fine and close. 
But the beginner, at least, will find it safer and wiser to use 

large simple surfaces in comparatively^ low relief, and he will 
work a long time before he exhausts the possibilities for most 
beautiful and satisfying effects, even within these limitations. 
I could write a chapter on the laziness and stupidity of 
the everlasting copying and re-hashing of hackneyed designs 
and old styles of which so many carvers are guilty. Nature 
was not richer and more suggestive in the past than she is to- 
day; but we pass her by for "bumpy" and meaningless scrolls 
and to give the overworked acanthus leaf another twist. The 
oak and the grape are so adaptable that they are still, in spite 
of centuries of use, capable of new variations and treatments : 
but there is an immense field, almost untouched, of fine and 
vigorous plant growth that would lend itself most happily to 

the simplification wood carving would entail. Muskmelons, 
gourds, eggplant, big podded beans, Indian corn, sunflowers, 
great poppies, flame lilies, orange lilies, hops, fruit trees and 
the great fans and clustered nuts of the horse chestnvit are but 
a few that are full of inspiration and suggestion. 

I do not mean that the carver should not studj^ old styles, 
and especially treatment. That is most helpful if he uses his 
common sense and critical judgment, for not all are good, and 
not any are all good. Perhaps the beginner can learn most 
from old English oak carving, it is so direct and fundamental 
in its treatment of the material and shows in what simple 
terms a motif may be expressed and yet be perfectly satisfying. 

Illustrations of it may often be found in books on old 
furnitiu-e, and there are many fine examples in the first parts 
of " A History of English Fvn-nitru-e" that is now being issued 
by G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York City, in twenty parts, at 
$2.50 a part. The first five treat of " The Age of Oak." 

Pugin's "Ornaments of the 15th and l6th Centuries" 
contains some beautiful designs for carved furniture in the 
Gothic style. 

The niunbers of The International Studio for March and 
December, 1897, contain finely illustrated articles on old 
Scandinavian wood carving that are wonderfully suggestive. 

Of text books, "Wood Carving," by George Jack, is the 
best I know. It is published in the Artistic Craft Series, by 
D. Appleton & Co., New York City. $1.25 

"A course in Japanese Wood Carving," by Chas. Holme, 
is interesting and helpful. John Lane, New York. $l.00 


A little manual of "AVood Carving," by Joseph Shillips, 
has a series of plates from photographs of panels showing 
progressive steps in the use of tools. Chapman & Hall, 
London, England. 

The illustrations are merely to suggest a few of the ways 
in which carving may be appropriately used. 



Laurin H. Martin 

In the champleve process you engrave the design on a 
solid piece of metal, and in this way you leave divisions of 
metal between the different forms of the design. In the cloi- 
sonne process you build up your divisions by taking a small 
rectangular piece of wire and bending it to your design and 
fastening it with solder. Use as little solder as possible, then 
go ahead and use the enamel in just the same way as in the 
champleye process. 


The plique a jour process is the same as the cloisomie 
process, except that you do not solder the wires onto a piece of 
metal. You simply make a filigree design out of the wire 
and fill in these spaces with enamel. As it does not have a 
backing of metal it is quite transparent like small windows. 

In doing this kind of enamel a small piece of platinum is 
required. After you have made the filigree design out of the 
wire place it on a piece of platinum and fill in with enamel. 
Yovi then diy out the water and fire and when it has been 
taken out of the furnace the filigree design with the enamel 
will free itself from the platinum. The platinum simply makes 
a temporary backing. 


Repousse enamel is very useful and a very decorative 
kind of enamel. It can be well applied to bowls, boxes and 
things that are made out of thin metal. 

In making a bowl number eighteen gauge metal is a good 
thickness, but this is rather thin to decorate in the champleve 
process. After the bowl has been shaped, it is filled with 
pitch, and then the design is drawn on the bowl. Then the 
spaces that are to be enameled are pressed in. The only dif- 
ference between this method and the champleve process is that 
in one case the design is engraved out and in the other case it 
is pressed in, making places for the enamel. 

But there are (jther wa\s of treating the metal in the 
repousse process. You can put a sheet of metal on pitch and 
after the design is drawn on it, go over the outline with a chasing 
tool. This line will be raised on the other side of the metal 
and these raised lines will make the dividing lines between the 
dift'erent colors. 

Very interesting effects can be obtained by shaping the 
design in metal and using enamel for a background. Another 
way to treat repousse enamel is to shape your design in metal 
and then cover the whole thing with transparent color. The 
design will show through and you can get a very beautiful 
effect. You can use as many different colors in this process 
as you wish. 

The enamelling of bowls, buckles, pins, etc., can be done 
over a blow pipe with just as good result as in a muffle fur- 
nace. The outside of a bowl cannot be done in this way 
because the flame would come in direct contact with the 
enamel and the sulphur in the gas would spoil the color. A 
bowl of at least seven inches in diameter can be lined with 
enamel in this way if a large blow pipe is used. A good way 
to hold the article you wish to enamel is to put it on a toaster, 
but small silver articles should be placed on a finer wire screen 
and great care must be taken not to melt them. If the flame 
is not played right under the enamel you will not get good 
color. (to be continued) 

Courtesy of "International Studio.'' 


(.Jourtesy of "Ecole des Arts Decoratits" 


The carved bellows by A. Leroy, courtesy of "Ecole Des 
Arts Decoratifs," are attractive in shape and vigorous in 
treatment. If the leather part could be cut to the Une of the 
frame work it would keep the bellows simpler. The bronze 
bellows by J. W. Wilkinson are good in shape and suggestive 
for metal and wood. 





Caroline M. O'Hara 

INDIAN Pipe with upper a:id lower border Brown Green 
with a touch of Grass Green. Background of Bronze 
Green, Black and a touch of Chrome Green. Deepen for 
second fii'e. Two shades of brown would also be effective. 


J. 0. Simmonds — The article on enameling is by Mr. Martin, will 
answer some of your questions. The best way to experiment is to get a 
furnace and try enamels on different metals. Enamel should always be 
bought in lump form and can he purchased from the Karol Shop, 22 
East 16th Street, New York City. 

Mrs. J. D. J. — There have been several receipts given for dyeing Raffia 
in the back numbers of Keramic Studio. If you experiment with the 
aniline dyes, use a little black to darken and soften the colors. We hojje 
to have something new in basketry later. 

U. H. — I should not advise putting color in the wood frame. If it is to 
be burned, that gives it enough color. A carved frame in very low relief 
with the wood left in the natural state, would be more suitable for the Delft 

M. J. — A correspondent of the "Deutsche Murmacher Zeitung" recom- 
mends the following soldering block : Take equal parts of powdered charcoal, 
asbestos and plaster of paris, make into a thick paste with water and pour 
into a suitable mould, one that will give you a thick plate. When this mass 
has dried it is taken from the mould and a cork plate about 3 inches in thick- 
ness is fixed to one surface with thin glue. This cork plate is to receive the 
points of the wire clamps with which the articles to be soldered are to be 
attached to the soldering block, the asbestos, etc., not being sufficient to hold 


E. C. — In regard to your dusted mat background which chipped in re- 
peated firings, the only suggestion we can make is to fill up the chip with 
hard enamel and touch with the black powder color, but if you had a little of 
the white china body ground fine to mix with the enamel, you would be more 

sure of a good result; however, if the piece has begun to chip it will probably 
chip more in the next fire; then the repairing must be done without firing. 
Fill the chip with black sealing wax, and sand-paper it when hard. This is 
the best we can advise. 

E. C. B. — If you wish to pxit gold over fired yellow color, it will be neces- 
saiy to use the hard or unfluxed gold. The ordinary Roman gold will not 
talce well over color, although it goes very well over lustre. The mat colors 
are fired at the same temperature as the ordinary colors. 

A. A¥. — Gold and lustre may be fired together with heavy tinted bands of 
color, so long as they do not overlap. The oak design for plate in March, 
1904, K. S., may be treated in browns as follows: Tint plate a rich cream and 
fire. Tint background of border again and paint design in yellow I^rown, 
Meissen and Brown 4. Dust grey for flowers over the painted surface, and 
fire. If the color scheme does not suit, it can then be painted and dusted in 
natui'al colors and refired, giving a soft rich effect. 


Mary Burnett 

AFTER drawing design carefully use for some of the flowers 
Albert Yellow with a touch of Violet, which makes a 
very nice shadow color for white flowers, and for darker flowers 
Brown Green with Violet may be used. The leaves are beauti- 
fully market and should be carefuUj'- painted. The veining 
in some of them is quite purple, and use Moss Green, Dark 
Green and shading Green in modeling leaves. 








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Size 6x9, price each 90 

For further particulars inquire 


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[ The entire contents of this Magazine are co'bered by the general copyright, and the articles must not be reprinted iDithoui special permission.^ 



Exliibition of the New York Society 

Tansy Study 

Bowl, Pitcher and Tray for Child's Set 


Competition Designs for Mushroom Plates 

Miss M. M. Mason's class in Design 


Popples (supplement) 

Wild Sun-Flower 

The Crafts— The Art of Enameling on Metal 
The Crafts at St. Louis 
Brooklyn Exhibition 
Wood Carving Chap. II. 

Red Raspberries 

Poppy P*Iate 

Answers to Correspondents 

Maud M. Mason 
Mary F. Overbeck 
Alice Witte Sloan 

M. E. Hulbert 
Maud M. Mason 
Hannah B. Overbeck 
Laurin H. Martin 

Elizabeth Saugstad 
Mary Burnett 
Louise M. Smith 









44 to 45 


Some Leading Agencies of Keramic Studio 

We take ple^sune in mentioning a few of the leading agencies for the lale 
of the Keramic Studio, where, also, subscriptions may be placed : 

Boston, Mass.— Miss E. E. Page, 286 Boylston St.; Smith & McCance, 

Old Corner Book Store. 
Brooklyn— A. D. Mathews & Sons, Fulton Street. 
Buffalo— Mrs. Filkins, 609 Main Street. 
Chicago — A. C. MeCiurg & Co., Brentano's; Burley & Co. 
Cincinnati— Miss M. Owen, 245 Elm Street; A. B. Closson, 4th Street 

near Race; Traxel & Maas, 4th Street, near Elm. 
Cleveland, Ohio — Vinson & Korner, 150 Euclid Ave. 
Columbus, Ohio — Lee Roessler, 116 So. High Street. 
Dayton, Ohio— W. W. Kile & Co. 
Denver, Colo.— E. Meininger, 807 16th Street. 
Detroit, Mich.— L. B. King & Co. 
Hartford, Ct.— E. M. SiU. 
Grand Rapids, Mich.— Miller, Wolfe Co. 
Indianapolis, Ind. — Keramic Supply Co., Lemcke Building. 
Kansas City, Mo. — Emery, Bird, Thayer Co., Geo. B. Peck Co. 
Louisville — Louisville Book Store. 

Minneapolis, Minn.— Minn. Art China Co., 607 l»t Ave. So. 

New York City — Brentano's, Union Square; .M. T. Wynne's, II E. 20th 

St.; The Fry Art Co., 36 W. 24th St.; Wanamaker's; American News Co. 

J. B. Ketcham, 107 W. 25th Street; M. J. Whaley, 430 5th Ave. 
Newark, N. J.— -Keramic Novelty Co. 
Oakland, Cal.— Smith Bros. 
Omaha, Neb. — Megeath Stationery Co. 
Philadelphia — Wanamaker's. 
Pittsburgh, Pa. — Otto SchaSer & Bros.; Kurtz, Langbein & Schwartz 5 

R. S. Davis & Co., 346 Fifth Ave.; John G. Yergan, 36 Fifth Street. 
Saratoga Springs — Robson & Adee. 
San Francisco— Mrs. M. E. Perley, 207 Post Street. 
Sioux City, la. — Sioux City Crockery Co. 
St. Louis— F. Weber & Co.; A. S. Aloe & Co. 
Syracuse — Wolcott Book Shop; Welch & HoUingsworth; W. Y. Footej 

A. L. Varney & Co., 336 S. Salina Street. 
Tacoma, Wash. —Art Exckange, Mrs. Mead. 
Toronto— The Art Metropole. 
Washington, D. C. — Woodward & Lothrop, 

The Magazine may also be ordered from any news dealer or book 'store 
in this country, who can procure it through the American News Company, 
New York, or its branches. 


Studies for the China Painter and 
the Student of Water Colors .... 

$3.00 Postpaid 


Vol. VII, No. 2 


June 1905 

HILE the designs submitted for the 
niushroom plate were on the average 
verj^ good, the curious point in these 
competitions is that, as a rule, the 
best designs are accompanied by the 
poorest color schemes or vice versa. 
The designs awarded first and second 
prize, while not poor in color, yet 
were not as good in that respect as 
those submitted by Alice Woodman, 
Russell Goodwin or Sabella Randolph which show more the 
influence of studjr of good Japanese prints either at first or 
second hand. The first prize was in two shades of a dull salmon, 
simplicity and fine spacing made this the most acceptable, the 
refined proportions of the border suggesting a most dainty 
table service. The second prize in pale apple green and grey 
was very Japanesque in effect but the eye w^as attracted to 
the decorative unit too much; if the dark in stems had not 
been so pronounced the whole effect would have been better. 
Prizes for this month's competition. Subject — Design 
for Mushroom Plate: ist Prize, Hannah Overbeck; 2nd Prize, 
Mary Overbeck. 

Mentions — Alice Woodman, Harriette Burton, Alice Joslin, 
Russell Goodwin, Sabella Randolph, Austin Rosser. 

The color schemes submitted bj' Alice Woodman were very 
fine and rich, especialty for the designs not illustrated. The 
plate receiving mention would have been finer if the radiating 
lines had been more nearly perpendicular to the center and if 
the panels containing the decorative unit had been separated 
by a wider empty panel. The color scheme called for mush- 
rooms in a soft grey, underside dull orange, edge and dividing 
lines green with darker outlines. 

The design submitted by Miss Burton was in grey blues, 
the darkest dark, however, w^as too strong and the slightly 
w4iirling motion was not restful. 

Miss Joshn's plate was fine in spacing and proportions but 
the motif was lost entirely and the resulting ornament not 
particularly attractive. The design by Russell Goodwin was 
beautifully executed and accompanied bj' a fine color 
scheme in soft warm browns, but the design was too intricate 
and crowded and contained too manj^ different decorative units. 
Miss Randolph's design was good in color and interesting in 
treatment but too hea\n,r. Miss Rosser succeeded in making a 
quaint and original design, which, however, verges on the 
eccentric. Her color schemes are not as good as her designing 
or execution. 

The subject for the October competition closing August 
15th will be a decorative design for a tobacco jar. Subject: 
the flower of the Nicotiana, or tobacco-plant. 

We are showing in this issue the interesting work of Miss 
Maud Mason's class in design. It is difficult to say which pupil 
shows the most talent, perhaps the work of Miss Walsh shows 
the most originality. The color schemes in many instances 
were quite fine. Unfortunatety some of the studies were on 
rough paper, which the brush does not cover thoroughly, leav- 
ing white spots which are accentuated in the engraving, and 

the reproduction of the finest studj^ on such paper is bound 
to he unsatisfactory. Other studies were on tissue paper 
pasted on board. This also is difficult to reproduce. The best 
engravings are made from original studies on smooth board. 

As we are limited for space owing to exhibition notes, etc., 
a part of this work will have to be shown in the following 
number of Keramic vStudio. 

Miss Mason teaches her pupils to apply their designs to 
embroidery and other mediums beside ceramics, believing in 
the widening influence of general study. Special attention is 
called to Miss Masoii's stiidj' of tansj' and its application to 
the vase on exhibition at the National Arts Club. 

^ If 

That the New York Society has scored its greatest artistic 
triumph in its last exhibit at the National Arts Club, there 
can be no doubt whatever. Everywhere was heard the judg- 
ment of the cognoscenti that the exhibit was the most har- 
monious, creditable and attractive ever seen. There was not 
a discordant note either in color or design; the onlj^ criticism 
one could make was that so few comparatively contributed, 
twenty-two members of the Society only being represented. 
It was also unfortunate that no prices could be put in the 
catalogue, as many sales were thus lost to the Societ3^ How- 
ever, now that the Society has been placed upon a higher plane 
in the estimation of art critics bj^ its showing at the National 
Arts, it is in a position to hold its next exhibit at some gallery 
where the prices may figure in the catalogue and the Society 
reap a financial as w-ell as an artistic success. The jury did its 
dut\' nobly and though doubtless some pieces of merit were 
thrown out, no one could reasonably find fault, seeing the artistic 
unitj^ in the result. Much credit was due to Mr. Belknap for the 
thoroughness with which everything was cared for, and to Mrs. 
Leonard for having steered the Society safeh" into the haven 
where it should be. 

Nothing can give our readers a better idea of the reception 
accorded to this latest effort of the Society than the foUowuig 
excerpts from press notices, which are fair specimens of what 
was written on ever^^ side by newspapers, magazines, etc. 

The gallery at the National Arts Club is now occupied by an e.xhibition 
of pottery and textiles under the auspices of the \ew York Society of Kera- 
mic Art. The standard is higher than in any former exhibition, and is a long 
step forward from all previous ones. All the societies belonging to the Na- 
tional League of Mineral Painters have recently been working out the same 
problems tending to improvement in form, design and color of every article 
worthy of decoration. This exhibition will be sent from New York to Chicago, 
where the National League will hold its annual exhibition next month, when 
an opportunity will be given to compare the work of the various branches. 

Particularly good, both in color and design, is the AA^ork of Marshal Fry, 
who, besides several large pieces, shows a group of small bowls, each being 
individual in treatment. Designs by some of Mr. Fry's pupils at Teachers 
College are also interesting because they show that decoration is now being 
taught seriously, and that we are getting away from amateurish work. A 
case of porcehiins by Mrs. Robineau, of Syi-acuse, contains some very wonder- 
ful pieces, where she has succeeded in securing the crystallizations similar to 
those produced recently at the famous Sevres factory in France. As an ex- 
ample of the practical side of this work, there are door-knobs that it is a pleas- 
ure to handle. — Miss Florence Levy in Art Bulletin. 

Above exhibition was held in the beautifully appointed reception rooms 
of the National Arts Club at 37 West Thirty-fourth street. New York City, 



from April 24th to May 10th, and was by far the most successful exhibition 
ever held, in spite of the fact that it was the thirteenth reunion. The quality 
of the work displayed was very remarkable, being very rich in metaUic and 
crystallization glazes of the highest order, while the more commonplace floral 
decorations were conspicuous by their absence. This is indeed a gTeat 
stride in the right direction, for what is more beautiful and artistic than the 
simple forms of the ancient Chinese, with their exquisite combinations of 
colored glazes. 

The most remarkable exhibit was that of Mrs. Adelaide Alsop-Robineau , 
of Syracuse, N. Y. In it were shown a collection of sixty-nine superb speci- 
mens of metallic glazes. There was not a poor piece in the entire group, 
either in form or color; the potting is excellent, while the knowledge of chem- 
istry displayed by Mrs. Alsop-Robineau would do credit to the Royal factories 
of Berlin, Dresden, or National Sevres. The examples of texture glazes, 
transmutation and opalescent glazes are excellent, while her display of crystal- 
line glazes is most remarkable, and one that would be a credit to any factory 
in the world. Among these latter were several exquisite pieces of cobalt blue 
crystallizations, which should find a resting place in our Metropolitan Museum 
of Art. 

The Van Briggle Pottery Company, of Colorado Springs, exhibited a 
very interesting piece of mat glaze, a tall, graceful two-handled vase of 
soft olive-green with exquisite brown veinings or markings; the Wheatley Pot- 
tery a quaint bowl of green, on the true Chinese crackle order, and a lamp 
body of deep rich green, with rough surface. 

The Rook wood display is full of originality, both as to forms and color 
schemes. One piece in particular is worthy of especial mention: it is a small 
globular vase, Chinese in shape, of superb quality mat glaze, and of soft gray 
ground, graduating from the bottom up to delicate ivory at the top, on which 
are two dragon-flies with soft transparent blue wings, outspread and meeting 
around the body of the vase. The color scheme and simplicity of this piece 
is both pleasing and remarkable. 

Mr. Marshal Fry exhibited a collection of beautifully moulded miniature 
bowls, jardinieres and vases in exquisite Oriental forms and colorings, worthy 
of special mention and careful study. His Class in Design exhibited a num- 
ber of bowls and steins with charming conventional designs in rich colorings. 
Mrs. T. M. Fry also had a few tiles of exceptional quality, both in design and 

The Grueby Pottery Company were represented by several very remark- 
able specimens of their fine mat glazes in greens, olives, browns and blues, 
with exquisite veinings and markings. 

Mrs. A. B. Leonard had several charming and original designs in plates, 
which caused much favorable comment. Among these was a border of 
flying storks, somewhat Japanese in style, but treated conventionally, in 
blue and green on a gray ground, with heavy gold lines, suggesting waves. 
Another of excellent technique was a border of scattered nasturtiums in flat 
gold, outlined and veined in black on a white ground. 

The Misses E. and M. M. Mason showed some very fine large floral vases 
of excellent color, quality and technique, while Miss Laura Overly displayed a 
superb oviform vase of celadon ground, with conventional poppies in soft 
gray on a dark gray ground, with stems and leaves entwined at the base. 

Mrs. Sara Wood-Safford exhibited a "Colonial" coffee set, decorated 
with a soft gray ground and delicate salmon-pink band, with a conventional 
pattern of .silver ornament outlined in black, with solid black handles and 
square plinths. The forms of this set are most graceful, while the decoration 
is most original, harmonious and pleasing. 

The New York School of Clay-Working and Ceramics, of Alfred, N. Y., 
had an interesting collection of small bowls and vases, beautifully potted 
and decorated with metallic glazes, which speak well for the thorough training 
they are receiving at the hands of Prof. Charles F. Binns. The twelve speci- 
mens from the Rose Valley Pottery, exhibited by Mr. W. P. Jervis, author 
of the "Encyclopedia of Ceramics," form a very interesting group of various 
metallic glazes; while the three plaques by Miss Harriette A. Clarke are 
worthy of special notice, being exceptionally powerful pieces of work and 
color. "The Clam-Digger" and "My Friend Zumi" (an Indian chief) are 
excellent, and the fine detail of the former is most remarkable and masterful. 
There are many other works worthy of special mention, including a loan col- 
lection of Tiffany Favrile glass, copper enamels and specimens of old-ivory 
pottery from the Tiffany Furnaces, Corona, L. I. 

Charles Volkmar's exhibit of nine tile panels was specially worthy of 
mention , while Mrs. L. Vance-Phillips displayed a fine portrait. The catalogue 
wes artistically gotten up on light brown paper with prints on the cover of 
Japanese potter and glass blower. — (Mi-. A . V. Rose of Tiffany tO Co., in 
American, Pottery Gazette.) 

Including potters, enamellers and blowers, there 
were altogether 55 exhibitors — counting the Alfred School, 
Young Woman's Christian Association, Mr. Fry's class, etc., 
each as one exhibitor. Taking the exhibitors, from the New 

York vSociet}', alphabetically, as in the catalogue, for con- 
venience, we will try and set before our readers the gist of the 

Miss Florence Allen was represented b5' seven pieces 
showing her fine execution in Renaissance style; Miss Marga- 
ret Armstrong by candlesticks in gold and white; Miss 


Harriet Clark, strongly painted Indian heads; Miss Jetta 
Ehlers, bowls and tea-pot with oriental design in enamels 
and gold. 

Marshal Fry was well represented by a large collection 
of his pupils' work in design, both on paper and carried out on 
Belleek bowls of his own design. His own work was but 
slightly in evidence, so much his titne has been taken up by 
his classes at the Teacher's College. However, we were glad 
to see again the little collection of pottery of last year and the 
group of beautiful bowls from his own hand. The coloring of 
these bowls was exquisite in low tones and fascinating in the 






quaint arrangement of Indian motifs. Mrs. Fry also was well 
represented b3^ a number of decorative landscapes in rather 
stronger color than Mr. Fry's own work but very attractive. 

Mrs. Hibler showed two very attractive little landscape 
compositions of Lombard}' Poplars in low toned blues and 
greens, framed in black. 

Mrs. Leonard's gi'ape fruit service was tmusually attractive 
with its design of orange trees in yellow brown and olive and 
gold. The bird plate in flat blue and green enamels with gold 
was also very fine, as was in fact her entire exliibit. 

Miss Frances Marquard showed one vase only in her usual 
refined and quiet taste. 

Miss Meinke, a new member, showed a number of promis- 
ing pieces, among them was last month's Ker.\mic Studio 
prize design of morning glories, executed on a plate. 

> IB < 

a X 


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10 I- [^ 

Z I- 

01 U 10 

I J ■ 

lii "^r 

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Miss Overly showed again the fine poppy \'asc in grey 
which was first seen at the last year's exhibit. 

Mrs. Vance Phillips exhibited a portrait head in her nsual 
fine stjde, as well as three ];)otterjr hand-nioidded pieces. 

attractive, notably a tile in blue and white, ship design, and a 
little bowl with poplars. vShe also showed in two color schenies 
the prize design for child's set given in December Keramic 



Mrs. S. Evannah Price had a number of good pieces and 
shows a steady advance in both color and design work. 

Mrs. Robineau had a large case of porcelains which haAe 
lately been described in Keramic Studio. 

Mrs. Sarah Wood Safford sent only her pink, black and 

Mr. Volkmar sent some extremely interesting tiles which 
are fine both in color and design, also a large handled vase 
with raised design of flying geese. His pupil, Miss Jane 
Hoagland, also had a large vase in mat green. 

Among the new potteries must be noticed the three fine 


silver tea set of last year. It is to be regretted that ,she did 
not show more of her later work. 

Miss Katherine Sinclair is another member of the Society 
who is coming prominently to the front. Many of her pieces 
were very interesting both in design and color. Mrs. Stranahan 
also a new member, showed several good pieces, one of which 
we illustrate. 

Mrs. Tuttle and Miss Weaver showed some creditable 
plates, as also Miss Wilmarth who had several pieces good 
in color and interesting in design. 

While the exhibit of Mrs. Marie Crilley Wilson was in- 
teresting and good, we did not find it on the whole quite as 
clever as last year's, though some of the pieces were very 






pieces of pottery by Mrs. Worth Osgood of the National 
League, modeled by hand and finished in fine mat glaze. 
Mr. Jervis, author of the Encyclopaedia of Ceramics, now of 
the Rose Valley Pottery, sent ' some most interesting speci- 
mens of pottery with a wrinkled and mottled glaze quite un- 
like anything else that has been seen in the waj;- of mat glazes. 

Professor Binns of Alfred, showed in his school exhibit 
some very fine mat glazes on stoneware; the only regret was 
the small number sent. 

Mr. Walley, a farmer of Massachusetts, sent some in- 
teresting specimens of pottery with a brown mottled glaze 
which also was quite unique. 

Miss Maude Mason, among other pieces, exhibited two 








vases of her own design, one decorated with a rich dark lands- 
cape, the other with tansy in soft grey green. The original 
study for this piece will be found in this number of Keramic 
Studio. The large bowl with design of soft grey white flowers 
on a black ground was also very stunning. 

In the exhibit of Miss Elizabeth Mason an exquisite service 
plate of cafe au lait tone with a narrow well proportioned 
border design of black and gold, attracted much attention, 
also a charming pitcher with design in red and gold on black. 

The Wheatley Potterj^ from the home of Rookwood showed 
some very interesting and curious mat green glazes on pottery, 
one especially unusual showed a raised dark green crackle on a 
lighter green ground. 

Among other pottery exhibitors of note were the Tiffany 
Studios, Rookwood, Grueby, Dedham, Miss McLaughlin, New- 
comb College, Miss Lucy Perkins, Poillion Pottery, Mrs. Bennet, 
of Trenton, N. J., who showed some interesting bowls and 
moulds for plates, etc., in the Belleek china, the Van 
Briggle Pottery and the Young Women's Christian Association. 

We doubt if another year will see a much greater success 
artistically than this. But we trust that the New York 
Society will continue to advance in the future as in the 

The illustrations in this article are from photographs bv Frank T. Dun- 
lap, 22 East 16th Street, New York, 







The Tansy studj^ would look well carried out in varj-ing tones of grej^s, with a suggestion of green and ;s'ellow in foliage 
and flowers. 


heramic studio 

At the recent meeting of the N. Y. S. K. A. the following 
note was read by Mr. Belknap and is an answer to the criticisms 
made by some members in regard to the severity of the Jury. 

It has been suggested that the members of the^Society would be inter- 
ested in an expression from the jury on the recent exhibition, of their feehng 
and the point of view from which not only the work of members but of con- 
tributors from the outside were judged. 

The jury are fully cognizant of the radical stand taken as to acceptances 
and rejections and that inevitably there are those who disagree with them, 
but much as they regret this fact they are sure that their view is in accord 
with the feeling of the most competent judges of such work to-day. 

The exclusion of naturalistic design is, except from one point of view 
as surely to encourage a more dignified and cultivated style and therefore a 
more desirable one as can be conceived. The one and only reason for con- 
tinuing to produce work which is a reflection of a period during which taste 
was lacking, chiefly from an opportunity to cultivate it, is that there still 
exists a large public which will purchase such work because they themselves 
are as yet uncultivated to an appreciation of what is better. In other words, 
it is largely a commercial reason. This may force even those who desire to 
advance and improve to execute such things, since in many cases they must 
exist upon the proceeds of their work, but it can be no argument for their 
exhibition in a place in which they are presented as the expression of those 
aspirations for better things which it must be assumed all the members of 
your Society surely feel. 

It is to be regretted that there was a feeling of sameness and monotony, 
a lack of variety of style, color and effect in the exhibition of over-glaze 
work. This will right itself in time and is doubtless due to the fact that many 
of those contributing are pupils of a few very strong instructors whose own 
work is strongly reflected in that of their pupils, but as these pupils' own in- 
dividuality begins to assert itself, their work will broaden out while yet retain 
ing the conservative and studied design which is so much a part of their 
master's teaching. 

It has been said by some that the jury were prejudiced by a desire to 
obtain an harmonious and artistic effect in the exhibition as a whole and so 
excluded good work in this effort. This was not the case. True there was 
great technical excellence in some of the pieces not shown but they were shut 
out on the score of ill-conceived and ill-applied ornament and with the earnest 
hope that their exclusion would prove a help to their owners in indicating 
mistakes which study and thought might avoid in the future. 

Perhaps the most striking tribute to the wisdom of the selection made 
has been the wholly unconscious .and unbiased opinion often expressed by 
casual visitors that the work was a revelation to them and that they had 
no idea that such work was being done by decorators here, while the fact 
that three invitations have been received to transport the whole affair 
bodily, to the Lewis and Clarke Exposition in Seattle, to Montreal, and to 
the Academy of Arts and Sciences in Broolvlyn, testifies to a feeling that 
the exhibition stands for something worth while. 

There is not an atom of doubt that the Society will profit in the end 
by it in a way it could never have done had the jury accepted work which 
would have lowered the standard of excellence, and the Society will live to 
appreciate the fact. 


THE Phoenicians made vases throughortt of crystalline 
glass and their skill excited the wonder of the ancients, 
says a clever writer in the Pottery Gazette. Herodotus men- 
tions two columns in the temple of Hercules at Tyre, one of gold 
and the other of emerald, "shining brightly in the night/' 
the latter being referred to also by Theophrastus, and, much 
later, by Pliny, who does not understand at all how an emer- 
ald could be so large, without however disputing the fact. 
It must have been glass, of a marvelously perfect texture, 
like the (probably) similar hollow columns of green glass at 
Gades, in which lamps were kept perpetually burning, the 
columns of glass in the temple of Aradus; the emerald (of 
rmknown origin), six feet long and four and a half feet broad, 
presented by a king of Babylon to an Egyptian Pharaoh; 
the obelisk in the temple of Jupiter (in Egypt), which was 
60 feet high, and from three to six feet broad, composed of 
four emeralds; the statue of Serapis, in the Egj'ptian labyrinth, 
13^ feet high, of one entire emerald; and the like. 

To the skill of the Sidonians, in times past, Pliny spec- 
ially refers. He says that they first invented looking glasses. 
And in the British Museum are a number of small bottles of 
clear glass of various forms, blown in molds, " which have been 
chiefly found in Syria and the neighboring islands. The 
specimens are in the shape of dates, grapes, heads, etc. A 
handle, once forming part of a small cup, is stamped with the 
signature of its maker, Artas the Sidonian, in Greek and Latin 
letters." There is also, in the Slade collection, a jug of molded 
glass with vases and musical instruments in relief, from the 
Greek Archipelago, and a molded bottle imitating basket work, 
believed to have been made at Sidon. These beautiful ob- 
jects are, however, of comparatively late date, and we have not 
unfortunate^, any specimens of the earliest Phoenician clear 
glass except the vases, the date of which is probabty not later 
than the eighth century B.C. 

The Assyrians were powerftd rivals of the Phoenicians 
in mental power and taste, in artistic genius and multiform 
ingenuity, as well as in the common arts and appliances of 
life; excelling not only the Egyptians, but, as a high author- 
ity thinks, even all the Orientals. It can hardly be doubted 
that the glass they used was manufactured by themselves, 
and not imported from abroad. There is a well known ex- 
ample, actually bearing the name of Sargon, King of Assyria, 
circ. B. C. 721, in the British Museum. It is of an exquisite 
sea-green tint, and admirable manufacture, as, indeed, are all 
the specimens that have been brought from Nimroud. 




THIS design should be carried out in three tones of blueish 
grey and deep cream. The darkest tone of grey should 
be in the background behind the child and candle. A slightly 

lighter tone for the floor and a still lighter one for the smoke 
from the candle. Child's gown and candle-stick deep cream. 
Outline child's figure and candle in darkest tone of grey. 



The glass found in large quantity in Babylonia, and of 
which there are several specimens in the British Museum, is 
also believed to have been made there; and that such glass 
was made under the Median rule is not improbable, though 
hitherto the excavations have been too slight and inadequate 
to substantiate this with certaint3\ It is probable also that 
Persia, which on starting into life succeeded to the inheri- 
tance of the Chaldean, Assyrian, Median and Babj^onian 
civilizations, from the first made a transparent glass. 

If the Hebrew word found in Job. xxviii. 17, literally 
signifying any transparent substance, really means glass, as 
many excellent scholars have thought it does, then the Jews 
must also, at a very earty period, have been acquainted with 
transparent glass; otherwise they would probably have become 
acquainted \vith the art during the Captivity. 

As with the Phoenicians, so with the Egyptians, the man- 
ufacture of horny glass was merely transitional. In both 
cases we find it soon replaced by the crystalline type. Whether 
the Egyptians of themselves excogitated the means of making 
the latter, or learned it from the Phoenicians or Assyrians, it 
is not possible to say; but the intercourse and relationship of 
Egypt with Phoenicia and Assyria were direct and intimate. 
The Phoenicians had a settlement at Memphis; and, after the 
time of Sargon, close resemblances between Assyrian and Egyp- 
tian art are met with, the result, as Mr. Rawlinson believes, either 
of Egyptian artificers working under Assyrian influence, or 
Assyrian artificers working under Egyptian influence. Any 
improvements in the art of making glass known to the Assyrians 
could thus scarcely have been concealed from the Egj'ptians. 

It was probaly through this intercourse with the Phoeni- 
cians, the more early civilized of the two nations, that the 
Greeks learned the art of making glass; crystalline, in their case, 
from the first. 

They do not seem, however, to have had glass in common 
use very early, as it is not mentioned in Plomer, and Hero- 
dotus was evidently not familiarly acquainted with it, as he 
speaks of the molten stone with which the Egyptians adorned 
the ears of the sacred crocodiles, without apparently under- 
standing its true nature, nor did he question that the emerald 
he saw at Tyre was a real one. The other supposed references 
to glass in Herodotus and Aristophanes are not conclusive. 
The earliest perfectly conclusive reference to glass bj' a Greek' 
writer is that of Theophrastus, who describes it distinctly 
as being made out of the sand of the river Belus. The glass 
from Greece, and that iDelieved to be Greek from Cyprus 
and Sicil3^ is usually of a sea-green tint, but beautifully clear 
and transparent, rich in tone, and otherwise of high technical 
excellence. There are some interesting specimens of this glass 
in the Slade collection. 

If crystalline glass was not previously known in Itah^ 
it must have become so after that intercourse of the Romans 
with Greece which ended in its final conquest. Virgfl com- 
pares the clearness of the Fucine lake to glass; and Plorace, 
using it as a standard of comparison for clearness, shows to 
what perfection its manufacture had attained . Pliny compares 
some of the glass at this time to crystal, and it is evident that 
it was esteemed in proportion as it resembled crystal in color- 
lessness and brilliance. He specially refers to the care em- 
ploj^ed in selecting sand; and Strabo, to the discoveries made 
at Rome, both with regard to coloring and mode of working 
especially in the kind of glass resembling crystal. Magnificent 
specimens abound in everj^ collection, so that we need onty 
mention here such masterpieces as the Auldjo, Museo Bour- 
bonico, and Portland vases, all of the most exquisite texture; 
the last so fine that Breval believed it to be chalcedony; 

Bartoli, Montfaucon, and other antiquaries, sardonyx. Pliny 
says, indeed, the Romans imitated precious stones in such a 
manner that it was extremely difficult to distinguish false stones 
from true, the opal, carbuncle, jasper, hyacinth, sapphire, and 
all colored stones. 

Under the fostering care of Rome, the Ancient Phoenician 
and Egyptian glass works flourished; Alexandria especially 
the most wealthy and splendid city in the world, was famed 
for its glass, with which Rome continued to be supplied long 
after Egypt became a province of the Empire. Some vases 
presented by an Egyptian priest to the Emperor Pladrian 
were considered so curious and valuable that they were only 
used on grand occasions. As specimens of late Roman crystal 
glass, of the most complete limpidity, the discs found in the 
catacombs, attributed by Padre Garrucci to the period between 
A. D. 200 and A. D. 400, are remarkable. There are several 
specimens of these curious relics in the British Museum ; also 
one of similar character, found near the Church of St. Ursula, 
at Cologne. 

Pliny, having described the process of the Romans for 
obtaining "vitrum purum, ac massa vitri candidi," adds: 
"Jam vero per Gallias Hispaniasque simili modo arenae tem- 
perantur." Thus, under the fostering influence of Rome, the 
manufacture of glass in tliese countries also was brought to 
comparative perfection. 

A part of the early Teutonic glass was similarly essen- 
tially Roman in character. From the immense amount of 
Roman glass continually discovered, aU of excellent work- 
manship, it can hardly be doubted that the Romans estab- 
lished manufactories in their various colonics. Their suc- 
cessors copied the Roman methods as closety as they were able; 
and there are many specimens of early Anglo-Saxon glass in the 
British Museum and elsewhere, almost indistinguishable from 
Roman in appearance or texture, however much they maj' 
differ in form and ornamentation. The Merovingian glass 
found in France, it is said, has much the same character. — Glass 
and Pottery World. 

(r n\ 


































-% \ 






Miss Jeanne M. Stewart of Chicago, III, has just returned 
from a year of study in Europe and expects to resume hei- 
classes at No. 824 Marshal Field Dldg. about tlie first of June. 


M. E. Hulbcrl 

TWO of the lightest roses and one or two buds may be white, 
also the back of the rose to the right. For these use 
either grey for flowers or Brown Green and Orange Red, Warm 
(ircy, V'ellow Ochi"e and Deep Blue Green in very thin wavshes. 
The other roses may be yellow, use Lemon Yellow, Orange 
Yellow, Yellow Ochre, Warm Grey and a little Pomjiadour. 
For the leaves use Yellow Green, DeejD Blue Green, Moss Green, 
Brown Green, Shading Green, Finishing Brown, Chestnut 
Brown and a little Violet of Iron. Brown Green and Copen- 
hagen Green might be used in the background. 

POPPIES (Supplement) 

M. M. Mason 

THE poppy stud_y is composed as an ui)right arrangement, 
the flowers being nuisscd at the top of the panel with 
the stems and leaves losing themselves in the backgroimd at 
the lower part. 

The flowers are paiuted with Carnation in tlie Ughter 
tones. Blood Red and a mixture of Blood Red and Rub}' in 
the deeper ones. The centres of the flowers are painted with 
Black and Violet; the leaves in Celadon, Black Green, Dark 
Green, Shading (jreen and Violet. The backgroimd is laid in 
with Black, Black Green, I'^-cnch Grey and Dark Green. 
Blend the background and flowers carefully, allowing the 
flowers to lose themselves in the shadows. 

When dry the panel is then dusted with the same colors 
used in painting. Endeavor to keep the colors fresh and 
transparent in the first painting, retouching with the palette 
given above, strengthening, toning and accenting where 


THE wild sun-flower, or Black Eyed Susan is a familiar as 
well as decorative flower, yet it is seldom used as a motif. 
The sunny golden petals with their rich brown hearts, and grey- 

green leaves and stems should be most attractive and adapt- 
able, and the forms lend themselves readily to a conventional 
application either in colors or in gold and lustre. 






// ■/F^ia'^fc/f^y^-/i' 





Under the management of Miss Emily Peacock, Karol Shop, 22 East 16 th St., New York. All inquiries in regard to the various 
Crafts are to be sent to the above address, but will be anszvered in the magazine under this head. 

A II questions must be received before the XOth day of month preceding issue and will be answered under "Answers to Inquiries " only. Please do not send stamped 

envelope for reply. The editors will answer questions only in these columns. 

crack, but by coveringboth sides it makes it very stiff and strong. 

The enamel is first pvxt on the back. It does not at all 
matter what color you use in this case, as it will not show 
when the enamel panel is set. If you save your waste enamel 
it will be useful for this backing. Pvit a little gum tragacanth 
with this enamel and cover the back of the plate and dry it 
and let it cool. Do not let it get any more than just dry for 
if 5^ou do the gum will have lost its power. When your plate 
is cool turn it over and coA^er the front with enamel. This 
enamel is to form the background color of j^our design. It 
may be blue or green or whatever yon wish. After the front 
side has been covered, dry it off and place it in a muffle furnace. 
If you had not used gum in the backing enamel it would fall 
oft' at this time. After the plate has been fired we are ready 
to put on the design. 

Let us in this case use blue as our background color. We 
first of all work the design itself in white. This white mvist 
be ground very fine, so fine in fact that it looks like cream. 
You first grind the white as fine as you can in an agate mortar 
as I have described and then with a pestle on a slab of ground 
glass about a foot square grind it still finer. The enamel 
nmst not be washed after it is ]Hit on the ground glass. This 
white enamel is not quite opaque. 

After the white has been ground as fine as possible we are 
ready to put our design on the blue ground. This is done by 
first taking a little of the white on a brush and covering the 
whole of the blue plate wdth as thin a coat as possible. Let 
this white dry. After it is dry, but not fired, yott can place 
a piece of tracing paper over it with the design drawn on this 
paper and go over the outline with a pencil. WTien you take 
the paper off, you will find the pencil has pressed the tracing 
paper against the unfired white enamel and made an impres- 
sion. Take a pointed piece of wood and scrape oft" all of the 
white on the background of the design. 

After this is done you fire the panel, placing it on an iron 
l)late which is covered with tripoli. If the iron plate were not 
covered with tripoli the enamel on the back of the panel 
would stick to the iron. Let it stay in the muffle furnace imtil 
the white is smooth. When you take it out of the furnace 
and it is cool you will find you can just barely see the design. 
This is because the white had to be put on so thinly and be- 
sides the white is not quite opaque so you see the blue through 
the white. This first firing of the white is simply to get 3'our 
design transferred upon the ground enamel. 

Cover the design with another coat of white, then dry oft" 
the water and fire again. After the first firing of the white 
you must put the iron plate into the furnace and get it red 
hot, then take it ovit and slip the panel on it with a knife and 
then put it into the furnace, and let it fuse. If you did not 
get the iron plate red hot, the first coating of white would 
crack. After the second firing the enamel will be much more 
opaque. You can now put on another layer of white and fire 
in the same way, this time it wiU be quite opaque. 

We now have a wliite design worked on a blue ground. 
Grind your transparent colors and place them over the white. 
It is possible to get light and shade in this process bj^ the use 
of the white alone. That is done by putting it on thin in some 
places and thick in others. 



Laurin H. Martin 

1I1AVE described the process of engraving out spaces for 
the enamel and soldering on wires, making divisions, also 
transparent enamel without any backuig, and the shaping of a 
sheet of metal in different ways for different effects, and the 
only waj^ left is the Limoges process. In this process the 
]netal does not show in any way. It is enamel fired upon the 
surface of enamel. Copper is as a rule the metal used as the 

Use very thin metal. No. 26 gauge being a good thick- 
ness. If the design is round, the copper is curved like the 
back of a watch case. In any case the copper is not left flat. 
It must be curved to make it stiff. Both sides of this copper 
plate must be covered with enamel. If you shordd only cover 
one side the plate would twist out of shape and the enamel wovUd 






EUGENE Feuillatre exhibited several cups, vases and 
plaques in repoussed, chiseled and enameled silver, a few 
of which are illustrated. As an enameler on silver he has no 
rival. The large dragon plaque in translucent enamel, 
shows wonderful technique and patience, which has not only 
overcome, but defied all the difficulties of the art. 

The vase in repoussed, chiseled and enameled silver is 
another of his many masterpieces. 

M. Feuillatre executes jewels also which are most successful 
He is a tireless, experienced craftsman whose productions 
witness hard labor and honesty of purpose. 


THE Brooklyn Handicrafters held their Spring exhibition 
at the Packer Alumni Rooms, 1 60 Joralamon Street, 
April the 13th and 14th. This Club has been lately organized 
and the members will make a special effort to have suitable 
furnishings for country houses. Miss M. D. Behr exhibited 
some delightful stencilled draperies for windows; Miss T. 

liestow some stencilled linen covers and screens. Miss F. 
Knapp charming pottery wall pockets and hanging baskets. 
Mrs. Worth Osgood and Miss J. Hoagland also had some good 
work in pottery. 

Mr. H. Whitbeck exhibited a very unique umbrella stand 
made of copper and etched, some silver spoons and jewelr5^ 
Miss M. Peckham, Mrs. E. Rankin, Mrs. Hugo Froelich, Mrs. 
I. P. Conkling, Miss M. Zimmerman, and Miss E. F. Peacock 
showed interesting work in jewelry. Miss J. Husson carved 
wood. Miss A. P. Hallock silk, lamp and candleshades. Miss 
EUa De Neergard and Miss E. M. Griswold, hand woven fabrics. 
Miss E. Chapin and Miss F. Dualej^ book-bindings. 






Elisabeth Saugstad 

IT is best to begin with few tools and learn thoroughly all 
their possibilities, only adding when the distinct need is 
felt. It is possible to go a long way with the twelve in illustra- 
tion I, and the following list of accessories: 
I light carver's mallet, illus. 2. 
I No. 29 India oil stone, 6x2xl inch. 
I No. 14 India round edge slip. 

1 No. 3 Hard Arkansas round edge slip. 

2 4-inch carriage clamps. 

The tools, which may be either a good English or American 
make, cost from 30 to 50 cents a piece, according to size, etc., 
and the total cost of the whole outfit will be between $5 and $6, 
which includes sharpening and round apple wood handles. 
The sharpening and handling must be stipulated in the order 
which may be made out by the numbers and sizes given in 
illus. I, and the list. It is not necessary to draw the shapes. 

A/O.I . 


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NoS y 





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AJO 7 





In examining the tools it will be noticed that there is a 
long bevel on the outside. This has been ground down with a 
grindstone and will not be necessary again for a long time, 
unless the edge gets nicked. Beside this long bevel is the cut- 
ting bevel on both sides, which is made on the oil-stones. The 
three given are all that are needed to keep the 12 tools in perfect 
condition. One end of the narrow edge of the slips should be 
ground down like B in illus. 3, for sharpening the inside of the 
V tool. The sharing, which must fit exactly, can be done on 
emerj^ cloth, or a grindstone, using water freely. 

The first two tools are straight 
chisels and the rest, except No. 
39, are gouges of various widths 
and sweeps. It is not necessary 
to have gouges for all possible 
curves, as these can be made by 
sweeping a chisel, or the V tool, 
along them after they have been 
cut out approximately. In fact 
that is the way to get free and 
beautiful lines. The V tool. No. 
39, is also called the "parting" tool, and is used for outlining 
the design and in various other ways which will suggest them- 
selves when working. 

I advise ordering the tools sharpened when buying, so that 
the beginner may examine them closely and see how it has 
been done, as a guide in keeping them so. For every carver 
should sharpen his or her own tools ever after. To do this 
does not require the preternatural skill and intelHgence many 
seem to imagine. It is a purely mechanical process,- quite 
within the limits of ordinary common sense, and one who is 
not capable of learning how is certainly not capable of carving. 
It is impossible to emphasize too strongly the absolute 
necessity of keeping the tools sharp. They should never be 
allowed to even approach dullness, not only for comfort and 
pleasure in working, but to produce good work. 

The India stones are coarser than the Arkansas and are 
used to quickly remove the superfluous steel, and the fine, keen 
edge is given bj' the latter. They must all be lubricated, 
either with olive oil, kerosene or water. An old vaseline 
bottle with a short soft brush set in the corlc is convenient for 
holding and applying the lubricant. 

The flat India stone can be set in a plain block of wood, 
or one like the Japanese design in illus. 4. Tiny sharpened 
brads set in the under corners keep the block from slipping, 
and a small notch at one end will mak'e it easier to turn the 
stone, wliich should fit snugly, as one side must be kept for 
the flat chisels and the other for the gouges, which are apt to 
wear grooves. 


To sharpen the straight chisels the flat stone is placed 
with one end toward the w^orker, and the handle of the tool is 
grasped in the right hand and is held against the stone at 
about an angle of 15 degrees. The fingers of the left hand 
hold the blade against the stone with a firm and even pressure, 
while it is moved back and forth, avoiding carefully aU rocking 
motion, either up and down or sideways. The angle at which 
the tool is held to the stone is rather more acute when it is to 
be used on soft wood. But this is merely relative, and the 
bevel should be, in all cases, as long as practicable. It is a 
beginner's fault to make it short and thick. 

When the chisel is sufficiently sharpened on the outside 
it is turned and sharpened about a third as much on the inside. 
It is then rubbed in the same manner on the flat side of the 
Arkansas stone to remove the "burr" and make the keen, 
smooth cutting edge. Many carvers use a strop for the final 
touch. A razor strop wifl do, but it is not strictly necessary, 
except, perhaps, for very fine work. . 

The gouges are more difficult. Hold them with the 
forefinger of the right hand about halfway down the groove of 
the blade, steadjdng and pressing with the fingers of the left. 
Place the right corner of the cutting edge on the near end of 
the flat stone and push forward in a straight line, at the same 
time rolling the edge so that when the far end of the stone is 



reached the left corner is touching it. Draw Hghtly straight 
back on that corner and repeat the motion from that corner, 
onl3^ reversing it, so that the right corner is touching at the 
end. Alternate in this way until sufficiently sharpened on 
the outside, being sure to hold the tool at the proper angle. 
The chief point is to grind all parts equally, making a smooth, 
even cutting bevel. The inside is sharpened by holding the 
tool with the forefinger and thumb of the left hand just as near 
the corners of the cutting edge as possible. This protects the 
fingers of the right hand holding the slip, which is rubbed on 
the inside up and down, at the same time rolling the tool from 
side to side. All these movements should be practised verv 
slowly until mastered. 

The hardest and most important part in sharpening the 
V tool is to get it evenly sharp to the very bottom of the V. 
The two outside edges are sharpened separately like flat tools. 
All are finished with the Arkansas stone. 

The object in sharpening the tools about a third as much 
on the inside, is to give a slight lever movement and adapt 
them more easily to the varying planes of the carving. 

be high enough to be able to stand when working but it is 
desirable to have a stool also. It is important to have the work 
at the right height and to be comfortable. It is impossible 
to do free, vigorous work in a cramped position. The propor- 
tions given in the illustration are for a bench of average size. 

If it is not possible to have a bench, a strong kitchen 
table will do if the legs are screwed to the floor with metal 
knees." For light work a device like illus. 9 can be clamped 
on any table; or even a plain board, and the work fastened to 
it with blocks and screws as in illus. 8. Light work may even 
be glued on the board, or bench, with a sheet of thin paper 
between. It is easily pried apart with a chisel afterwards. 
Holes maj^ be bored in the bench, or board, and pegs inserted 
to hold the work, using wooden wedges for tightening, if neces- 

When the tools are sharpened they must be handled 
with care and not allowed to come in contact with each other 
or other metal, as nothing will dull them more quickl3^ When 
not in use they should be kept in a rack or case of canton 
flannel or leather, like illus. 5 and 6. 

A regular carving bench is, of couurse, best for working 
on. Illus. 7 shows a strong, serviceable one, easily made by 
anyone with some knowledge of carpenter's tools. It shotdd 

A steady bench, or table; the worl; securely fastened, 
and sharp tools, are the three points of idtal importance in 
doing good carving. 

The Guild of Arts and Crafts of New York held their 
annual exhibition at the Guild House, 109 East 23rd Street, 
from April 3rd to April 8th inclusive. 

The work of the exhibitors was better arranged than in 
previous years, excepting the jewelrj^ which suffered for lack 
of space. The different crafts were well represented by many 
well known works. Noticeably attractive were the braided 
palm baskets from the Spring Farm Industries, Mass., and the 
hanging mirrors made by Daniel Murphy. Mrs. M. Talbot 
White exhibited some pottery and a small raffia basket, won- 
derful in color and technique. Miss Francis had some of her 
well known baskets and some Russian homespun pillow cases. 
Mrs. C. Busck a very nice chair, both back and seat were made 
of tooled leather. Dr. Busck and Mr. Rodgers and some 
workers from Hull House exhibited some good metal work; Mr. 



Rodger's bowls of antique copper were most attractive. 
Ralph Randolph Adams and Miss Ellen Starr showed book- 
bindings. Miss M. Little, Miss C. C. Collin and Miss Hicks, 
draperies and rugs; Benjamin Silliman, furniture; Miss F. 
Skinner and Mr. H. Whitbeck had some unique and well made 
silver spoons. Mr. Victor Shinnan ink stand in copper and 
silver. Mrs. H. Froehhch, Emity F. Peacock, Mr. Potter and 
others had attractive and original work in jewelry and enamels. 


M. R. — It is a difficult matter to cover enamel which has come out a bad 
color — every extra fire adds to the risk of chipping ofT. We would not wish 
to advise under the impression that we are sure of results, for in such a case 
we could not be. However, you can try covering your enamel with a mixture 
of Dresden Aufsetzweis, in tubes, and one-fifth Ruby, for a ruby color, iron 
reds can not be mixed in enamels with good effect; or you could make a pink 
by adding a little Carmine or Rose to the Aufsetzweis or a green by adding 
Apple or Royal Green; we are not sure, however, just what effect the under 
enamel would have — possibly the new enamel would cover. 

L. H. W. — You must have misunderstood the mention of Mrs. Frackle- 
ton's name — we have never meiitioned her as a contributor, but we have 
illustrated her very interesting stoneware work. 

As a rule we have not found the paste for gold which comes ready mixed 

in tubes very reliable. There may be some reliable makes but we do not 
know of them. If the tube paste, enamel, or color, is too oily squeeze it out 
on blotting paper and after the oil is absorbed mix with oil of lavender or 
spirits of turpentine as desired. 

L. H. — Roman gold cannot be used advantageously over color tired or 
unfired, but the hard gold can be used either way if the color is thoroughly dry. 

We are not acquainted with the ware you describe. To decorate your 
low fire pottery you will have to purchase underglaze colors and a soft fire 
glaze ready prepared. A very hard over glaze fire might do but possibly more 
heat might be needed. 

L. S. — We should rather prefer the entire set painted in one design of 
gold outlined in black. A cream tint on the ware would add greatly to the 
general effect. Plate nesigns can be enlarged by dividing the large plate 
into the same number of sections as the smaller one, then drawing the orna- 
ment contained in the small section so that it will fit the larger section, see the 
April Keramic Studio. 

B. G. D. — An iron fire pot should be whitewashed as often as it shows 
iron rust or iron spots through the old coat of whitewash, possibly once a 
month. The lime is not likely to injure the china. 

A. W. — A vase which breaks in the kiln usually cracks only, but if it 
falls apart it is likely to break something else, better put your vase where it is 
not likely to fall on anything. It is not likely to explode and scatter pieces — 
but such things are possible, especially with a very imperfect piece. For 
colors in chrysanthemums see Aulich's treatment for his color study in April 
1905 Keramic Studio. 


SHADE blossoms very delicately with Silver Yellow and 
Violet; for centres use Albert's Yellow and Yellow 
Brown and Finishing Brown for stamens. For the middle 

others Moss Green and Dark Green, with a little Red on some 
of them. Keep some of the leaves warm with Ochre and Brown 
and for the others use Moss Green, Brown Green and Dark 

berries use Blood Red and Black, wiping out hghts, and for the Green. 




IN this design the flowers are treated with Violet 2 and 
Copenhagen Grey, with a little Purple Black added for the 
darker touches, for the first fire, and accented with the same 
colors where necessary for the second fire. The background 
should be sufficiently strong for the first fire and is laid in 
with grey and violet with a flush of Yellow Green back of the 

stems and directly under the most prominent flowers. Then 
when sufficiently dry carefully dust with Grey and Purple 
Black with a touch of Dark Green at the lower edge of the 
plate, thus allowing the stems to sink softly into the back- 
ground. The dusting for the first fire is very important, thus 
the edges are softened and a good depth given to the whole plate. 




We beg to call our readers' attention to a correction in 
the ad. of Geo. W. Davis & Co., which was placed on page i 
of the May issue. The price of the plate study for amateurs 
which is accompanied by an imported china plate free, shordd 
be 35c instead of 25c. 

I White China and | 

§ China Decorating Materials. ^ 

SH Send for Oar cNeiv Thirty-Page Catalogue— Free 13 


^ 1212 Chestnut St., PHILADELPHIA ^ 


Robineau Porcelains 

Every piece is unique. 
It cannot be exactly duplicated in color. Every 
piece marked with the monogram AR has been 
entirely made by Mrs. AIsop-Robineau^ from the 
throwing to the glazing. These porcelains are 
especially desirable for a 


The Robiuean pottery is original aud unique. It carries itself as if 
conscious of artistic taste and refined qiiality. It is, in a word, precious, 
and a fit companion of choice silver, rich draperies and dainty books. — 

Prof. Chas. F. Binns in " The Craflsman.'' 

The examples of texture glazes, of transmutation and opalescent 
glazes are excellent, while tlie display of crystalline glazes is most re- 
markable, and one that would be a credit to any factory in the world. — 

A. V. Rose, of Tiffany & Co., in " American Pottery Gazette." 

The Robineau Pottery, Syracuse, N. Y. 

; Or Mrs. AIsop-Robineau, Editor of "Keramic Studio." 



' 5«^5^3ALJNA.ST.^rRACV5^yNX '* 

When you can Save Money by using 


Why not try it? Guaranteed to give satis- 
faction. Covers as mucK surface as any 
g'old on tKe market. .^ '4'Oc everywhere. 
Send 2c postage. 


22-26 E. Randol|)h 8t. CI1ICAGO 

Telephone 4139 Spring Established J 860 

WARRIN e> »0N 


Decorators of Tableware 


Firing and Gilding for Amateurs, 

How about that Renewal ? 
Send for ** Inducement to Old Subscribers, etc." 


opporluDily for Readers of Keramic Studio lo oblain a copy of (lie new series (now prepariiiii^ 



The edition is strictly limited, will not be reprinted in any form, 
and but a small number of copies have been allotted for introductory 

This is the most beautiful and expensively made of all the exquisite 
productions from the International Studio Press: i.s a veritable Edition 
de Luxe in all respects, covering Representative Art of To day in most 
perfect Facsimile Oil, Water Colour and Pastel ; and Mezzotints, Etch- 
ings, etc., from Original Plates. The work of artists of distinction is 
here presented in a form of highest artistic excellence : in connection 
with which there will be a series of highly important MONOGRAPHS 
by eminent authorities on various branches of Modern Art 

This special introductory offer is purely for the purpose of stimu- 
lating interest in what is conceded by connoisseurs to be the most 
beautiful and artistic periodical published. 



A year of -wHicH -will be included 


Particvilars on receipt of Coupon 

This is a rare OPPORTUNITY- X^^ r ^'^¥>W 

don't miss it 

The International Studio 

Department S. D. 





I^E-E--R T'M 


A_-L-i v^e:- 

C The entire contents of this Magazine are co'bered by the general copyright, and the articles must not be reprinted 'k>ithotd special permission. ] 


League Notes 
Tobacco Plant 
Bowl in Blue and Grey 
Class in Design 
Black Stein 

Rose Design for Plate No. i 

" " " " " 2 

" u « .< ^ 


Rose Plate 

Ceramics at the St. Louis Exposition 

Wild Carrot 


Welsh Rarebit Plate (supplement) 

Studies of Wild Carrot 


Tile Design 

Arbutus or May Flower 

The Crafts— Candlesticks, Old and New 

Exhibition of Y. W. C. A., New York 
Answers to Inquiries 
Baskets by American Indians 
Jewelry at the Exposition 

Answers to Correspondents 

Tile Design 

Study of Roses 

Belle Barnett Vesey 
Eunice Eaton 
Marie Crilley Wilson 
Maud M. Mason 
Frederick Wilson 
Blanche Van Court Schneider 
Fanny Rowell 
Maud Myers 

I. M. Ferris 
Alice Witte Sloan 

Mary Alley Neal 
Olive Sherman 
H. S. Patterson 
Russell Goodwin 
Henrietta Barclay Paist 
Margaret Overbeck 
M. E. Hulbert 

Margaret Postgate 
Henrietta Barclay Paist 






Some Leading Agencies of Keramic Studio 

We take pleasure in mentioning a few of the leading agencies for the sale 
of the Kebamic Studio, where, also, subscriptions may be placed: 

Boston, Mass.— Miss E. E. Page, 286 Boyslton St.; Smith & McCance, 

Old Corner Book Store. 
Brooklyn — ^A. D. Mathew's Sons, Fulton Street. 
Buffalo— Mrs. Filkins, 609 Main Street. 
Chicago — A. H. Abbott & Co.; A. 0. McClurg & Co.; Brentano's; Burley 

Cincinnati— Miss M. Owen, 245 Elm Street; A. B. Cloason, 110 W. 4th St. 

Traxel & Maas, 4th Street, near Elm. 
Cleveland, Ohio — Vinson & Korner, 150 Eublid Ave. 
Colunibus, Ohio — -Lee Roessler, 116 So. High Street. 
Denver, Colo.^ — H. R. Meininger, 409 16th Street. 
Detroit, Mich.— L. B. King & Co.; Art China Co. 
Hartford, Ct.— E. M. Sill. 
Grand Rapids, Mich.— Miller, Wolfe Co. 
Indianapolis, Ind. — ^Keramic Supply Co., Lemcke Building. 
Kansas City, Mo. — Emery, Bird, Thayer Co.; Geo. B. Peck Co. 

Minneapolis, Minn. — Minn. Art China Co., 607 1st Ave. So.; Elizabeth 

Hood, 18 W. 6th St., St. Paul, Minn. 
New York City — Brentano's, Union Square; M. T. Wynne's, 11 E. 20th 

St.; The Fry Art Co., 11 E. 22d St.; Wanamaker's; American News Co.; 

J. B. Ketcham, 107 W. 25th Street. 
Newark, N. J. — Keramic Novelty Co. 
Oakland, Cal. — Smith Bros. 
Omaha, Neb. — Megeath Stationery Co. 
Philadelphia — Wanamaker's . 
Pittsburgh, Pa. — Otto Schaffer & Bros.; Kurtz, Langbein & Schwartz; 

R. S. Davis & Co., 346 Fifth Ave.; John G. Yergan, 420 Penn Ave. 
San Francisco — ^Mrs. M. E. Perley, 207 Post Street. 
St. Louis— F. Weber & Co.; A. S. Aloe & Co. 
Syracuse — ^Wolcott Book Shop; Welch & HoUings worth; W. Y. Foote; 

A. L. Varhey & Co., 336 S. Salina Street. 
Toronto — The Art Metrbpole. 
Washington, D. C.-— -Wood & Lothrop. 

The Magazine may also be ordered from any news dealer or book store 
in this country, who can procure it through the American News Company, 
New York, or its branches. 

Vol. VII, No. 3 


July 1905 

GAIN we have met with disap- 
pointment in the naturaHstic work 
sent in for the July competition. 
Surely the feeling for this line of 
work must be dying out in spite of 
the occasional letters of remon- 
strance received from certain sub- 
scribers who feel that we do not 
give enough prominence to the 
naturalistic. We try to give every 
one the best we can in their special line and to this end vary 
our competitions to include every branch of decorative 
work. But in the naturalistic problems alone we meet with 
very little enthusiaslii. Most of the best 'work has to be 
thrown out because it is decorative semi-conventional 
treatment and not purely naturalistic. 

These studies of course will be available later when we 
have a competition for a decorative study. But in the 
meantime we must deprecate such expressions as we occas- 
ionally receive accusing us of neglecting the naturalistically 
inclined among our readers. We certainly will give good 
naturalistic studies, when we can get them. But they are 
exceedingly difficult to find as most of the good ceramic 
decorators are too interested in their conventional work 
to make naturalistic studies for competition; they forget, 
perhaps, that it is absolutely necessary for others to have 
good naturalistic studies from which to make convention- 
alizations, although they must make such studies for their 
own work. 

As an illustration of the conflicting elements in china 
decoration which make the editor's life none too easy in 
the effort to please all, we quote without further comment 
a letter received just the other day from one of our dealer 
friends, an article from the New York Times, and an inter- 
view with Mrs. Anna B. Leonard, of New York. 

N. Y., May 13, 1905. 

Keramic Studio Pub. Co. 

GentTvEmen: There are a great many artists complain- 
ing about recent nimibers of the "Studio" — entirely too 
much conventional — and articles entirely foreign to ceram- 
ics. Conventional work, as they say, was a god-send to 
people who are not capable of making an interesting and 
artistic arrangement of flowers, fruits, &c., in the natural- 
istic — and I myself, do not see where horrid nasty bugs and 
such stufi^, comes in, on plates that one eats off of — you 
never see these things in nature, in a clean, well regulated 
home or restaurant, but one does see flowers in profusion. 

Some years ago there was an art book called " ", 

it was a good, interesting book and a fine seller, until it 
separated from art and gave articles on burnt wood, needle 
work, leather work and other sttbjects foreign to its name, 
it then went down gradually but surely, and at last the 

" " was no more. I should hate very much to see 

the same thing happen to the "Studio" — it is a magazine 
which has stood very high amongst china painters, but the 
conventional page after page stuff is lowering its standard 
among artists. 

Pardon the liberty I have taken, but I have a* deep in- 
terest in the "Studio" and my sentiments are voiced by 
hundreds of china painters whom I come in contact with. 

What I have written is intended in all kindness and I 
hope you will not lake offence. Very respectfully, 

" Until very recently few of the decorators of porcelain 
were interested in tableware," Mrs. Leonard said the other 
day. "Vases and ornamental pieces appealed to them far 
more. Beauty in table service has always been a special 
hobby of mine, and I am glad to say that it is finally begin- 
ning to receive the attention it deserves. Not only artists 
but the intelligent public, are at last waking up on this 
subject. It is a field in which reforms are badly needed. 
It seems to me that if people have poor taste in any one 
thing it is sure to be in the china they place on tlieir dining 

" I go into the homes of wealthy families who, so far as 
the hangings and ornaments are concerned, have spent 
money generously and have selected with discrimination 
and good judgment, and I am actually aghast at the dishes 
in which they allow their meals to be served." 

Mrs. Leonard has sincere sympathy with the man who 
objected to his beefsteak being placed on a landscape half 
a mile away. 

" Picture plates, those with naturalistic fish, game and 
fruit painted in the center such as enjoyed a great vogue 
recently, are simply terrible, " she said. " It is never proper 
to put a picture of what we eat on the dish from which we 
arc to partake of it. And a picture of any kind on a piece 
of porcelain sets at defiance all true laws of decoration. 
Kven flowers, though we all love them, should never be 
used in this way. 

"Pri the other hand, flowers, fish, water, ships, dolphins 
and so on, are used in conventional or decorative designs 
upon porcelain with charming effect. The conventional 
design may suggest nature, but it never seeks to portray it. 
It has a certain rhythm and harmony wliich is very restful. 
We never tire of it as we do of even the best of naturalistic 
designs. While I prefer dinner plates with simply the rims 
decorated, allover designs may be very beautiful, and 
restful also. The old Canton ware shows allover decorations 
in blues and greys which are wonderfully restful." 

Mrs. Leonard arose and brought a blue and white 
platter of old Canton ware from the dining room. It was 
of the famous willow pattern. 

" You see, the spots of color are so well distributed that 
we hardly think of the design as a picture; we do not notice 
whether it is a landscape or a waterscape," she said. "This 
is a landscape treated in a decorative or conventional 
manner. Much of its beauty lies in the liberties which the 
artist has taken in his treatment of nature. One never saw 
a tree like this one. But just fancy how crude and horrible 
this same design would be if painted in natural colors, and 
so as to give the effect of a picture. 

" Here there is no shading. Everything is flat. There 
is no reaching back beyond the surface of the plate. That 



is one of the great principles of all correct designs for por- 
celain whether for table use or not. There must be no 
attempt at perspective — simply the form or silhouette of 
the object. The artist must let nature alone. 

" In the exhibition which our society is holding at the 
National Arts Club at present there is a plate done in a con- 
ventional morning glory design of blues and greens — of 
course not the natural colors of that flower. It is a fine 
example of what such work should be, the background 
spaces being as beautiful as the design itself — a point always 
to be thought of in good porcelain decoration. 

"All the table china shown at this exhibition, while 
beautiful in design, is very quiet in tone — so quiet, indeed, 
that even members of the society have found fault with it. 
'You will never be able to sell it,' they say. However, 
many people who on their first visit have olDJected to its 
simplicity have liked it better when they saw it a second 
time. Its beauty gradually grows upon them. It takes 
time to educate the public taste, and we must be wilhng to 
do a little missionary work, though it does not pay at first. 

"What we are fighting against now is the showy, 
flashy style of decoration which seems to be the most pop- 
ular for table china of all descriptions. The designs are 
generally neither true to nature nor conventional. They 
are over-ornate, in poor taste, and bad in color. Even in 
the most expensive porcelain it is hard to get tableware 
possessing real artistic value. In the cheaper china it is 
well nigh impossible to do so. Until some of the large 
potteries come to our aid by printing decorations which are 
good in outline and color upon their inexpensive wares, we 
cannot hope for any great stride forward in the general 
appreciation of what is best in such things. 

" It is as easy to print a truly beautiful design as a poor 
one ; but the potteries which turn out cheap grades of china 
are unwilling to attempt improved designs. The old ones 
have sold well in the past, and the manufacturers are afraid 
to risk an innovation. This is largely owing to the ignorance 
of the salesmen employed by china houses. There is a 
large carpet firm in this city which requires all its salesmen 
to take a course in design at Columbia University in order 
that they may understand the principles of artistic design- 
ing and be able to explain the good points of the rugs 
intelligently to customers. It would be a splendid thing 
if the firms which handle china would adopt such a plan. 

"Our society, in common with the whole arts and 
crafts movement, is trying to impress upon people that the 
arts come into one's life more by the little things by which 
we are surrounded than by the pictures on our walls. The 
pictures we ma)^ look at once a day or twice a week, but the 
objects of utility we handle and gaze upon continually. It 
is by them that our artistic taste and judgment is uncon- 
sciously molded. 

"Nothing in our homes should be more beautiful than 
the table service. We come in contact with it three times 
a day and during the hours of our intercourse with each 
other. The appointments of the table really influence our 
thoughts. If they are worthy of being talked about, they 
may be a pleasant subject of conversation. I think the 
china should be different for every course of the dinner. One 
set used straight through a meal grows monotonous. For 
my own table I use old Canton ware. Blue and white 
china is always pretty, and much that is very reasonable in 
price is good in design. 

" I would advise people of moderate means to use it in 
preference to any other. There are many difl'erent patterns 
in the blue and white, so that variety can easily be intro- 

duced into such service, but dishes of one design only should 
be placed on the table at a time. 

" In the shapes of tableware, also, there is much im- 
provement to be desired, but with this we can not do much 
at present. No American potters^ turns out really fine 
porcelain for decoration, so artists are obliged to use that 
which is imported from England, Germany and France. 

"The handles of cups and pitchers are always a draw- 
back to the artistic treatment of these, as they invariably 
have the appearance of being stuck on — as, indeed, they are. 
To have the handle of one piece with the article and an 
apparent outgrowth of its form, though artistically correct, 
would increase the cost of its making considerably. 

"Plates, cups and all dishes should, I think, be plain, 
without fluting or embossed work of any description. For 
platters and vegetable dishes silver is better than china. 
It can be heated without injury, and it retains its warmth 
mtich longer." — Neiv York Times interview with Mrs. Anna 
B. Leonard. 


Color design for stein in fruit motif to be accompa- 
nied by detail drawing of motif in pen and ink,. First 
prize, $8.00, second prize, $5.00. Competition closes Sep- 
tember 15th. 


THE exhibition of the study course problems, for the year 
just passed, is a credit to mepibers of the League. 
Some members who do not know the resourcefulness of 
Chicago, were intimidated by the strike, and thus prevented 
from sending at all. The trial exhibitions of the New York 
Society of Keramic Arts, at the National Arts Club, and of 
the Duquesne Ceramic Club, at the Carnegie Gallery, Pitts- 
burg, held necessarily about the same time, prevented the 
installation of those exhibits with the League. 

This seemed to us, while placing our pieces, an "ill 
wind", but it has blown good to all. All three exhibitions 
were sufficiently important to create comment in these 
various cities, and as all conformed to our educational plan, 
were eminently successful. While all forms are the same, 
there is an interesting variety of treatment. Convention- 
alized forest and yellow poppy from California; crab-apples, 
land-scapes and tulips from Kansas; oak trees, flowers, fish 
and geometrical arrangements from Maine, Massachusetts, 
Michigan, Illinois, New Jersey and New Orleans, all show 
the originality resiflting from concentration in study. 

Only about one half of all pieces submitted were ac- 
cepted for exhibition at The Art Institute. The criticisms 
were severe but just, but all forms (with one exception) 
conforming to the rules of education, are shipped for com- 
parison. These refused pieces are below the average work 
of the members who submitted them, and give the unpres- 
sion of having been hurried and slighted. For Portland 
were selected choice pieces to fill the space allotted there. 

In adopting an entirely educational feature for exhibi- 
tion purposes, we have entered the art enclosure, where we 
come in contact with an educated, art loving public. Plave 
we strengthened our commercial advantages, or weakened 
them ? 

The relations of Advisory Board members. Proxies, 
Chairmen of Committees, Officers, etc., were such that it 
would have been a pleasure to retain them another year, 
all were faithful, but it was deemed wiser to select new 
representatives, in order to bring more members in closer 



touch with League affairs. Marshal Fry, New York, and 
Evelyn Beachy, Chicago, were re-elected. Mrs. Beachy, 
however, seeing that the work was practically done by local 
members, kindly withdrew in favor of an outside club. 

Belle Barnett Vesey, President. 
Summer address, Island Park, Rome City, Indiana. 


The convention of The National League of Mineral 
Painters, was held May tenth and eleventh in The Art In- 
stitute, Chicago. Ten clubs were represented. The yearly 
reports of officers, delegates, chairman of committees and 
proxies, were listened to with interest. Greater activity 
has been shown in the study course than previously. The 
Treasurer's books show a balance of $383.61. 

Mrs. Cross, chairman of exhibitions, reported space 
secured in the Fine Arts Hall at Portland, Oregon. As this 
is the first time in the history of ceramics that a club has 
been assigned space in which to exhibit with Fine Arts we 
feel that much has been accomplished. 

From the twenty-one nominations for Advisory Board 
members', the following were elected : Mrs. William Smith, 
Newark, N. J.; Mrs. Owens, Detroit, Mich.; Mrs. Culp, San 
Francisco, Cal.; Mrs. A. A. Robineau, Syracuse, N. Y. ; 
Miss Cowen, Pittsburg, Pa., and Marshal Fry, New York. 

Miss Mary Chase Perry was re-elected Chairman of 
Education. A unanimous vote of thanks was given the editor 
and publishers of the Keramic Studio for the space so gener- 
ously given in that magazine to the League. 

M- Ellen EnglEharT, Rec. Sec'y. 


THE Chicago Ceramic Art Association have just closed 
their annual exhibition at the Art Institute, Chicago. 
The exhibit of The National League of Mineral Painters 
was held at the same time, making one of the best exhibits 
of ceramic art that has been shown in Chicago. The 
exhibit though small, was choice. 

Among some of the best things shown, was the flat 
enamel work of Mrs. A. A. Frazee. Mr. Campana's work 
showed the master hand of an artist. Mrs. Evelyn Beachy 
showed three good pieces in under glaze effect. Mrs. M. J. 
Coulter was very well represented by her usual good work 
on over glaze. Also some charming effects in hand built 

The Club has adopted the National League study 
course, and the pottery would do credit to much older 

workers. The Club is expecting to exhibit again this fall 
with The Arts and Crafts Society, at the Art Institute. 
The Club will have its annual outing about the middle of 
June, at Terracotta, where the beautiful Teco pottery is 
made. Mr. Ckitcs, the originator and owner][of same, is a 
member of the "C. C. A. A." 


Eunice Eaton 

Fruni a German Study 

Motif for tobacco jar problem for November competition. 
The variety with the large white|_flower is the most deco- 
rative. This flower is pinkish. 





























The larger part of Miss Mason's class work was shown 
in the June Keramic Studio. We regret that space did 
not permit showing it altogether as it deserves to be studied 
as a whole. 


_-\L'±.l^JA MURRAY 








Blanche Van Court Schneider 

WITH black paint carefully draw two lines one-sixth of an 
inch apart encircling the stein about an inch and a half 
from the top. Paint the roses with Rose for the first firing 
and suggest the leaves and background with Yellow Brown 
and Brown Green, keeping all light and soft. Paint the base 
of the stein black using any good powder black. Apply as 
eventy as possible stippling if necessary. Paint narrow band 
and handle in gold. 

For the second firing, strengthen the light roses with a 
suggestion of American Beauty, and paint the dark rose with 
this same color, with a touch of Ruby in center. Accent the 
leaves with the same greens used in the first painting, and again 
apply the black paint to the lower part of stein. Let this 
dry until it is ready for dusting. If painted in the afternoon 
it should be ready to dust the next morning, then powder 
evenly with the black used in painting. 

Again apply gold and fire. Add detail to flowers in third 
fire if necessary 

If* «f 


Fanny Roivell 

"How can we use lustres so we get the finished result 
without spots ? ' ' 

Dry the lustres immediately after they are placed on 
the china, and manage your work so you may avoid dust. 
Half dry lustres are as ready to collect dust as the oils we 
use with mineral colors. Though the work may go into the 
kiln looking all right, every particle of dust that has rested 
on the lustre develops a mark that looks like the prick of a 
pin. Dust is much more disastrous to lustres than to 
mineral paints. Countless pin pricks dotted over a surface 
are as tantalizing a difficulty as we are likely to meet with 
in lustres, and what to do with it is most perplexing to 
the beginner, who cannot imagine how they came there. 

Dry the lustres so there may be no wet surfaces to 
attract the dust. You may reply that it dries too quickly 
anyway. It certainly does dry so a tint cannot be padded 
further, a very few moments after it has been placed, but 
it is not positively hard and dry. If you touch it you will 
find it is slightly sticky. It will remain so for hours. It 
must be firmly dry immediately if you expect to have fine 
results. Whether it has been tinted or merely painted on, 
dry in an oven that is near the work, and an oven that may 
be lifted on and off a gas stove is better than a stationery 

one that is used for other purposes. The top of the oven 
must be ventilated so steam may escape. It is not sufiicient 
ventilation to leave the door open. As steam rises, if it 
does not find a way to escape, it falls back on the china, and 
wherever lustre is, makes tiny spots, and so many of them, 
countless as the stars are on a cold clear winter's night. 
These bits of moisture may also dash back in a kiln, if it is 
not sufficiently ventilated to allow escape. 

Usually in a kiln there is, at any rate, a great deal of 
moisture from colors and golds, just as the heat begins to 
come you can see the moisture escaping from the air valve. 
If it were kept in you can imagine how sadly it would spoil 
your plans as to the development of perfect lustres. 

The reason why we like a portable stove is that after the 
lustre has been dried the oven may be lifted off for the 
china to cool, and the work not removed until it is cool 
enough to handle carefully. Pulling hot china out of an 
oven is apt to mar it, and there is also a risk of breaking the 
china by suddenly bringing it into contact with cool air. 
But a stationery gas oven may be used by turning off the 
gas and letting the china cool. 

An oven in the studio is useful too in drying gold or 
partially drying work that is to be grounded. I make a 
point to tell the way to use an oven because I have seen 
people go about it in such odd ways. Take for instance 
the handling of a plate that has a fresh lustre border. Push 
it into the oven and pull it out again, with the help of a 
paint rag, and you will probably find that you have pressed 
against the surface, and that the lustres stick. You cannot 
handle hot lustres any more than wet lustres, for until the 
china is cool the lustre is moist. But as the china cools the 
lustres become as hard as a rock. Do not make too hard 
work of doing all this, just use good practical common 
sense in the way you handle china and the way you dry the 
lustres. The intelligent comprehension of deftness, and 
extreme neatness conquer the chief difficulty of handling 

Be direct in the way you place lustres. Your china is to 
be perfectly clean, of course, before you begin, and you know 
just where in the design you want to put certain lustres. 
Have the bottles in holes in a box, or in some other way, 
very firm so they will not tip over at a crucial moment. A 
block of wood with holes cut the size, of the lustre bottles is 
the best kind of case to hold your equipment of lustres. 
Use a large flat sable brush for laying on borders or large 
surfaces. You are to lay on the wash rapidly so it will 
scarcely dry while you go round a border and edges may meet 
and combine without a rough line of heavier color. If you 
are very deliberate it will never do, and if you go over it, 



to make it a little better, touching here and there, and 
pulling up the color, you had best take it off all and com- 
mence again. 

But daubing in and out is uncertain work. As the 
lustres are very much the same yellowish grey color, a light 
shade before the kiln develops them, and not nearly so 
strong as they become, it is quite easy to suppose the sur- 
face clean and free from lustre when it is not. It is well to 
remember that lustres cannot be painted over unfired 
lustres. Any little unobserved particles cause blemish in 
the fired work. 

Then keep your hands off it. How everybody wants to 
touch china. Even in working at it we touch it too much. 
Study deftness in handling, with no touching of the sur- 
face. When dried and cool wrap the china in tissue paper, 
and fire as soon as possible. But, if before firing, you think 
dust may have rested on the china, wipe oft" with a soft silk 

Use any brushes for any colors, even gold brushes or 
painting brushes, only be sure they are clean and dry. 
You need not have a great array of brushes. Wash them 
by dipping in turpentine or alcohol, when they are dry they 
are ready for use again. When you have finished for the 
day, after using the turpentine or alcohol wash which removes 
the color, wash freely with soap and water, exactly as you 
would brushes used for oil painting. This keeps the hairs soft 
and same as when new. Point carefully, or flatten as the 
shape of the brushes may require. Turpentine and many 
of the mediums we use in mineral painting, make the brushes 
coarse and hard. Thoroughly cleaning with soap and 
water preserves them and keeps them so we may enjoy 
using them. Do not have brushes labeled and kept for 
special lustres. It is only confusing. Keep them all so 
clean that they may be used for any lustres. As you should 
not use a brush until dry, it is not of any consequence 
whether it be turpentine or alcohol with which you wash 
out the colors. 

If finger marks leave blurs and creases you may be 
sure that hairs that may escape from the brushes will be 
damaging too. The placing of lustres needs more dainty 
management than any other material of mineral painting. 

Wet brushes will change the color of the lustres. It 
may be remedied after firing by a second application of same 
lustre, though of course the color deepens. Light green 
and dark green are especially apt to change in first firing 
either from this cause or by gases in the kilns, but a second 
application of same lustre makes them even in tint. 

Lustres should have strong firings to make them 
permanent. Underfired lustres may be refired without 
retouching. As lustres do not enter into the glaze, but re- 
main on the surface, as gold does, they are, like gold, Hable 
to wear off. So give them as strong firing as possible to insure 
wearing quality. It can scarcely be fired too strong. It 
is beautiful and I he colors carry perfectly in a firing even so 
strong that gold is burnt off. Do not be tempted because 
the lustres develop very quickly, to put them in the part of 
the kiln that gives the lightest fire. Although they com- 
mence to develop in even the small heat of a gas oven, they 
need the strongest kind of firing to insure permanency. 
I find opal one of the best wearing colors, a permanent one. 
Even the glass burnisher used ever so hard has no effect 
upon it. The best way to use opal is to paint it on thin. 
Use china that is rounding, not with perfectly plain surfaces. 
A tile would not be the best surface to bring out the beautiful 
qualities of lustre, nor would a flat rimmed plate. Shapes 
that are modeled and carved suit iridescent colors best. 
Opal used very heavily develops yellow spots that are too 
strong to be charming. Unless it is to be padded, paint the 
opal lustre thin, even if it must have two applications and 
two firings. 

When several paintings of lustre are put on the same 
surface fight lustres should be placed over the dark ones. 
Light lustres such as yellow or orange, opal or even light 
green, if you want a greenish tint, develop the best irides- 


Plate with narrow border is to have pink roses on a gold background. 



cent qualities of other lustres. A dark lustre over a light 
one simply amounts to about the same thing as if there were 
nothing underneath, but the thin Hght ones bring out 
greater radiancy in the dark lustres. The darkest effects 
are secured by putting on several washes of black lustre, 
and one of ruby, of course with a separate firing for each 
color, or wash. Finish by a wash of yellow lustre over all. 
In striving for dark effects, do not think that thick washes 
of color will help you. If you have ever found a film over 
lustres you may know it results from having used lustres too 
heavily. A thick wash of yellow lustre becomes semi- 
opaque, while merely a thin wash beautifies it all. 

When lustres rest within a crevice heavily they will not 
craze like a color, but will peel off like flour, leaving white 
china. Repaint with a thin wash. 

Freak things appear in lustres that can be accounted for 
only by gases in the kiln, and sometimes they are highly 
artistic. They may be radiant bits of colour that we cannot 
duplicate or repeat. These I would keep and cherish. 
If everything goes wrong with the work, however, you can 
take it off with eraser, and take off all the extraordinary 
finger marks that in some way have appeared at the same 
time. Use the eraser instead of the deadly hydrofluoric. 

But perhaps they will generally go right. The first 
colors look crude, but fine finish works wonders. The 
lustres are a very fascinating element in mineral painting, 
both in the results and the pleasure of producing them. 
They should always be used in designs so they make contrasts 
with colors. Making' a much higher glaze than colors they 
need to be toned down. Colors or gold may be placed over 
fired or unfired lustres. This gives opportunity to im- 
prove upon the coloring. Opaque grounds may be put over 
lustres as well as if the china were white, as there is nothing 
in the lustres to absorb the pigments. 

Silver lustre, the only opaque one, is like platinum, of 
itself too cold, too dead in eft'ect to be desirable for china. 

Use it as a foundation color, and enhance its value by paint- 
ing over with some other color, ruby or dark green, and 
with a final wash of opal or yellow. That beautiful yet 
somewhat illusive thing — success — that we are so earnestly 
striving for, is possible even with lustres. They are not 
unreliable, but are whimsical enough to keep from being 
monotonous; while we work with them, cleanliness, avoid- 
ence of dust, quick drying, strong firing, and an artistic 
sense of their fitness, insure success with lustres. 

One reason why keramic workers have been so suc- 
cessful is that they have painted beautiful things, things 
that people want and that enter into their daily lives and 
make home beautiful. Lustres are beautiful in themselves, 
not a fad of the moment. Strong individuality may be 
developed in their use. We do not all want to decorate 
alike, nor to paint and design the same things. To succeed 
in art we must be ourselves, do what we feel compelled and 
inclined to do, what is in our heart to do, not being slav- 
ish followers of others. Let us study technique, and de- 
sign, then be ourselves in our own work. 


The River School at Washington 'sCrossing, New Jersey 
will be open from July 12 to August 18, under the instruc- 
tion of Richard Farley, painting; Myra Burr Fdson, design, 
and Charlotte Busck, applied design. 

The Summer School of arts and crafts at Port Sher- 
man, Lake Michigan, will be open from July 5 to August 
30. The instructors are Forrest Emerson Mason, Burton 
A. Marr, Judson Decker and Elizabeth Troeger. 

The Alfred Summer School of Pottery, Alfred, N. Y., 
will open July 5th and continue until August 15th, under 
the direction of Charles F. Binns. 


Narrow gold band on edge of plate, pink rose and two of deeper tone, should be painted in for first fire; pink ones 
with Carnation; deeper ones with Rose and Roman Purple mixed, second fire, tint band with light green, give roses 
wash of rose, foliage delicate greens. 




Lightest flowers peach blossom and retouched in second fire with Rose and Ashes of Roses. Dark ones Ruby shaded 
with Purple Black. Background Ivory in lightest places with i\.ir Blue toward the edge. In dark places Royal Green, 
Dark Green and Copenhagen Blue. Dust when nearly dry for first fire and if wanted very dark dust also in second fire. 


heramic studio 


Roses and buds a soft tone of orange shaded with red. Leaves green. Background pale dull yellow. Black portions brown. 

Jdly 1905 

Supplement to 


RAREBIT PLATE— H. s. Patterson 








THE foreign exhibits of pottery and porcelains were, per- 
haps, more instructive to Americans than any of our 
home products, being the outcome of quite different methods 
of study and different attitudes of mind both in choice of 
medium and in modes of expression. What was particu- 
larly impressive was the remarkable exhibits of school 
work in all the arts and crafts, especially pottery. In the 
Austrian section the Imperial and Royal school of Arts and 
Crafts of Prague, George Stibral, director, sent some most 



clever work by pupils of Professor Kloucek. The pottery 
is rather heavy in effect but forceful and looks to be hand- 
built. Most of the pieces illustrated are different expres- 
sions of the same motif and for that reason are unusually 

From the Brazilian section ten vases, the work of E. 
Visconti, Rio de Janeiro, were most unique and unex- 
pectedly artistic in design and color. Unfortunately we 
were unable to obtain photographs, but the general effect 
was a reminiscence of the "Art de la Ceramica " illustrations 
in Keramic Studio after the Pan-American. 




Mary Alley Neal 

AvS this wild flower is sometimes called the Queen's lace 
handkerchief, it is suggestive of soft lace-like edges melt- 
ing into the background. The best way to procure this effect, is 
to paint your background first with an oil (Balsam of Copaiba) 
that will keep your color open a long time to give you the 
opportunity for working your flowers into it while still wet and 
blending the edges with a pad. Take for instance a vase: 
After drawing in your design commence with Shading Green 
and a little Royal Purple to grey it, then Copenhagen Blue and 
Apple Green and Violet, then Grey Green towards the bottom, 
using Balsam of Copaiba at once for the flowers and Ivory for 
lightest tones, adding Yellow or Apple Green for the light 
green tones and Copenhagen Blue, Violet and Apple Green 
for the shadow side softening into the backgrounds, painting 
some shadow blossoms right into the background, and wiping 
out or painting in leaves and stems with Apple Green and 
Violet blending into the background at the base. Now put 
in your darkest touches with Shading Green, Brown Green 
and Violet, and take out your high lights sharp and clear in 
the distinct little single flower forms that go to make up your 
broad mass. As your background is of grey greens, cold 
in tone, your flowers should be warm in tone on the light side 
and a warm yellow and yellow green should predominate 
with the soft grey greens in shadows. When dry, dust with 
same colors used in painting. In the second fire you will have 
to darken the backgrotmd and work in a little more detail 
to the flowers and accent the stems and leaves. 



The golden brown mottled glaze stoneware jar attrib 
uted to Mr. Whalley in the account of the N. Y. Societ> 
exhibition was the work of Miss Maria Jordan of Portland, 
Me. The plate attributed to Mrs. Price was the work of 
Mrs. Marie Crilley Wilson. 


Helen S. Palterson 

TINT the entire plate a deep cream tint, using Yellow 
Ochre with a touch of black. After firing execute 
the design in two shades of Delft Blue, making the darkest 
tone a trifle purplish by adding a touch of Ruby Purple. 
The darker tone may have to be gone over in a third 





Tint cream, blossoms white,, stems and leaves grey green, 
top of seeds pale brown. 






IN colors — Make the slcj^ a strong IdIuc (Deep Blue Green) 
and the ground the color of j'ellow sand (Yellow Ochre 
with shadows of Copenhagen and Sepia), the trunks of the 
trees grey (Copenhagen shaded with Black) and the foliage a 
strong grey green, use Shading or Dark Green, Moss Green and 
Black. If in monotone , tones of green , grej^ or hrown are pleasing. 


Margaret Overbeck 

Ground and center square a dull light mahogany tint, 
design in two shades of Olive Green with violet spots in 
eyes, outlines a dark cream tint. 






THE buds and outsides of the flowers are pink and the 
inside white, showing a httle pink on the edges of the 
petals. The leaves are glossy, brownish green and rather 
thick and the stems a reddish brown. 

For China — Use Rose color. Lemon Yellow, Brown 
Green and Ochre for the flowers, and Deep Blue Green, 

Moss Green, Brown Breen and Chestnut and Finishing 
Brown for the leaves and Chestnut and Finishing Brown 
and Pompadour for the stems. 

For Water Color — Crimson Red, Lemon Yellow, 
Hooker's Green 1 and 2, Olive Green, Burnt Sienna, Brown 



Under the vianagevient of Miss Emily Peacock, Karol Shop, 22 East i6th St., Neiv York. All inquiries in regard to the various 
Crafts are to be sent to the above address, but will be answered in the magazine under this head. 

All questions must he received before the 10th day of month preceding issue and will be answered under "Answers to Inquiries" only. Please do not .'send stamped 

envelope for reply. The editors will answer questions only in these columns. 



THE candlesticks of our forefathers find their homes to- 
day in pleasant places. Many of them are worthy of 
the veneration shown them. Take for instance, Figure 3. 
The tallest candlestick is old English probably about the 
end of the 17th century. The other one is also old English. 
In Fig. I and 2 are specimens of Italian, French, old 
American, and the two small ones are probably Russian. 
Each one is characteristic of its period and has great charm 
and beauty. 

The new candlesticks illustrated were made by Mr. 
Robert Jarvie, who has lately learned for him.self the sobri- 
quet of "The Candlestick Maker." Some years ago Mr. 
Jarvie became interested in the making of a lantern, which 

after some difficulty in obtaining material, he finished. 
The work of this one lantern appealed to him so strongly 
that he very soon made himself a master of the subject of 
interior illumination. The making of a candlestick suc- 
ceeded that of the lantern and in the following illustrations 
we give a few of his characteristic productions. 






The great charm of these candlesticks is their simple 
dignity and restful finish. Many of them are cast in brass 
and copper, pohshed so that the metal is left with a dull 
glow, others are treated with acids to produce antique 
effects. Some of them are spun, and some are made by 
hand, each one vieing with the other for utility and 
beauty, showing the work of a craftsman who labors 
equally with hand and brain. The old candlesticks were 
kindly loaned to us for reproduction by Mrs. W. T. Bush, 



A RECENT despatch from Rome, Italy, states that ex- 
cavations near Pompeii have resulted in the discovery 
of a human skeleton, and near it, of four solid-gold bracelets 
of beautiful design, set with emeralds; a pair of large 
Oriental pearl earrings, two golden necklaces set with pearls 
and emeralds, and two emerald rings. 

The articles of jewelry are of the Roman Pompeiian 
epoch, and are of great artistic value. 



M. C. Drake — The lead lines on lamp shades are colored green by first 
being covered with a copper plating; then that is oxidized with a solution, 
which any copper plater will supply. 

W. D. K. — Gold leaf is applied to leather with Finishers' glaire and a 
heated tool. The glaire is made from the well beaten white of an egg diluted 
with half its quantity of white vinegar and allowed to stand. Wherever the 
blind impression is to be co^i^ered with the gold leaf the glaire is painted on 
with a very pointed brush and after a few moments the gold leaf is put on. 
The heated tool is applied over the gold. 

H. M. — The best grades of Russian calf skin, ooze calfskin, or split cow- 
hide are best for modeling Sheepskin does not model well. 




The Young Women's Christian Association, East 15th 
Street, New York, held their annual exhibition in their 
studios May 31st. The work of the students under the 
direction of Miss A. S. Walker and Miss H. Turner, showed 
improvement on that of the previous year. Particularly 
interesting was the work in clay. A large Jardiniere with 
Greek reliefs, a medaUion of Dante by Miss A. N. Lee, ink- 
stands by Miss Squire, Miss Newell and Mrs. Green, and a 
sun dial by Miss Beebe. Some of the students had modeled 
in clay several very attractive door knockers, those by Miss 



M. B. Jones and Miss Alma Kraus, are illustrated. From 
the work in wood carving we give the side panel of a desk 
by Miss Ida M. Foster designed from illustrations in Du 
Chaillu's Viking Age. The general Norse treatment is 
carried through the desk. 

Miss Turner has lately started a class in embroidery, 
and the portfolio cover in Russian Homespun embroidered 
in dull blues and greens, by Miss M. B. Jones, shows a very 
good beginning. 

The Jury, Mr. Marshal Fry and Mr. F. W. Belknap, 
made the following awards : 

Morning Class — First Year Scholarship, Sylvia A. 
WiUiams; Honorable mention, Mimi Kohlmann; Advanced 


Scholarship, Grace Remolds ; Honorable mention, Ao-nes 
N. Lee. 

Evening Classes — Costume Drawing — Scholarship, 
Marie Bchrendt; Honorable mention. Marguerite Newmann 
and Helen Rail. 

General Art Class- First Scholarship, Ida Foster 
fwood carving); Second Scholarship, Helen Fuchs (em- 
broidery)- Divided, Katerine Bittokhte. 

together in pairs and one twined about the other. There 

is no attempt at any thin 
elsewhere in this example. 

but plain over two weaving 


Ship designs from Du Chaillu's Viking Age. The cover 
has a combat between horsemen. 

if *f 

BASKET making was a common industrj- with all the 
Indians of the American continent. In the north 
baskets were and still are made, and we know of their 
manufacture by the Indians of Carolina, Virginia, Georgia 
and Louisiana. Baskets have also been found among the 
Mound Builders. In the ruins of Southern Colorado and 
that interesting region of Arizona and New Mexico some of 
the prehistoric graves contain so many baskets as to give 
their occupants the name of The Basket Makers. 

Indian basketry is almost entirely the work of Indian 
women and among primitive arts, furnishes the most 
striking illustration of their inventive genius, resourceful- 
ness and wonderful patience. As Dr. Otis S. Mason says, 
a careful stud}^ of the homely occupations of savage women 
is the best guide to their share of creating the aesthetic arts; 
whether in the two Americas or in the heart of Africa or 
among the people of Oceanica the perpetual astonishment 
is not the lack of art, but the superabundance of it. 

Some of the oldest known specimens of Indian basketry 
are woven. The beautiful cigar case (Fig. 1) was made by 
the women of Bolivia who weave the celebrated Panama 
hats, the texture being fine twilled work. The ornamenta- 
tion should be studied carefully for it consists of twined 
weaving in which both warp and weft strands are brought 








To the student of technology it is charming to read in 
this connection from Ure's Dictionary, the labored descrip- 
tion of twilled loom work, with its hundreds of parts in the 
climax of a series of inventions initiated with savage 
women's figures. 

Twill or tweel. A diagonal appearance given to a 
fabric by causing the tweft threads to pass over one warp 
thread, and then under two and so on instead of taking the 
warp threads in regular succession one down and one up. 
The next weft thread takes a set oblique to the former 
throwing up one of the two deposed by the preceeding. 
In some twills it is one in three, or one in four. 

Numerous fabrics are woven in this way, satin, blanket, 
merino, etc.. When the threads cross each alternately in 
regular order it is called plain weaving, and basket makers 
of to-day also use the term braided, but in twill the same 
thread of weft is flushed or separated from the warp while 
passing over a number of warp threads and then passes 
under a warp thread as in the covered baskets. Fig. 2 and 3, 
made by the Saqui Indians of Northern Mexico, from the 
collection of Dr. A. Hedhcka. They are made of palm 
leaf strips in twilled weaving. Hundreds of these baskets 
are woven of various sizes and packed in nests and are the 

common receptacle for all sorts of articles among the Saqui. 
Especial attention is called to Fig. 3 as it is an excellent 
example of double weaving. Strips of palm leaf are 
worked in the pairs, the upper side of the leaf being outer- 
most. At any moment however, these strips may be 
separated and each member of the pair do service for warp 
and weft separately. The Saqui of Somora, Mexico, says 
Palmer, split the stems of arundinaria for basketry by 
pounding them carefully with stones. The reeds divide 
along the lines of least resistance into splints of varying 
width which are assorted and used in different textures. 

Fig. 4 represents the work of the Chetimachan Indians, 
who have their home on Grande River and the larger part 
of Charenton. They use cane chiefly in their baskets and 
all of their weaving is in the twilled style. 

Fig. 5 represents some baskets from British Guiana, 
these specimens are all of the twilled pattern, wrought from 
a brown vegetable fiber which shows the same on both sides. 
There is an entire lack of gaudy dyes in the Guiana baskets, 
the only colors being the natural hue of the wood, and a 
jet black varnish. Their pack-alls are square generally, 
the baskets and lids are the same shape, the latter being 
larger slip over the former and entirely cover it. Some- 
times the true Caribs make the basket, and lid double, and 




between the two layers of basket work certain leaves are 
inserted to make the whole water-proof. 

The illustrations in this article and mucli of the infor- 


mation, were taken from Aboriginal American Basketry, 
by Dr. Otis S. Mason, Curator of Ethnology, U. S. National 

■ -f -f 

There was not a great deal of jewelry from the Crafts 
shops in this country at the exhibition in vSt. Louis. 
Among other things Francis Barnum had a pierced silver 
pendant set with turquoise and pearls. 

Jean Carson a silver brooch and pendant, James H. 
Winn, a silver brooch with green enamel, a gold scarf pin 
and a silver pendant Fig. 1. The pendant was carved and 
finished with small punches. Translucent enamel was put 
in the open places and the pearl attached. Tlie chain was 

made of two oval links, twisted, cut open and twisted 
again, finished in green gold. 

Mrs. Sears exhibited a gold necklace (Fig. No. 2), set 
with stones and enameled. 


Mrs. F. C. Houston exhibited a silver pendant (Fig. 
No. o,j set witli chalcedony and pierced. 




E. D. — Enamels blister usually from tuo much oil in the mixture or from 
too rapid drying. The kiln always has a belter draft if the chimney is high. 
If in the cellar and coiiinuniicating with a flue in the house chinmey the draft 
should be gofid, as the cliiiiiney would be tlien |)n>bably two to three stories 
high; good firing has been done with a short chimney but it is safer to liavc 
as much as possible. A damper in the pipe is a good thing as it can be sliul 
after turning out the kiln and will keep the kiln from cooling too rapidly, 

B. L. K.— ;-F'or a shaving set, an Indian design would be appropriate in 
soft colors. Buff, black, dull red, with perhaps a touch of blue or green, on a 
light tan ground. For a loving cup, any conventionalized floral or fruit 
motif would be appropriate, or cupids done in the fiat with (jullincs and 
arranged in a design. 

G. W. M. — We have never tried a mat color over a glazed color. \'ou 
had ttctter make an experiment on a broken bit the next time you fire. We 
would hardly think a lighter mat could be made to cover a darker color. 
We would Ise interested to hear the result of your experiment. 

In mixing two mat colors, it would be best to rub them down lhon,>uglily 
with alcohol, then when dry, which will be very soon, the mixture can be 
easily powdered again for ground laying. The Royal Worcester finish and 
others of the same kind are put on the white china to make a dull finish, but 
if glazed colors are used over it, even after firing, they will show a higher gloss 
than the ground. This finish can not be mixed satisfactorily with overglaze 
colors. The mat colors are hardly suitable for painting. They are used 
chiefly for tinting or grounding in conventional work in combination with 
gold work. Use the Hard or Unfluxed gold over raised paste, two good coats 
are generally enough, but it is sometimes necessary to go over it in a second 



fire — gold can be ajiplied over paste that is tliorouglily dry liul it is safer to 
fire the ]5aste first. 

Liquid Briglit gold is similar to lustre and may be used with or under 
other lustres. 

Etching on china is done by covering the ]iiece with wax, drawing the 
design with a steel point and applying Hydrofluoric Acid to the design imtil 
it is eaten out. It is a dangerous piece of work, if you wish further directions 
let us know and we will give them in these columns. 

We consider the No. 6 Revelation Kiln the best size for studio use — the 
larger the size the better the firing will be. The only dilTerence Isetween the 
difterent numbers is the size and the fact that the firing is more even in a 
larger kiln. The nnilTies wear very well with a little repairing from time to 
time with fire clav. 



Marijairt Po^^tgafc 
Background Oriental Ivory; Desiii;n Empire (rrecn. 


Henyictta Barclay Paist 

List of colors to be used — Carmine 53 (Dresden), Rubv 
Purple (Fry's or Lacroix), Russian Green (Fry's or Bisch- 
off's), Albert Yellow (Fry's or Dresden), Yellow Ochre 
(Dresden), Copenhagen Blue (Dresden, Bischoff or Fry), 
White Rose (Bischoff's or Fry's), Moss Green J., Dark 
Green, Brown (Fry's or Lacroix), Gold Gre>' (add Carmine 
to Copenhagen). 


The Osgood Art School has removed to a more desirable 
location at 4G West 21st Street, between Fifth and Sixth 
Avenues, New York Citv. 


/ ^V 






Same treatment may be used as No. 2, except that the lower band should be of a deeper shade of green than band, or of gold. 



I White China and | 

^ China Decorating Materials. ^ 

S— Send for Oar cH^hu Thirty-Page Catalogue — Free 13 


^ 1212 Chestnut St., PHILADELPHIA ^ 


Robineau Porcelains 

Every piece is unique. 
It cannot be exactly duplicated in color. Every 
piece marked with the monogram AR has been 
entirely made by Mrs. AIsop-Robineau, from the 
throwing to the glazing. These porcelains are 
especially desirable lor a 


Tlie Robineau pottery is original and unique. It carries itself as if 
conscious of artistic taste and refined quality. It is, in a word, precious, 
and a fit companion of clioice silver, rich draperies and dainty books. — 
Prof. Chas. F. Biniis in " The C'raflsman." 

The examples of texture glazes, of transmutation aud opalescent 
glazes are excellent, wliile tlie display of crystalline glazes is most re- 
markable, and one that would be a credit to any factory in the world. — 

A. V. Roue, of Tiffany & Co., in " Avierican Poltery Gazette." 

The Robineau Pottery, Syracuse, N. Y. 

Or Mrs. AIsop-Robineau, Editor of "Keramic Stndio." 




^ ETTABLLmED 1887 / 

Free Catalogue. 

D. n. CAMPANA, I 12 Audiforium BIdg., Chicago, III. 

Telephone 4 J 39 Spring Established J 860 



Decorators of Tableware 


Firing and Gilding for Amateurs. 


opporluniiy for Readers o! Keramic Sludio to oblain a copy of llie new series I now preparing i 



The edition is strictly limited, will not be reprinted in any form, 
and but a small number of copies have been allotted for introductory 

This is the most beautiful and expensively made of all the exquisite 
productions from the International Studio Press ; is a veritaljle Edition 
de Luxe in all respects, covering Representative Art of Today in most 
perfect Facsimile Oil, Water Colour and Pastel; and Mezzotints, Etch- 
ings, etc., from Original Plates. The work of artists of distinction is 
here presented in a form of hiahest artistic excelleiice-: in (•onnection 
withwiiich there will be a series of highly important MONOCtRAPH.S 
by eminent authorities on various branches of Modern Art 

This special introductory offer is purely for the inirpose of stimu- 
lating interest in what is conceded by connoisseurs to be tlie must 
beautiful and artistic periodical published. 


A year of "w^HicK -will be included 


Particulars on receipt of Coupon 

This is a rare OPPORTUNITY 
don't miss it 

The International Stndio 

Department S. D. 



t^EL.EL.T> 'X'M 

F^l R-l 

^V^UI V^EI-. 


MRS. K. E. CHERRY u» \^ j» 
MRS. A. B. LffiNAU j» > j* 
MR. G. H. ROBINSON > .?• ^ 



AUG. MCMV Price 35c. Yearly Subscription $3.50 

A noMTHLY nmmi m tmepotter amd DEcoRftroR- 

t The entire contents of this Magazine are coiereJ by the general copyright, ami the articles mast not be reprinted laithout special permission. ] 



Early Indian Pottery 


Ceramics at St. Louis Exposition (continued) 

Wild Rose Design— cup and saucer 

Butterfly Plate 

Study of Phlox 

Fish Platter (second prize) 

Crabapple Pitcher (supplement) 

Spanish Needle 

Cup and Saucer 

Fruit Plate 

Pink Begonia 

Flower Box in Tiles 

Lilium Philadelphicum 

Fish Platter (third prize) 

Gooseberry Plate 

Studio Notes 

Gold Locks 

Milk Pitcher 

Sagittaria Design for Plate 

The Crafts — Wood Carving, chap. 3 

June Exhibition Pratt Institute 
Answers to Correspondents 

C. H. Robinson 
Hannah Overbeck 

Edith Alma Ross 
Emma A. Ervin 
Russell Goodwin 
Minna Meinke 
K. E. Cherry 
Austin Rosser 
C. Babcock 
A. B. Lienau 
Emma A. Ervin 
Alice Witte Sloan 

Mary Overbeck 
Louise M. Smith 

K. E. Cherry 
Alice B. Sharrard 
Katherine Sinclair 
Elizabeth Saugstad 







Some Leading Agencies of Keramic Studio 

We take pleasure in mentioning a few of the leading agencies for the sale 
of the Keramic Studio, where, also, subscriptions may be placed: 

Boston, Mass.— Miss E. E. Page, 286 Boyslton St.; Smith & McCance, 

Old Corner Book Store. 
Brooklyn — A. D. Mathew's Sons, Fulton Street. 
Buffalo— Mrs. Filkins, 609 Main Street. 
Chicago— A. H. Abbott & Co.; A. C. McClurg & Co.; Brentano's; Burley 

Cincinnati— Miss M. Owen, 245 Elm Street; A. B. Closson, 110 W. 4th St. 

Traxel & Maas, 4th Street, near Elm. 
Cleveland, Ohio — Vinson & Komer, 150 Euclid Ave. 
Columbus, Ohio — Lee Roessler, 116 So. High Street. 
Denver, Colo.— H. R. Meininger, 409 16th Street. 
Detroit, Mich.— L. B. King & Co.; Art China Co. 
Hartford, Ct.— E. M. Sill. 
Grand Rapids, Mich.— Miller, Wolfe Co. 
Indianapolis, Ind. — Keramic Supply Co., Lemcke Building. 
Kansas City, Mo. — Emery, Bird, Thayer Co.; Geo. B. Peck Co. 

Minneapolis, Minn. — Minn. Art China Co., 607 1st Ave. So.; Elizabeth 

Hood, 18 W. 6th St., St. Paul, Minn. 
New York City — Brentano's, Union Square; M. T. Wynne's, 11 E. 20th 

St.; The Fry Art Co., 11 E. 22d St.; Wanamaker's; American News Co.; 

J. B. Ketcham, 107 W. 25th Street. 
Newark, N. J. — Keramic Novelty Co. 
Oakland, Cal— Smith Bros. 
Omaha, Neb^Megeath Stationeiy Co. 
Philadelphia — Wanamaker's. 
Pittsburgh, Pa. — Otto Schaffer & Bros.; Kurtz, Langbein & Schwartz; 

R. S. Davis & Co., 346 Fifth Ave.; John G. Yergan, 420 Penn Ave. 
San Francisco— Mrs. M. E. Perley, 207 Post Street. 
St. Louis— F. Weber & Co.; A. S. Aloe & Co. 
Syracuse — Wolcott Book Shop; Welch & HoUingsworth; W. Y. Foote; 

A. L. Vamey & Co., 336 S. Salina Street. 
Toronto — The Art Metropole. 
Washington, D. C. — Wood & Lothrop. 

The Magazine may also be ordered from any news dealer or book store 
in this country, who can procure it through the American News Company 
New York, or its branches. 

Vol. VII, No. 4 


August 1905 

JhE summer days are upon us and 
the editor is wondering if the 
Keramic Studio has made a 
mistake to set any problems for 
competition for the vacation 
months. The work has certainly 
fallen off these last two months and 
if the next is not better, the com- 
petitions as well as the competi- 
tors will take a vacation next sum- 
mer. With such a wealth of material as was given for the 
fish design in Keramic Studio, it seems strange that nothing 
better was offered, even by our old and strong workers. 
No design Avas considered worthy of first prize, and no 
mentions were awarded. The second prize was awarded 
to Miss Minna Meinke of Long Island. (By mistake this 
design on page 8i was printed as first prize.) Third prize 
to Miss Mary Overbeck, of Cambridge City, Indiana. 

The problems for the Christmas competition will be 
as follows: 

Design for a punch bowl, motif to be chosen by de- 
signer. Drawing in black and white, wash or pen and ink 
to be full size, color drawing to be not more than ten inches 
in diameter as it will be reproduced in color, and not more 
than five colors to be used, three or four colors preferred. 

First prize, $15.00; Second prize, $10.00. 

Design for punch cup, to go with bowl but not neces- 
sarily the same arrangement of design. First prize, $5.00; 

Second prize, $3.00. 

r ¥' 


Miss Dibble writes to us that it was erroneously stated 
in our Club Notes in July number that at the Portland 
Exposition space had, for the first time, been given to a 
ceramic club in the Fine Arts Building. The Atlan Club 
of Chicago were honored with an invitation to exhibit in 
the Fine Arts Building at the St. Louis Exposition, with- 
out expense to them of any kind for case, space, and placing, 
and they had a very fine and well placed exhibit there. 


C. H. Robinson 

ETHNOLOGISTS divide mankind into four classes: 
savage, barbarous, civilized and enlightened. In 
this division they consider the making and use of pottery 
to be the first stage above savagery, as indicating more 
fixed habitations and a commencement of the individual 
ownership of property. 

There are but few tribes now below the rank of barbar- 
ous as guaged by this rule, for nearly all the so-cahed primi- 
tive tribes have advanced to the manufacture and use of 

In the investigation of prehistoric ruins in all parts of 
the world, the grade of pottery found has been a sure index 

to the progress which had been made in other domestic arts. 

Some scientists conjecture that the potter's art was 
originally discovered by accident. They think that baskets 
were first made, and that desiring to boil meat or other food, 
the savage coated the outside of his basket with clay and 
set to simmer over a slow fire. After being thus used 
several times, the hardened clay dropped off retaining its 
shape, and an intehigent savage concluded the intervention 
of the basket was wholly unnecessary and clay formed to 
the proper shape and submitted to the action of fire would 
answer the purpose equally well. If this be true, the dis- 
covery of pottery, like that of many other things in the path 
of progress, was accidental. 

When the primitive inhabitants of Avhat is now the 
United States, first came in contact with the whites, all 
were potters, but those inhabiting the southwestern part 
who were more nearly in contact with the Aztecs of Mexico, 
were the more expert in this art. 

In other portions of this country, the best potter}' was 
manufactured by the tribes which inhabited the localities 
in which mounds exist, and these peoples or tribes are 
commonly knoAvn as "Mound-builders." Their vessels of 
baked clay were far superior in material, manufacture and 
artistic form, to those which have been found in other 

In the moundless regions, pottery is seldom found 
except in a fragmentary condition near the surface or upon 
old village sites and its imperfection is very evident from 
the coarse and porous character and the imperfect firing, 
but in the excavations of mounds whole vessels are not 
infrequently found, which, for material, artistic form and 
complete firing, are scarcely inferior to the pottery of 
civilized peoples. 

The illustration in this article is from a photograph 
of one of the vessels in the writer's collection, which was 
found in an Iowa burial mound. The picture is about one 
half the actual size of the vessel, which is made of fine clay 
well worked and tempered with pulverized shells. The 
ornamentation was made by crimping the edges, apparently 
with the thumb nail and by scoring in conventional lines 
and dotting with a sharp implement while soft. 

Though unglazed it is well fired and is hard and durable. 
So perfect is the artistic form that it is difficult for the eye 
to detect the slightest variation from a true outline. 

In the writer's collection are fragments which, from 
the arcs of the circles, must have been as large as wash-tubs, 
and they were so well made and thoroughly fired, that they 
were no doubt used for boiling food or making maple sugar. 

The smaller vessels were evidently formed by hand and 
with rude implements from lumps or masses of prepared 
clay, but the corrugations on the larger fragments clearly 
indicate that the method of manufacture employed was that 
of coiling. 

In the writer's collection are some hundreds of frag- 
ments from Avidely separated localities, which vary greatly 
in material, firing and ornamentation. In some the orna- 
mentation is by incised lines, evidently conventional, others 
indicate that a form or die with the figure in relief was used 
upon the soft vessel, while from others it would appear that 




a circular or semi-circular implement with notches or cogs 
was used to impress the figure by indentation. A few show 
that cords were tied about the vessel while soft, but in nearly 
all the ornamentation appears to be conventional rather 
than original. 

A study of the prehistoric pottery of the United 
States would be of great interest to the keramic clubs, 
especially as to the process of manufacture by coiling. 


From a report of United States Consul Halsiead. Birmingham, England. 

AVERY useful educational purpose is served by the 
practice of lending to schools of art in different 
English cities objects of art from the National Museums. 
As an instance, the Government Board of Education has 
this year sent from the Victoria and Albert Museum, in 
South Kensington, London, an interesting loan collection of 
objects of art for use in the Birmingham Municipal School 
of Art until the close of the current season in June, 1905. 
The selection was made not only with a knowledge of the 
work being done in that school, but also with the idea of 
suggesting methods not at present practiced in the school. 
I believe it is an example which the United States might 
well follow, and that a useful purpose will be served by re- 
printing the following paragraphs from an article in the 
Birmingham Daily Mail, describing the collection now on 
exhibition : 

The objects cover a wide area of craftsmanship : Metal 
work, enameling, jewelry, wood carving, embroidery, wood 
engraving, drawing in black and white for book illustration, 
illuminated manuscripts, lettering, gesso ornament, decora- 
tive painting, etc. 

A plaque, damascened with silver and gold, of Italian 
workmanship (i6th century) is a good example of a pretty 
method of decoration which has rather gone out of use, but 
which might well be revived in Birmingham. Another 
possible local revival is suggested by the inclusion in the 
loan of a very beautiful lock plate, in pierced and engraved 
brass, made in Birmingham during the later half of the 1 7th 
century. In design this lock plate would hold its own with 
the work of any period. The name of its maker, Johannes 
Wilkes, is engraved on its base. Again, a chatelaine of 
pierced steel made in Birmingham in the 1 8th century is an 
example of beautiful workmanship. Long and patient 
effort alone could have produced such a piece of work. 

Among other examples of metal work is an electrotype 
of a 13th century reliquary (Norwegian) of sheet metal 

embossed with figures, one portion representing the death 
of St. Thomas a Becket. This reliquary is beautiful in 
shape and of simple, artistic wormkanship, although it 
might be called " amateurish ' ' by a skilled modern workman. 

There are a few specimens of enameling, two of Champ- 
leve and one of Limoges. The latter is of the style for 
which Birmingham students have in recent years gained 
high awards (including two gold medals) in the National 
competition. Champleve is not now so much practiced in 
the school as formerly, partly, perhaps, because of the hard 
work entailed in chiseling at the spaces to receive the 
enamel ; but there is not a more beautiful decorative method 
of using enamel. Jewelry is represented by two small 
pieces of gold filigree and enamel. These are of the 15th 
century German workmanship and delicate and restrained 
in design. Specimens of simple jewelry useful to students 
are difficult to obtain, as most of the really fine examples are 
too precious to be sent on loan; those of an elaborate style 
are useless, at least to beginners. 

The collection includes several pieces of wood carving 
of fine quality. Especially noticeable are two pieces of 
northern workmanship of the 15th century. Those form 
part of a screen which contains two illustrations of "The 
Temptation on the Mount." A carved panel of German 
origin, also of the 15th century, represents St. John the 
Evangelist, and is remarkably good. Gesso is illustrated 
by a magnificent shield (Italian, 15th century), a rampant 
griffin painted in black upon a highly ornamented field of 

Some excellent prints from drawings by Millais, F. 
Walker, and Sandys have been included in the loan in the 
hope that they may inspire the students to emulate at least 
the two first-named artists in seeing subjects of deep poetic 
interest. Among the embroidery are several fine pieces of 
English work, gay in color, simple in design, and quite void 
of that quality of high ingenuity which so commonly takes 
the place of feeling in modern "art" embroidery. 







White porcelain, apples i . 
leaves, celadon; coverinpalegreen biscuit. 
Stand in natural gres, mat brown glaze. 

Cupids — Pate sur pate 
ive ground, wreaths in cela- 
stand, mat iron wood color. 

1 pink^paste; The Thre 

n paste ;gri 



BY far the most interesting and instructive ceramic 
exhibit at St. Louis was that to be found in the 
French Section of the Art Palace, and the French exhibit 
at "Le Petit Trianon." For variety of medium and mode 
of expression in art the Frenchman seems to be the most 
versatile and expert technically — and in the arts of the fire 
he certainly stands supreme. 

Two important pieces, a placque " Flora and Pomona," 
in pate sur pate, figures on mat ground, and a vase in the 
same treatment "The Favorites of Cybele," by Taxile Doat, 
were bought by the Pennsylvania Museum as were also ex- 
amples of the exquisite pate tendre and translucent enamels 
of Camille Naudot and Fernand Thesmar. It is regrettable 
that the museums of America have not as yet awakened to 
the advisability and even necessity of procuring a tall 

notable exhibitions, examples of the best work of con- 
temporary American ceramists as well as of foreign workers. 
The museums of Europe are instantaneously awake and 
alert when any new star appears on the ceramic horizon 
and not one of the French exhibitors at St. Louis but could 
point to one or more examples of their work in almost every 
notable museum of Europe. 

The work of M. Taxile Doat has been so well exploited 
in Keramic Studio that it is hardly necessary to more than 
mention his name in connection with the St. Louis exhibit. 
However it is worthy of note that not only in the French 
section of the Art Palace was his work among the most 
notable but also in the Sevres exhibit at Le Petit Trianon. 
It is to be regretted that there was no way of ascertaining 
the names of individual workers in the Sevres exhibit, as it 
becomes almost impossible to mention individual pieces 
in this connection. Of the stoneware or gres, the exhibit 
of M. Jeanneney was perhaps the most important. The 
mat glazes are particularly suited to this medium, but 
do not yield as fine texture or color as on porcelain. Other 
fine work in gres was shown by Lachenal, Carriere, Methey, 
Moreau Nelaton, Savine and Delaherche. The work of 
M. Savine was in modeled porcelain figurines with draperies 
in mat glazes of very fine texture and color, the glazing and 
firing being the work, as we understand, of M. Milet. 

The wonderful work of inlaid enamels shown by MM. 
Dammouse, Feuillatre, Naudot, and Thesmar can be paral- 
leled nowhere in this country and all are equally remarkable 
in technique while quite differing in method. 

The cups, bowls, etc., of M. Dammouse are entirely of 
porcelain enamels, one color being inlaid in another, giving 
much the effect of a translucent but not transparent glass 
in soft and harmonious colors, the design melting softly 
into the ground at its edges in a most artistic and attractive 
manner. The seaweed motif was most frequently used 
and to good advantage. 


Pate tendre bowl, flowers yellow dande- 
lion, green leaxes. Value Fr. 1900. 

Pate tendre 
green leave 

Pate tendre vase, flowers blue 
green, base, open work red 
with gold decoration. 


Pate tendre coupe, blu 




The enamels of Feuillatre were seemingly inlaid in 
gold wire after the manner of the Japanese cloisonne. 

The Springs, hard porcelain dish, TaxileDoat. Cameo on green background. Center, 
clouded red of copper. Rim, yellow brown with flowing white streaks. 


They were fine in color and artistic in design and effect. 
They have been recently illustrated in the crafts depart- 
ment of Keramic Studio. The work of Mess. Naudot and 
Thesmar was in each case enamels inlaid in porcelain, but 
quite different in every other respect. M. Naudot is 
celebrated for his reproduction of the famous pate tendre 
de Sevres of the i8th century and of the rose du Barry so 
often quoted as impossible to reproduce. In this p4te 
tendre, M. Naudot inlays transparent enamels in open 
work designs. His designing is not a strong point but the 
technique is marvelous and consequently specimens are 
much sought for and purchased at enormous prices for 
every museum of note. 

The work of M. Thesmar is also the inlaying of trans- 
parent enamels in open work designs in porcelain, but the 
porcelain is very different in texture being apparently of a 
much harder fire. M. Thesmar is stronger in design than 
M. Naudot and each piece is a gem — one small cup being 
valued at about $400.00. 

The Sevres exhibit at Le Petit Trianon was a revelation 
to ceramists. The fine texture and soft colors of the mat 
glazes on porcelain — something hitherto unknown inAmerica 
except on low fire pottery, the wonderful crystalline 
glazes, so talked about since the Paris Exposition of 1900 
but never shown here before, the entire lack of what has 
always been considered as particularly Sevres like in style, 
i. e. : little roses and gold scrolls, etc., and the substitution 




KlEramic studio 



of modern design, more or less art nouveau in feeling; these 
entirely new elements made the exhibit novel and in- 
structive in the extreme and not to be equalled anywhere. 
The setting was as recherche as the exhibit itself, the soft 

and harmonious colors of the walls, floors and draperies 
being as carefully thought out as was every other point. 
Le Petit Trianon was perhaps the most complete artistic 
success on the grounds of the St. Louis Exposition. 




Paint background of border blue with white clouds; butterflies yellow and brown. Tint very light Yellow Ochre 

with the bands and small butterflies gold. 

iii:ramic studio 


No. I. First fire — Tint plate with tinting oil, when 
almost dry dust with 5 Pearl Grey, i Meissen Brown. 

Second fire — Paint fish with tinting oil and a short 
while after dust with i Pearl Grey, i Fry's New Green. 

No. 2. First fire — Pad tinting oil over whole plate, 
when almost dry, dust with 5 Pearl Grey, i Apple Green. 

Second fire — Paint ground with equal parts Copen- 
hagen Blue and Banding Blue, when dry dust with Copen- 
hagen Blue (Red), paint red part with Yellow Red. 










K. E. Cherry 

FIRST fire— Paint apples, lights, Yellow Red; shadows, 
Blood Red. Leaves, hghts. New Green with a Httle 
Grey for flesh. Shadows, New Green, Shading Green and 
Grey for flesh. Stems, Blood Red and Violet. 

Second fire — Outline with Black and fire. 

Third fire — Oil pitcher with special oil, pad until tacky, 
aflowing it to stand two or three hours, then dust with a 
mixture of Pearl Grey three parts. Lemon Yellow one part — 
dust back of apples, then dust below apples — handle and 
bottom, with mixture of Apple Green two parts. Shading 
Green one part, Brown Green one part and Grey for flesh 
one part. 

Fourth fire — Retouch the apples with same color as 
laid in, also leaves and stems, and paint the bottom below 
the border using color light and gradually getting deeper 
toward bottom with Yellow Brown two parts. Brown Green 
two parts, and Grey for flesh one part. 


Austin Rosser 

THE flowers may be painted with 
the strongest of yellows (Albert, 
Orange, Yellow Browns) ; the centers 
are the color of the petals spotted 
more or less thickly with the darkest 
brown. The flowers grow in great 
masses, the color of which is well re- 
lieved by the soft grey green of the 
rather fern-like foliage, while the 
dried flower centers and the dark 
stems (Hair Brown, Finishing Brown) 
give the needed accent. 

Some of the soft purples and 
blues of other autumn flowers work 
well into background and shadows. 







AT Christie's, May 26, was sold an Italian bibcron, 
carved of rock crystal, mounted with enameled gold, 
the price obtained for which, $81,375, created a great 
sensation from the fact that the reserve placed on it by the 
owner, John Gabbittas, of London, was only $25,000. 
The cup is described in the catalogue as Italian work of the 
middle of the 14th century, but the cable informs us that 
the auctioneer announced that it was German, and that 
further, its authenticity being doubted, the British Museum 
experts on being appealed to, had pronounced it a genuine 
14th century piece. It is i2f inches high, and i6\ inches 

The body of the vessel, together with the cover, may 
be described as roughly resembling a monster, the head 
forming the spout, though the monster shape is lost in the 
fluted shell-like effect of the general outline; applied below 
the neck are two wings. The stem is oviform; the base 
oblong and of quatrefoil outline; carved in low relief with 

The gold mounts chiefly take the form of simple 
mouldings, but have applied strapwork and other orna- 
ments enameled in opaque and translucent colors, and 
further enriched with settings of precious stones. The 
handle of the cover is also of enameled gold, and formed as 
a finely modeled statuette of Neptune sitting astride a 

dolphin, which in turn rests on a wave-pattern base; this 
is outlined with a framing of strapwork, which has scroll 
designs reserved on the gold upon a black and white ground. 
The under side of this oval plaque, showing through the 
crystal cover, is also chased and enameled. This same 
effect through the crystal body may also be seen where the 
stem is joined to the body of the vessel by a gold socket, 
studded by four scroll-shaped supports. 

At the same time was sold a collection of silver, the 
property of the late Louis Huth. A William and Mary, 
large, plain tankard and cover, 12 inches high, with the 
London hall-mark for 1692, is interesting as not only being 
made by Francis Garthorne, the maker of two of the com- 
munion services at Trinity Church, New York, but as an 
historical piece presented by Queen Mary to Simon Janzen 
for having conveyed the king to The Hague in 1691. The 
tankard is cylindrical; the cover flat, surmounted by a 
chased figure of a lion. It is engraved with the royal arms 
and supporters, and around the cover an inscription in 
Dutch, of which the following is a translation: 
When Simon fills this cup with wine, 
Her Majesty's brilliancy in it doth shine; 
And as he the cup to his hps doth hft. 
Does bear remembrance of the royal gift. 
The weight is 94 ounces. The price obtained was 

A William and Mary large standing cup and cover, 27 



inches high, I^ondon, 1692, supported by a kneehng figure 
of Atlas, the cover surmounted by a figure of Fortune, 
weighing 87 ounces, 17 dwt., brought $16,500. An RHza- 
bethan tankard and cover, 7 f inches high, London, 1573, 
almost a duplicate of the one at the Ashmolean Museum, 
Oxford, 1574, illustrated in Cripp's Old English Plate, and 
weighing not quite 21 ozs., brought $8,500. Another 
tankard and cover, gilt all over, of the time of James I., 

8^ inches high, London, 1604, cost $8,600 for 22 ozs. A 
magnificent James I. rosewater ewer and dish, the ewer 14} 
inches high, the dish 17! inches in diameter, London, 1607, 
similar to one belonging to King Edward, Windsor Castle, 
shown as a frontispiece to Cripp's sixth edition, brought 
$20,250 for 100 ozs. 8 dwt. 

The gap between art values and art prices seems to be 
widening every day. 


To be treated in orange and brown or blue and green. 



Emma A. Ervin 

THE flowers in this study should be painted a deep pink 
with yellow center. Paint the leaves with Olive 
Blue and Dark Green. The background is shaded from 
Yellow Ochre into Grey and Blue Green. 

»!»•!>*.-,. '^AWL'" .*. ^1»4 

Mr .^ ^l»i 

kmm If tit 

i% 1 1 JiiX^ f^ Jit 



Mary Overbeck 

LET the dark tone in background of border be Grey 
Green, Dark Green with a very little Olive Green. 
The fish and the bands above and below them should be a 
red brown tone, Deep Red Brown and Dark Brown. The 
central portion of plate should be a very light tone of the 
grey green. 






K. E. Cherry 

FIRST fire: — Albert yellow, yellow brown and yellow red; 
the small leaves with flowers are made of Meissen brown 
and auburn brown; leaves are quite a grey green, use shading 
green, violet mixed; for lights of leaves use moss green with violet. 
Second fire:— Yellow and yellow red and sharp accents 
of yellow brown and blood red. Leaves are touched in second 
firing with same colors as first used. Stems are brown green, 
violet and auburn brown. Backgrounds, yellow, yellow 
brown, blood red, auburn brown and black. 


Mr. F. B. Aulich of Chicago will open his autumn 
classes on August ist. 

Mr. Paul Doering, of Chicago, will have a special 
summer course of instruction in china and water color 
painting from July loth to September 15th, in his studio 
26 Van Buren Street. 

Miss Helen Hastings Goodman, of Chicago, 111., will be 
away from her studio during July, August and September, 
on an extended trip in Europe. 


FIRST fire — Fruit, use Lemon Yellow, Sevres Green and 
Brown Green for the more prominent berries, keeping 
them as transparent as possible. The less prominent ones 
are toned into the warm shades of the l3ackground by 
using Violet of Iron and Warm Grey. For leaves use 

Moss Green, Brown Green and Violet of Iron. Retouch 
with the same colors, using a little Hair Brown or Auburn 
Brown for the darker touches of the leaves and background. 
The more delicate tones of the background consist of Ivorv 
Yellow, Apple Green and Violet of Iron. 











Under the inanagement of Miss Emily Peacock, Karol Shop, 22 East i6th St., New York. All inquiries in regard to the varioiis 
Crafts are to be sent to the above address, but will be answered in the magazine under this head. 

A II questions viuM he received before the lOih day of month preceding issue and vnll be answered under -'Answers to Inquiries" ojily. Please do not send stamped 

envelope for reply. The editors will answer questions only in these columns. 



Chapter 3 — flat and pierced carving 

Elisabeth Saugstad 

BEGINNERS usually want to start right away on a 
"piece," and then in the constant fear of "spoihng" 
it, work in a cramped and fussy way that is very hard to 
overcome. Technical skill comes only by doing much 
work, but freedom and flexibility and a large, simple and 
direct way of working, which is so essential in carving, can 
be most quickly gained by practising at first on waste 
pieces of soft wood, where mistakes will not matter; and 
even later it is always a good plan to try out a portion of 
any new design, or problem, on a small piece of wood of the 
kind to be used. 

There is nothing better to practise on than clear, close 
grained white pine. Begin with the V tool, holding it, as 
all the tools are held, with the top of the handle resting 

in the palm and grasped by the right hand, which supplies 
force and guidance. The left hand holds the blade and 
lower part of handle and steadies and restrains, both 
sensitively alive to every variation in texture and grain. 

They should be held firmly but flexibly, and the whole 
position should be as free and comfortable as possible. 
Just cut lines without thinking of their quality until the 
hand feels at home with the tool, then try to get the lines 
of even width throughout, whether shallow or deep. Then 
draw some simple curves and straight lines and angles and 
follow those. When some freedom has been gained take a 
piece of pine about 6 or 8 by 12 inches, and draw some 
large simple form like illus. i, for instance, being careful to 
leave no small angles and spaces too narrow for the tools. 
The design can be transferred to the wood with carbon 
paper, or it can be gone over with crayon or soft pencil, 
turned face down on the wood and rubbed on with the back 
of a knife blade or tool handle. Strengthen, if necessary, 
with a pencil, for a clear, firm outline is a great help, and go 
around it with the V tool, just touching the outline and 
about a sixteenth of an inch deep. 

Then take the chisels and gouges as they will best fit 
the lines of the design, and holding them upright, stab them 
straight down in the line of the V tool to the desired depth 
of the background — about a quarter of an inch in this case, 
and using the mallet if necessary. When all around, take 
a gouge proportioned to the depth and size of the spaces and 
cut out the background around the design, cutting in 
towards it all the time; then rough out what remains, and 





finish with flatter gouges — always, and in every case, using 
the largest tool possible, so as to make clean, comprehensive 
cuts and avoid niggling and teasing the wood. The outline 
can now be trued, if necessary, with a chisel run along like a 
knife. It is possible to get freer and more beautiful 
curves and lines in this way, if of any length. 

There will be no trouble with ragged edges and corners 
if the cutting down has been sufficiently deep, and clear 
into the angles ; but if these occur they must not be dragged 
and scrapped out, but removed by a clean, light cut down, 
and one across to meet it. Wood should be treated crisply 
and in a free, large way — which does not prevent delicacy 
of touch and perfect accuracy. 

The background being finished the plain surface of the 
design can .be made interesting by decorative and sugges- 
tive lines and markings with the V tool and gouges. Stip- 
pling the background is sometimes resorted to to bring out 
the design or give variety of surface, but my opinion is 
that the effect left by the tools is better, as a rule. 

Illus. 2 shows two treatments of the same design. 
No., I is effective and easy in very conventional designs 
that practically fill the panel. The outline is taken out 
quite deep with the V tool and the spaces cut deeper still 
with the corner chisel, or a carver's knife, which is a very 
useful tool. To give the over and under effect a longer 
bevel is cut with a flat chisel on the side to be lowered. 
The clock, bookrack, bookcase and breadboard in the 


article in the May number, and the breadboard and borders 
in this, can all be carved in this way. Even the interlaced 
panel might be. It would be very effective as the front 
of a chest with the angular incisions cut quite deep with a 
large V tool. Almost endless possibilities will suggest 
themselves to the inventive person through these very 
simple means. 

No. II shows the design nearly filling the panel but 
with the background taken out as in illus. 2. As a rule the 
flat carving, in which I include the interlaced, because the 
general surface is flat, is much richer in eft'ect when there 


is little background — and there is less work, as well. These 
small spaces should be used to give force and accent. 

There are a number of ways in which pierced carving 
can be used with good effect. Grilles are useful in lowering 
the effect of too high doors or windows, or where it is 
desirable to hang curtains across a hallway. It is attractive, 
too, in cupboard doors or the upper panels of doors that are 
glazed to give light in hallways. It can be held against 
the glass with light mouldings around the edge. 

In designing for pierced carving it must be remembered 
that the spaces are as conspicuous as the pattern and so 
must be pleasing in form and proportion. The openness 
of the design will depend on whether the grille is intended 
to partially exclude or let in light, and whether light or 
heavy curtains are to be hung beneath it. The thickness 




of the wood is dependent, too, on the use. If it is to go 
against glass, a quarter of an inch would not be too thin 
for a small piece. In a doorway the pierced part should be 
at least a half, or three quarters, of an inch, and set in a 
frame from an inch to an inch and a half thick. Or the 
part which is to be pierced may be lowered a quarter of an 
inch on each side of a solid board, which does not mean 
much, if any more work, than framing. It can be roughed 
out with the broadest and deepest gouge and finished with 
the broadest fiat one. 


The spaces can be sawed out with a fretsaw, which is 
probably the easiest and quickest way, or the design can be 
traced on both sides, being extremely careful that it is 
accurately placed, outlined with the V tool and proceeding 
as in taking out the background, working first from one side 
and then the other until through. Or it can be done from 
one side, but more care is necessary to keep from chipping 
and splintering the under edges in forcing the tools clear 

If the grihe is for a doorway it must be finished ahke 
on both sides. The treatment of the edges depends of course 
on the design. The horse chestnut grille in the May num- 
ber (which, by the way, was printed upside down by mis- 

take), is left as cut, straight through. The effect intended 
is of branches in silhouette. Any large leaved tree, or vine, 
with nuts, or fruit, or gourds, or flowers will offer sugges- 
tions. The pierced portions on the little cupboard door 
(illus. 6), the seeds and stems are also left as cut, straight 
through. The leaves are simply outlined and the veins 
may be a single saw cut. Ihus. 7 is from a Japanese grille, 
or Ramma. The edges in this are slightly rounded and the 
surface ornamentated with a line. The original was painted 
in several colors, but so softened and silvered by time that 
the effect was exquisite. The Japanese use pierced carv- 
ing a great deal in Rammas, screens and lanterns. 


A design like the hly fret work which might be used also 
as a soHd panel, or any intended to go flat against glass, looks 
best when beveled on the edges. 

Clear (that is without knots), close grained, white pine 
is best for pierced work, as a rule, as it cuts easily and 
smoothly, and though soft it is not used in positions where 
it is likely to be injured. It takes any kind of paint or 
stain readily, and, of course, should be finished like the 
surrounding woodwork. 


heramic studio 









THE work of the students at Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, 
N. Y., was exhibited in the various departments, 
June ist, 2d and 3d. In the Art Department, the work 
generally showed improvement, which is always encourag- 
ing. Among the most interesting exhibits was the work 
from the advanced class in illustration, and from the 
various classes in design. The work from the portrait 

and water color classes showed strength and harmony of 
color. In the Applied Arts there were some very attrac- 
tive specimens of tooled, cut and modeled leather and 
carved wood. But the most interesting exhibit of all was 
conceded to be that of the Jewelry Class, the work was so 
well done, the designs were unique and carried out with 
great care. A few illustrations will give some idea of the 
work done in this department. 








. Mrs. C. G. H. — We answered your questions some time ago, the answer 
must have been lost before reaching the printing oiBce. Banding wheels are 
still used for putting on both color and gold, but need quite a little practice 
and skill to use successfully. Almost any make is good. We will give an 
article on painting red roses in one of the next numbers of Keramic Studio. 
E. W. S. — A professional artist is one who makes art a profession, that is, 
who makes art a means of livlihood in any way, either by selling or teaching. 
It is understood that a person does not become a professional until his or her 
art has reached a point where it does supply a lixelihood — making pin money 
by selling one's work does not make one a professional. It is not usually 
supposed that a professional is still a student under another professional, unless 
the latter is a great or noted artist. 

Mrs. F. E. S. — You will find an article on painting red roses in a coming 
number of Keramic Studio. Ruby purple needs to be ground or rubbed 
carefully with the medium on ground glass, it will then go on smoothly if 
there is sufficient oil — | extra flux is sometimes added but not usually. If 
powder color, a powder flux is used, if tube color, tube flux for gold colors. 

Miss H. E. B. — Your designs were received but were unfortunately lost 
in moving — if you will send again we will answer directly. 

Mrs. E. S. — For blackberries, the blue is washed thinly over the high 
lights, the shadows painted in purple, then a touch of black added in the 
darkest dark. The painting is dusted before each fire. The one color is 
dusted over the entire painting or parts of painting as directed — high lights 
are not taken out after it nor the painting retouched in any way. Usually 
only one or two colors are used in dusting. In a cluster of berries the dusting 
is usually done with one color over the berries which would naturally be in 
shade or background, high lights and all. 

Many studies for jewel work have been given in back numbers of Keramic 
Studio. We know of no other designs of this character. There is not much 
of this work done just at present, but it may be revived later. 

Color Supplement to September No. of KERAMIC STUDIO— F. B. Aulich 

WARE of the XV Century 

A Contribution to its History and Chrono 
Based Upon Armorial Specimens 


Beautifully Illustrated with thirty-four plates, several be- 
ing in colour, with numerous smaller 
illustrations in the text. 



4.00 net 

JOHN LANE COMPANY, 67 Fifth Ave., New York 




^ trTABLLSHBD \&&7 / 



[ The entire contents of this Magazine are colfered by the general copyright, and the articles must not be reprinted Itfiihoai special permission. ] 



Treatment for Pine Cones (Supplement) 

Snow Crystals 

Stein in Black Ra'spberries 

Design for Pitcher 

Pomegranate Plate 

Ceramics at the St. Louis Exposition 

Plate Design 

American Beauty Roses 

Marm ilnde Jar — First Prize 

M irmalade Jar — Second " 

Marmalade Jar— Second " 

Marmalade Jars— Mentioi'i 

Marmalade Jar Border — Bees' Wing Motif 

Mountain , Ash, 

Child's Bowl and Plate with Motif 

Tile Box 

Study of Grasses 

Mariposa Lily 

Studies of Beetles 

Trumpet Flower 

Oak Leaves and Acorns 

The Crafts— Rug Making At Home— Part First. 

Answers to Correspondents 

F. B. Aulich 

Jeanne M. Stewart 
Alice B. Sharrard 
Leta Horlocker 

Robert W. Hoel 

Blanche Van Court Schneider 

Russell Goodwin 

Hannah Overbeck 

Ahce B. Sharrard 

Hannah Overbeck and Alice B. Sharrard 

Lucia Jordan 

S. Evannah Price 

Elsie Binns 

Mary F. Overbeck 

Leta Horlocker 

Emma A. Ervin 

Mary Burnett 
S. Evannah Price 
Helen R. Albee 



Some Leading Agencies of KeramiG Studio 

We take pleasure in mentioning a few of the leading agencies for the sale 
of the Keeamic Studio, where, also, subscriptions may be placed: 

Boston, Massi — Miss E. E. Page, 286 Boyslton St.; Smith & McCance, 

Old Corner Book Store. 
Brooklyn— A. D. Mathew's Sons, Fulton Street. 
Buffalo— Mrs. Filkins, 609 Main Street. 
Chicago— A. H. Abbott & Co.; A. C. McClurg & Co.; Brentano's; Burley 

Cincinnati— Miss M. Owen, 245 Elm Street; A. B. Closson, 110 W. 4th St. 

Traxel & Maas, 4th Street, near Elm. 
Cleveland, Ohio — Vinson & Korner, 160 Euclid Ave. 
Columbus, Ohio — Lee Roessler, 116 So. High Street. 
Denver, Colo.— H. R. Meininger, 409 16th Street. 
Detroit, Mich.— L. B. King & Co. ; Art China Co. 
Hartford, Ct.—E. M. Sill. 
Grand Rapids, Mich.— Miller, Wolfe Co. 
Indianapolis, Ind. — Keramic Supply Co., Lemcke Building. 
Kansas City, Mo —Emery, Bird, Thayer Co.; Geo. B. Peck Co. 

Minneapolis, Minn. — Minn. Art China Co., 607 1st Ave. So.; Elizabeth 

Hood, 18 W. 6th St., St. Paul, Minn. 
New York City — Brentano's, Union Square; M. T. Wynne's, HE. 20tb 

St.; The Fry Art Co., 11 E. 22d St.; Wanamaker's; American News Co.; 

J. B. Ketcham, 107 W. 25th Street. 
Newark, N. J. — Keramic Novelty Co. 
Oakland, Cal. — Smith Bros. 
Omaha, Neb. — Megeath Stationery Co. 
Philadelphia — ^Wanamaker's . 
Pittsburgh, Pa. — Otto Schaffer & Bros.; Kurtz, Langbein & Schwartz; 

R. S. Davis & Co., 346 Fifth Ave.; John G. Yergan, 420 Penn Ave. 
San Francisco— Mrs. M. E. Perley, 207 Post Street. 
St. Louis— F. Weber & Co.; A. S. Aloe & Co. 
Syracuse — Wolcott Book Shop; Welch & HoUingsworth; W. Y. Foote; 

A. L. Varney & Co., 336 S. Salina Street. 
Toronto— The Art Metropole. 
Washington, D. C. — Wood & Lotbrop. 

The Magazine may also be ordered from any news dealer or book store 
in this country, who can procure it through the American News Company ^ 
New York, or its branches. 

Vol. VII. No. 5 


September J 905 

HE marmalade Jar problem, bee 
design, has been very satisfactorily 
solved in this month's competition 
in spite of the attractions of sum- 
mer vacation. The first prize was 
awarded to Russell Good win, Marble 
head, Mass. Two second prizes 
were awarded — one to Alice Shar- 
rard, Lexington, Ky.,and the other 
to Hannah Overbeck, Cambridge 
City, Indiana. Lucia Jordan, of New Orleans, La., re- 
ceives honorable mention although her designs were not 
applied to the ceramic form as required. It has been 
thought best to hold the competitions four times a year 
instead of monthly as in the past year; our workers do not 
have time to do enough thinking with something to send 
in every month. 

The next competition after the Christmas one, des- 
cribed in the last Keramic Studio, will be for March, 
closing the 15th of January. Subject of problem, Decora- 
tive color study of a flower arranged in a panel, accompanied 
by its application in black and white to some ceramic form. 
This must also be accompanied by a sheet of detail draw- 
ings of the flower with suggestions for conventionalizations 
of the difi^erent parts, also a treatment in mineral colors. 
First prize, $20.00; second prize, $15.00; third prize, 
$10.00; fourth prize, $5.00. 

Some of our readers ask why we do not have more 
instruction for beginners. The answers to correspondents 
column is open to any one requiring instruction — any ques- 
tion relating to ceramics will be answered there as promptly 
as possible. Articles have been given from time to time 
on all the various branches of the work and when the in- 
formation asked for would take too much space we refer to 
back numbers containing these articles, but for the special 
benefit of beginners and also of more advanced workers 
the experiment wiU be made of opening a new department to 
which all interested readers are asked to contribute. This 
department will be called the Class Room — a subject will 
be given each month. For the best article sent in on the 
subject, five dollars will be paid, for the next best, four 
dollars, then three, two and one, and if any valuable sug- 
gestions and extracts are found in any other letters they 
will be paid at the rate of fifty cents each. 

Any one wishing any special subject taken up may 
mention it and a list will be made and each subject taken 
in its turn. 

It is suggested that each contributor make his or her 
article as comprehensive as possible, giving detailed in- 
formation as if the beginner knew nothing at all. Con- 
tributions must be sent in by the fifth of the month pre- 
ceeding issue. 

The first Class Room will open in the October Keramic 
Studio — subject, "A Color palette and its Use." This wiU 
include brushes and their care, mixing of colors for various 
uses, mediums and list of necessary colors in whatever 
make preferred, and any other information suggested by 

the subject. Contributions must be received by Septem- 
ber 5th. It will be endeavored also to procure every month 
an article on the same subject by some prominent teacher, 
but this can not be absolutely promised. 


F. B. Aulich 

PUT in the background first with Aulich's Blue Green or 
Turquoise Green to represent the sky on a clear day. 
Then wash in the leaves with Yellow Green on some but the 
rest with Olive Green and Black Green with a few dashes 
of Brown. Paint with a large flat brush using the 
pointy ends. Also use more Olive and Black Green than 
shown in the reproduction. The print is too light and 
too much Yellow Green has been used. 

For the cones use Yellow Brown, vSepia Brown and 
Van Dyke for the finishing. 

Treatment por Water Coi^ors 
After making a sketch of the design paint in the back- 
ground with New Blue, using a httle Gamboge and Payne's 
Grey. Sap Green, Payne's Grey and a little Ochre for the 
leaves or needles. 

For, the cones Ochre, Burnt Sienna and Van Dyke 
Brown. Paint in when paper is moist, reserving a few 
touches for finishing when dry. 


THE wonderfully beautiful designs in snow crystals have 
long excited interest and admiration. Those illus- 
trated are taken from photographs made by Wilson A. 
Bentley, of Jericho, Vt. Mr. Bentley has been making a 
special study of snow crystals for more than twenty years 
and has in his collection more than one thousand photo- 
micrographs, no two alike. Many of these crystals are very 
intricate, but the simplest are given here, because they are 
so beautiful and more helpful to beginners. 

The forms vary according to the wind, the height of 
the clouds, the degree of cold, the amount of water in the 
air, etc. Crystals formed in cold weather or in high clouds 
are usually columnar. Those formed in moderate weather 
and light winds or in low clouds are apt to have frail branches 
and to be of a feathery type ; mixed forms grow partly in low 
and partly in high clouds. High winds give broken and 
irregular forms, and much moisture the very granular 

Heavy granular covered crystals are peculiarly a pro- 
duct of the lower or intermediate cloud strata, and especially 
of moist snow storms. In intense cold they are rare, while 
the columnar and solid tubular then become common. 
About four-fifths of the perfect forms occur within the west 
and north quadrants of great storms. 

The most common forms outlined within the nuclear 
or central portions of the crystals are a simple star of six 
rays, a solid hexagon and a circle. The subsequent addi- 
tions assume a bewildering variety of shapes, each of which 
usually dift'ers widel}^ from the one that preceded it and 
from the primitive nuclear form at its center. By bearing 



in mind the fact that crystals evolved within the upper 
clouds tend toward solidity and the crystals formed in lower 
clouds tend toward open branches and feathery forms, it is 
possible to trace the history and travels of a great many of 
the crystals. 

The beautiful details, the lines, rods, flowery geometrical 
tracings and delicate symmetrically arranged shadings to 
be found within the interior portions of most of the more 
compact tubular crystals, and in less degree within the more 
open ones, are due to minute inclusions of air. This in- 

cluded air prevents a complete joining of the water mole- 
cules; the walls of the resultant air tubes cause the absorp- 
tion and refraction of a part of the rays of light entering the 
crystal ;_ hence those portions appear darker by transmitted 
light than do the other portions. The softer and broader 
interior shadings may perhaps also be due, in whole or in 
part, to the same cause, but if so, the corresponding in- 
clusions of air must necessarily be much more attenuated 
and more widely diffused than in the former cases. We 
can only conjecture as to the manner in which these minute 
air tubes and blisters are formed. As no one can ever 
actually see the extremely minute water particles rush 
together and form themselves into snow crystals, the material 
and the manner in which the molecules of water are joined 
to form snow crystals is largely a matter of speculation. 
While it is true that the snow crystals form within the clouds, 
it does not therefore follow that they are formed from the 
coarse particles of which the clouds are composed in cold 
weather. We have good grounds for assuming that the 
true snow crystals are formed directly from the minute 
invisible atoms or molecules of water in the air, and not 
from the coarse particles in the clouds, as it is unlikely 
that these coarse particles could unite into snow crystals 
in so perfect a manner as to leave no trace of their union 
even when examined under powerful miscroscopes. — 
National Geographic Magazine. 


IN the course of a recent interview a prominent ceramist 
of Japan gave the following notes regarding the Jap- 
anese porcelain industry: 

" In the manufacture of porcelain in Japan the greatest 
progress was made in the year 15 17. Our ancestors learned 
the way of making from China. At present the ceramic 
industry in China, once the leader of Japan, is declining of 
old age. For this reason one cannot now find a skilful 
Chinese potter. But from 151 7 to the present time the 
Japanese ceramist has upheld his reputation until his 
country is the most famous in the world. 

"Ceramic materials are scattered everywhere in Japan 
and are abundant. The people of Japan do not speak of 
porcelain, earthen ware or stone ware, but name the pottery 
from the place where it is made. Every place has a par- 
ticular and individual style, which is known all over the 

"The potter's wheel and the kiln are the important 
parts of the ceramic industry. One form of wheel has four 
small pits in the face of the disc, and in these the potter 
inserts a small stick to turn the wheel. Another form of 
wheel will be kicked and turned with the foot. The kiln is 
of simple construction, but it is easy to get the high tem- 
perature of Segar cone number 13. There is a curious 
custom when the potter begins his work of firing the kiln, 
for, as he closes it, a religious ceremony is performed to 
supplicate the god for his success. 

A skilful potter made two bowls on the wheel, and after 
burning they were weighed on the balance. Both were 
found to be the same weight. Dishes of three feet in diame- 
ter are also made on the wheel wdthout the use of moulds. 
From this you will see that they are very dexterous in hand 
work. In design also the Japanese potter is very skilful 
and to this much of his success is due. Therefore ceramics 
in Japan is very highly developed as an art but as an in- 
dustry there are very many points to be reformed." — 
Jeweler Circular. 




THE bands should be applied in black outline with band- 
ing wheel so they may be perfectly true. Paint in the 
berries in a tone made of banding blue, ruby purple and 
black, using more blue than any other color. In some of 
the smaller, lighter berries, lemon yellow, shaded with 
pompadour and ruby purple, may be used. Care should 
be taken in wiping out the high lights, that they give 
transparency to the berry. The ordinary greens may be 

used in leaves with the exception of largest leaf in the 
yellows and browns. A light background is applied with 
ivory yellow, turquoise green, toning to a gray green under 
the leaves. 

The base and handle is to be tinted in Stewart's 
Special Blue, which is darkened and dusted in second 
fire. The narrow bands are tinted in same blue in a much 
lighter tone. 






To be executed in soft buff, mahoganv and olive tones. 




»»»i?f| f •■ :i»| 


J ^Qf Bh ^''-^^^ 



THE display of pottery and porcelains in the German 
section was endless. The pottery was perhaps more 
interesting than the porcelains as it was also most in evi- 
dence. The work of Professor Max Lauger, of Karlsruhe, 
the Black Forest pottery as it has been called, formed 
perhaps the most prominent exhibit. The pottery is heavy 
in style, with a bright glaze, but harmonious in its low toned 
coloring. Many of the designs were black on an olive, 
brownish red or ochre ground. The designing is simple 
and spacing good. In fact the ware is most "livable" — 
one would not easily tire of it in the home. 

Another important exhibit which also received a grand 
prize, was that of Professor Hans Von Heiden, and, pre- 
sumably, his brother Fritz Von Heiden. Their work was 
of two kinds. The pottery was mostly of a rich, dark blue 
with a gold lustre and the porcelain white with low toned 
underglaze decoration in rather Art Nouveau style. The 
forms were quaint and original and altogether interesting. 

Other interesting exhibits were from amateurs such 
as Clara Lobedan and Emmy Von Egidy. Unfortunately 
many of the photos sent were too poor to make good illus- 

Prof. C. Korhas, of Karlsruhe, also made an interesting 
exhibit similar in style to the work of Prof. Lauger. Per- 
haps the most interesting part of the German ceramic dis- 
play, was the free use of tiles and garden pottery. In the 
German Court was a very clever and artistic fountain arrange- 
ment in architectural faience and in many of the rooms 


surrounding the court could be seen attractive arrange- 
ments of tiles in lire places and wall fountains and inlaid in 
furniture. That the field in this department has hardly 
received attention in America is greatly to be regretted, 
although it is now beginning to be timidly explored. It is 
just the line of work to go with the new movement toward 
"Craftsman" houses. Homes with simple lines and homely 
nooks and corners. 








"This doing things to suit people! They'll hate you, 
and you won't suit them. Most of us live for the critic, 
and he lives on us. He don't sacrifice himself. He gets so 
much a line for writing a criticism. If the birds should 
read the newspapers they would all take to changing their 
notes. The parrots would exchange with the nightingales, 
and what a farce it would be!" 




To be carried out in light green and pink'. 




FOR the first firing, paint the roses in Rosa and shade 
with American Beauty; then wash in the Hght leaves 
with Yellow, Moss and Brown Greens and the shadow 
leaves with Yellow Brown and Sepia. The buds are in 
Yellow Green and the stems in American Beauty. 

For the second firing, paint the background above 

the roses with Banding Blue shading into Shading Green 
and rich, warm browns. The lower part of the plate is in 
Copenhagen Grey toning into Blue Grey back of the shadow 
rose. Use American Beauty and Ruby Purple in the center 
of the roses. 

In the third fire, strengthen and add detail. 


heramic studio 


Ground, a dull ochre, lines and leaf ornaments and wings in olive green. Body of bee, a reddish brown, outlines 
in black or gold. Plate for jar is made by extending lines leading to center. 

KlEramic studio 



Ground white, design in four shades of grey green, 



To be executed in several shades of blue grey or grey green. 

- I ^ 

ir *" 

> ID < 

a. I 


- (I) 







Si ^ 

f a 2 

ffl 111 




Border for Marmalade Jar in blue and white. 

"Children should learn to draw as they learn to write, 
and such a mystery should not be made of it. They should 
be encouraged, not flattered. As it is, every child shows 
some disposition to draw early — marking on doors, tables, 
books, 'whole sheets of paper' — 'which must not be 
wasted.' while the parents, who would save that paper, 
write the most vapid nonsense. With no help and en- 
couragement, the child gradually loses its desire to draw; 
gets interested in other things, until the wish to draw again 
breaks out, and then double effort is required to get the 
facility which might have been gained insensibly." 


MR. A. AV. Finch, Professor of Ceramics at the Central 
School of the Industrial Arts, Helsingfors, Finland, 
has been visiting the pottery districts of England on behalf 
of the Governors of his College, with the object of finding 
material for developing the Ceramic Schools of Finland. 
He says that while traveling through Germany he was 
impressed with the great number of new ceramic colleges 
in process of erection on the Continent. The school in 
Finland seems to be a trade school pure and simple, but 
they are going to try to develop it on the scientific side. 



Hannah Overheck 

Ground, a light cream tone, bands and design in cafe 
au lait; background of design grey green, outlines brown, 
red or black. 


A lice B . Sharrard 

Darkest tone, reddish Brown, dark spots, dark red 
brown, bees, ochre; design with vertical lines in light' 
brown; background of bees, olive; outlines, dark brown. 




S. Evannah Price 

PAINT the berries with Carnation in 
the lighter tones, Blood Red in the 
medium tones, and Blood Red and Rubv 
in the darkest. The leaves are painted 
with Yellow Green, Brown Green, Dark 
Green, Shading Green and Violet. While 
the design is moist lay in the background 
with French Grey, Dark Green, Black and 
Brown Green. When dry dust with same 
colors used in painting, allowing the Blood 
Red and Ruby to run over the Dark Green 
tones. Repeat treatment and fire until 
required depth of colors is obtained. 







To be executed in grey blue on white. Conventionalized from pussy cat and tree.. 


UUiviij liN HOiii-il AMJ AJXJi;'ridi:h'i— LAblQUE 

TlLb, BOX 

Mary F. Overbeck 
In olive green and dark orange on a pale grey green. 

"When I was a little boy I wanted to learn the violin, 
but a certain man discouraged me. 'Don't learn the 
violin! It's so hardV I could kick that man now! It is 
easier to eat dip-toast than to play the violin ; but it doesn't 
meet the same want." 


Emma A. Ervin 

J FIRST found this tiower growing in tall grass, very 
much as poppies grow in wheat, and later found it all 
through the mountains scattered over the open places. 
The Indian name Mariposa means butterfly. The flowers 
are pure white or delicate cream on the inside of petals, the 
outer side is sometimes tinged with a blue lavender. 
The markings on the petals are of bright yellow and green 
with the very dark part of a purple that is almost black. 
The stamens are yellow and the pistil green. The caly.x 
is of yellow green and the long blade-like leaves carry the 
same color with darker shades. 



.„■*- %y^' 










FOR flowers use Orange Red, Deep Red Brown and a leaves are dark green and glossy; for them use Shading 
Httle Finishing or Dark Brown for dark tones, and Green, Moss Green, Brown Green, using a little Blue on 
touches of Black where flowers meet at the centre. The some of them. 




Paint the acorns with Yellow Green, Yellow Brown, Hair Brown; leaves, Yellow Green, Brown Green and Hair Brown. 
Lay in the background with Yellow Brown, Yellow Green and Hair Brown. When dry dust with Dark Yellow Brown and 
Hair Brown. For second fire strengthen where needed with same colors. Third fire tint all over with thin wash of Hair Brown. 



Under the management of Miss Emily Peacock, Karol Shop, 22 East i6th St., New York. All inqitiries in regard to the various 
Crafts are to be sent to the above address, but tuill be answered in the magazine under this head. 

All questions 7nust be received before the 10th day of month preceding issue and will be answered under -'Answers to Inquiries" only. Please do not send stamped 

envelope for replay. The editors will ansiver questions only in these columns. 


Helen R. Albee 

AMONG the various crafts that are open to art students 
none is more promising or profitable than rug-making. 
The hooked rug commends itself particularly, because it 
requires no elaborate or expensive equipment — only a 
simple adjustable frame, that can be procured for a dollar, 
and can be set away in a corner when not in use. In my 
own industry I have worked out a frame which consists of 
four pieces of soft wood, two of which are two inches wide, 
one inch thick and four feet long, with a row of half- inch 
auger holes bored about three inches apart down the middle 
of the ends. The other two are cross-pieces sixteen inches 
long with a fixed peg set in about one inch from the end. 
These pegs should slip easily into the holes of the other 
pieces, thus making a rectangular frame. To keep the frame 
well squared a piece twelve inches long is nailed on each 
of these cross-pieces and fitted so as to come flush against 
the lengthwise pieces when the frame is put together. A 


wooden button is secured on the top braces, so that it can 
be turned over the pegs, thus holding them securely in the 
holes. With this simple construction one can make a small 
chair seat or a rug five feet wide and of indefinite length. 
When in use, one end of the frame can rest on a window 
sill, the other on a table or any firm support of suitable 
height. The worker sits in an easy position directly in front 
of the portion she is hooking, and shifts her chair along as 
the work advances from right to left. 

The only tool required is a hook, which can be made of a 
forty-penny wire nail (about a quarter of an inch thick) 
filed and smoothed into a barbed end and curved slightly. 
The shaping of the barb is very important; for, if too small, 
it will not catch the strip of cloth readily; and if too large 
it will injure the burlap as it is thrust through. When 
finished the hook should not be over two and a quarter 
inches long, the handle two and a half inches. Such a 

hook can be got for fifty cents. A pair of stout shears 
eight and a half inches long are necessary for cutting the 
strips and shearing the surface of the rug.; A good pair 
costs from sixty-five to eighty-five cents. A small tack 
hammer and a paper of 6 oz. tinned carpet tacks complete 
the actual equipment. 


It has been thought that any sort of cotton or wool 
material was good enough for a hooked rug, and it is for 
this reason that it has been the synonym for all that was 
crude and inartistic. After experimenting with many 
materials I have found that a perfect texture is obtained 
only from a pure wool unbleached twilled flannel of three 
and a quarter to three and a half ounces weight to the yard. 
It must be cold pressed and not submitted to the sulphur 
process. As this material is not procurable in the regular 
market, I have mine made in large quantity to meet m)' 
special requirements, and can supply it to those unable to 
procure it. This grade, when worked, makes a smooth, 
velvety texture that improves with wear and does not show 
the looped surface which has been such a blemish in rugs 
made from ordinary dress good. A straight weave will not 
do, for it is in the slight ravelling of the twilled strip that 
the fine texture and bloom are obtained. 

I recommend all craft workers to do their own dyeing. 
It is an art and not to be mastered at once, but it gives a 
free scope to a worker, for he can produce color effects not 
possible under any other conditions. 

There is a feeling in some quarters that a hand-made 
article is not artistic nor honestly made unless every pro- 
cess is according to old, sometimes forgotten, methods. 




This is merely a violent reaction against cheap and mere- 
tricious machine-made goods, and while the revolt is in 
the right direction, it is sadly overdone at times. There is 
no reason why a craft worker should not use every possible 
aid that modern invention and science place at his disposal ; 
for at best he has to contend against the disparity immense 
of price between his hand -work and machine made articles. 
It is simply a false ideal for him to adhere to laborious and 
discarded methods if a good and easier way has been found 
for achieving the same results. I write this in defense of 
the modern method of dyeing, in contrast with the tedious 
and restricted vegetable dyeing of former days. Where 
but a small amount of material goes into a finished article, 
it may be practicable to use vegetable dyes; but in rugs 
where every square foot requires one and a half yards of 
material, and often from sixty to one hundred yards are 
required, it becomes an impossible tax upon the time and 
strength of a worker, to say nothing of the elaborate equip- 
ment required if one is working on a considerable scale. I 
should not advocate aniline dyes as a labor saving sub- 
stitute, if I had not been assured by several experts that 
aniline colors, which formerly were fugitive, have now been 
brought to such perfection that they have entirely super- 
ceded vegetable dyes. I was told also, that, previous to 
the year 1875, new books on vegetable dyeing were con- 
stantly brought out; but since that date no book of any 
importance has been issued. Further testimony comes from 
friends in the tropics whose income from vegetable dyes 
has ceased. They say the business is gone, that there is no 
longer any demand for them. After seven years use of 
aniline dyes I give the heartiest endorsement to their per- 
manence and the beautiful tones they yield. But one must 
get the very best in the market, and the colors must be 
blended and modified. I had an importer compound 
colors to match a sample of green, dull yellow and dull red 
that I sent him, and these same formulas for the dry powders 
are used in preparing my colors year after year. My range 
includes a dull and a bright red, a dark and a bright blue, 
a dull and a bright yellow, a green and a drab. From these 
I have secured over two hundred tones which enable me to 
match any samples of coloring sent me by those who want 
to order special rugs. All my formulas are based upon these 
eight colors, and with them I am able to secure exact tones 
year after year. 

The first requisite for dyeing is a large brass or copper 
kettle. The old fashioned ones are round bottom and do not 
set well upon a stove. I had mine made of the heaviest 
grade of tin-lined copper, with a flat bottom, eleven inches 
high, thirteen inches across the base and sixteen inches 
across the top. The top edge was turned over a heavy wire, 
and the kettle is furnished with a stout iron bale. This 
kettle takes from nine to twelve yards at a time, but a 
smaller one would answer for a beginner. To drain my 
flannel when it comes from a dye bath I use a heavy wire 
dish drainer which I rest on a stick laid across the kettle. 
The kettle should have a cover of either wood or metal. 

To secure uniform results I have found it necessary to 
use my dyes in liquid form. I dissolve my colors separately 
in quarter ounce quantities in a pint measure, first pouring 
on a little cold water and stirring well to dissolve the dye, 
then filling up the measure with boiling water. This is 
stirred thoroughly and each liquid color is kept in its own 
bottle. When half a teaspoonful of liquid dye will often 
make a marked difference in the tone of a color, it is obvious 
that the dry powder could not yield. agcuratQ results. I 

prefer to dissolve my color only as I am about to use it, 
for the bright yellow, green and dull red have a way of 
settling at the bottom of the bottle and this thickened 
sediment, unless well shaken, is apt to make a stronger 
color than is desired. 


Other necessary articles are a long handled spoon to 
stir the dye bath, table and teaspoons to measure the liquid 
dye, a pair of stout gloves, a set of scales which will measure 
a quarter of an ounce to six ounces, an acid measuring 
glass (ounce Phoenix graduate, American standard) and 
two smooth sticks, about eighteen inches long, to stir the 
flannel in the bath, (to be continued.) 


Mrs. M. C. — We think it would probably be safe to fire tlie Japanese 
piece repaired with cement in your kiln, however, there is always a certain 
risk in refiring of this kind. 

Mrs. S. C. — We tliink either formula which you mention might make a 
good painting medium, but personally we prefer for powder colors a mixture 
of Copaiba 6 drops, oil of cloves 1 drop. This is good for both flower and 
figure painting. Spirits of turpentine are then used in the brush to thin the 
color. For tube colors, spirits of turpentine, oil of lavander and oil of cloves 
are used for painting the first drying quickly, the second more slowly and 
oil of cloves keeping open a long time. For tinting the general rule is to 
add as much fat oil as color and flux (J) combined and thin with lavander 

H. M. — Burnished silver is silver precipitated in powder form. We do 
not at present know the process but will endeavor to procure the method for 

M. W. B. — For your boullion cups it would be in good taste to use 
decorations of small roses, violets, shells and .sea moss if you wish, providing 
you confine the decoration to a narrow border, otherwise your dainty flowers 
would be always "in the soup." 

Mrs. J. D. B. — We will give a colored raspberry study as soon as we can 
procure a good one. A treatment for red raspberries. See next issue. 

Mrs. C G. H. — Banding wheels are useful both for color and gold and 
pencil, but need some experience for good results. We think the makes of 
gold advertised in Ker.'^mic Studio are all good — it would be impossible as 
well as impolitic to say which special make is best. To get the best effect 
in painting small red roses, paint first with blood red or pompadour, and 
retouch with ruby in second fire, this avoids the purplish tint. If your gold 
drys too soon with spirits of turpentine use a little oil of lavander. 

Mrs. A. W. C. — You will find the desired information in the October 
Class Room under "A Color Palette and its Use." 

M.J. R. — ^For the pitcher in Mountain Ash Berries. — The narrow red 
border may be made of yellow red; where two tones of yellow are shown 
the deeper color is made by a second dusting in the second fire. The colors 
are dusted on one color at a time, if a mixture of colors is used it is put on in 
the second fire. Stems are yellow green and brown green. In the foiu-th 
fire the brush is used for the painting of the design, grounding oil and color 
for the tints. Rose lustre can be fired in any kiln but must be fired just 
right not to be purplish — the purplish cast comes from overfiring. 


f=-^| R^EL- Ps^L.Wr^EZ^ 


MRS. HELEN R. ALBEE jt jt jt 
MISS MILES.^ ^ Jt ^ Jt jt j>t 
MRS. H. B. PAIST ^ ^ ^ ^ jit 
MR. PAUL PUTZKI j* ^ ^ .^ 

OCT. MCMV Price 35c. Yearly Subscription $3.50 

[ The entire contents of this Magasine are coffered by the general copyright, and the articles mast not be reprinted l^ithout special permission. ] 


— -"^-^^SSOS^SS-*---* 



Tiie Class Room— A Color Palette and Its Use 

Bowl or Plate in Gold and White 

Fringed Gentian 

Tulip Tree Blossoms 

Horse-chestnut Design for Pitcher 

Blackberry Study 

White Nicotina or Tobacco Plant 

Tobacco Jars ist Prize 

Tobacco Jars 2d 

Tobacco Jars Mentions 

Hop Design for Stein 

Red Raspberries 

Chinese Bowl 

Ceramics at St. Louis Exposition 


Plate in Red Raspberries 


The Crafts— Rug Making at Home— Part II 

Studio Notes 

Answers to Correspondents 

Edith Alma Ross 

Mary Turner Merriil 

Paul Putzki 

Russell Goodwin 

Sarah Reid McLaughlin 

Mary Burnett 

Russell Goodwin 

Emily Hesselmeyer 

Bertha Drennan — Lucia Jordan 

H, B. Paist 

Miss Miles 

Emma A. Ervin 
Jeanne M. Stewart 
Maud Myers 
Helen R. Albee 

120 125 






Some Leading Agencies of Keramic Studio 

We take pleasure in mentioning a few of the leading agencies for the sale 
of the Kehamic Studio, where, also, subscriptions may be placed: 

Boston, Mass. — Miss E. E. Page, 286 Boyelton St.; Smith & McCance, 
Old Comer Book Store. ! 

Brooklyn — A. D. Mathew's Sons, Fulton Street. 

Buffalo— Mrs. Filkins, 609 Main Street. 

Chicago — A. H. Abbott & Co.; A. C. McClurg & Co.; Brentano's; Burley 

Cincinnati— Miss M. Owen, 245 Elm Street; A. B. Closson, 110 W. 4th St. 
Traxel & Maas, 4th Street, near Elm. 

Cleveland, Ohio — Vinson & Koruer, 150 Euclid Ave. 

Columbus, Ohio — Lee Roessler, 116 So. High Street. 

Denver, Colo.— H. R. Meininger, 409 16th Street. 

Detroit, Mich. — L. B. King & Co.; Art China Co. 

Hartford, Ct.— E. M. SiU. 

Grand Rapids, Mich. — Miller, Wolfe Co. 

Indianapolis, Ind. — Keramic Supply Co., Lemcke Building. 

Kansas City. Mo— Emery, Bird, Thayer Co.; Geo. B. Peck Co. 

Minneapolis, Minn. — Minn. Art China Co., 607 1st Ave. So.; Elizabeth 

Hood, 18 W. 6th St., St. Paul, Minn. 
New York City— Brentano's, Union Square; M, T. Wynne's, 11 E. 20th 

St.; The Fry Art Co., 11 E. 22d St.; Wanamaker's; American News Co.; 

J. B. Ketcham, 107 W. 25th Street. 
Newark, N. J. — Keramic Novelty Co. 
Oakland, Cal. — Smith Bros. 
Omaha, Neb. — Megeath Stationery Co. 
Philadelphia — Wanamaker's . 
Pittsburgh, Pa. — Otto Schaffer & Bros.; Kurtz, Langbein & Schwartz; 

R. S. Davis & Co., 346 Fifth Ave.; John G. Yergan, 420 Penn Ave. 
San Francisco— Mrs. M. E. Perley, 207 Post Street. 
St. Louis— F. Weber & Co.; A, S. Aloe & Co. 
Syracuse — Wolcott Book Shop; Welch & Hollingsworth; W. Y. Foote; 

A. L. Varney & Co , 336 S. Salina Street. 
Toronto — The Art Metropole. 
Washington, D. C— Wood & Lothrop. 

The Magazine may also be ordered from any news dealer or book store 
in this country, who can procure it through the American News Company 
New York, or its branches. 

Vol. VIL No. 6 


October 1905 

SUBSCRIBER asks for the exact 
meaning of the word conventional 
as used in design. To make a 
conventionaHzation of any natura- 
Hstic form one examines several 
specimens, selects the points on 
which the majority agree, elim- 
inates any details which are mere 
individual characteristics or acci- 
dents, and from these points con- 
structs a type or generalization which is the conventional 
form, ready for design. 

For instance, take several wild roses; most of them 
have five equal petals, a few have but four, some have 
six or seven; some abortive, some larger than the others. 
The majorit}'^ having five, the conventional flower will 
have but five equal petals. The majority of the roses 
having heart-shaped perfect petals, the conventional flower 
will have heart-shaped perfect petals, and so on through 
all the points of the flower. A conventional person is one 
who reflects all the accepted ideas of the community. A 
conventional flower or other form bears a general resemb- 
blance to all of its kind. This makes a safe citizen and a 
safe form for design, but not an interesting one. As people 
and roses vary considerably in color, that quality is left 
out and a conventional flower as well as a conventional per- 
son is colorless. Color is necessarilly itidividual, not gen- 
eral. Here is where the artist comes in and lends the per- 
sonal, individual touch which is so necessary to good design, 
but it is the individuality of the artist, not of the flower. To 
be strictly correct one should speak of a conventional design 
as a decorative conventional design if one refers to anything 
out of the ordinary, but most of us are lazy and we use con- 
ventional alone or decorative alone, taking for granted that 
every one understands. 

The difference between a decorative naturalistic and a 
decorative conventional treatment of any subject consists in 
this : A naturalistic treatment trys to bring into a harmoni- 
ous whole a number of distinctly different units, using all the 
little individual traits to give personality. The result being 
usually distinguished at first sight by beauty of color and 
dark and light, and in a degree a familiar aspect of things; 
when one looks long enough to see the details, one sees no 
longer the picture, but the disintegrated units. 

This is as it should be for a picture, but for a decoration 
the case is quite different. The conventional must always 
be considered in connection with design, as a design is some- 
thing composed by the artist out of nature, as the con- 
ventional rose is selected by the artist from the natural 

A decorative conventional treatment, then, is an arrange- 
ment which endeavors to bring into harmonious whole, the 
general and characteristic points which the artist has noted, 
omitting all personal traits of the subject in such a way that 
these points will immediately impress itself upon the be- 
holder, and the whole thought, the whole design is seen at 
once. Any details that have to be looked for are a mistake. 
The result is usually distinguished by rhythm, beauty of 

line and color, dark and light, and the delight of discovery, 
for as ever}- artist sees things in a different aspect from 
every other artist, as is shown even in naturalistic painting, 
so to this is added the mental attitude of the artist in which 
he takes liberties with the natural form in order to increase 
his idea of beauty of line, movement, mass, etc. The more 
of this element which enters into the composition, 
the more delight is felt by the beholder. 

To return to our definition then, a naturalistic treatment 
endeavors to give the personality of the subject, which must 
predominate over the personality of the artist, although to 
be successful the artist 's personality must not be entirely 

A conventional treatment endeavors to give pleasure by 
giving the general qualities of a subject predominated by 
the personality of the artist, although to be thoroughly sat- 
isfying the personality of the original subject must not be 
entirely lost. 

A naturalistic treatment is objective, the conventional 
subjective; a naturalistic treatment uses the mind and hand 
to display the beauties of outside nature; the conventionl 
treatment uses the beauties of outside nature to display the 
infinite variety of the human mind and imagination and 
the skill which can be cultivated in the hand. 

A good naturalistic painter is restricted by the actuality 
of things, beyond a certain limited liberty of expression 
he is bound to stick to the truth of things as seen by every- 
body. In reality he is more conventionally hide-bound 
than the designer. The good conventional designer adds to 
the whole realm of nature the infinite world of the mind, and 
beyond a certain limitation of liberty in the necessity of 
holding to the principles of good design, he is free to wan- 
der at will, changing lines here, color there, arranging and 
re-arranging, until he at last perfects a rhythm, a lasting 
harmony, a part of the music of the spheres. His are the 
magic fingers that can transmute the baser metals into gold 
and gold into a subtile essence of delight. 

The tobacco jar problem was not as successfully solved 
as many have been, due especially to ignorance of the 
proper shape of a tobacco jar. 

A good tobacco jar should be rather squatty than tah, 
it should have a wide opening at the top so that the hand 
can enter, the cover should be deep and of such a shape 
that a sponge can be held in the top to keep the tobacco 
moist — rather like a large knob. 

The first prize was awarded to Russell Goodwin, Mar- 
blehead, Mass., second prize Emily Hesselmeyer. Mention: 
Bertha Drennan and Tucia Jordan. 

Nothing remains of a nation but its poetry, painting, 
sculpture, and architecture. 

If you could see me dig and groan, rub it out and start 
again, hate myself, and feel dreadfully! The people who 
"do things easily!" Their things you look at easily, and 
"give away easily!' ' 



The subject for the next class room will be "Enamels. " The same 
prizes will be awarded as for the articles on the Color Palette. 

First Prize— Martha M. Howells, Bridgeport, O. 

THE first question the beginner in china painting asks 
is: "What colors shall I get?" and probably nothing 
confuses and discourages her more than the formidable 
array that is generally advised, not necessarily from a 
financial standpoint, but from the, apparently, hopeless 
outlook of learning when to use each color in its proper 
place. If one bears in mind the fact that china colors may 
be mixed almost as much as water colors the work is 


A good list of colors is: 

Rose Albert Yellow 

Ruby Yellow Brown 

Hair Brown Russian Green 

Black Shading Green 

Yellow Red Banding Blue 

Blood Red 
In vials: 

Deep Blue Green — French colors, Flux, Aufsetzweiss 
(Muller & Hennig.) 

To this may be added for special effects 
Copenhagen Blue 
Royal Green Frys. 

Dark Green 
Grey for white flowers 

or White Rose Bischoff . 

Brown Pink 
Apple Green 

Violet of Iron French. 

The first list used pure or in combinations will be found 
to meet almost all demands for naturalistic or conventional 


Albert Yellow is indispensable. Used alone for yellow 
flowers, such as jonquils, roses, chrysanthemums, etc., or 
for tinting it is always trustworthy. By using a small 
amount of green it can be used for lemon yellow ; with yellow 
Red it becomes Orange, with Yellow Brown, Yellow Ochre. 

Shading Green is another good color ; mixed with green 
(shading) various shades are produced according as one or 
the other color predominates. To make Shading Green 
darker add a little Ruby. For Brown Green or Olive, mix 
Yellow Brown with Shading Green to procure the desired 
shade. All shades of purple, for violets, blackberries, 
pansies, grapes, etc., may be made by mixing Banding 
Blue and Ruby, making the mixture a little bit bluer than 
desired as the Ruby comes out stronger than the Blue in 
firing. Yellow Red and Blood Red, for poppies, currants, 
etc., may in the absence of Violet of Iron, be strengthened 
by Ruby. Ruby is used for dark red roses, grapes, etc. 
By mixing a little Dark Green with it for the "heart" of the 
rose in the first firing a good depth may be acquired without 
putting the color on so thick as when Ruby is used alone 
thus avoiding the risk of the color "chipping." 

Black is used for outlining in conventional work, also 
for toning the colors. In naturahstic treatment it is used 

over purple for the darkest parts of grapes, plums, black- 
berries, pansies, etc. Rose, as the color indicates, is a pink 
for roses, arbutus, dainty spring blossoms, chrysanthemums, 

Care must be exercised to keep the color clean, and not 
to paint it too heavily or it will fire a disagreeable shade. 

Russian Green is used for the high lights of leaves, 
where the light falls directly on them, is also a beautiful 
color to use in background. If a thin wash of it comes over 
the petals of white flowers, not prominent in the design, it 
gives a pleasing "atmosphere." Mixed with yellow, it 
makes a good Yellow Green, for the high light of leaves 
showing the light through them. 

Dark Green is a good color for shading leaves, it can 
also be used, very thin, for shadow effects. Purple back- 
grounds that have fired too glaringly may be toned down 
with a thin wash of this color or it may be dusted on for 
the first firing to give "depth" to it. It may also be added 
to purple for fruits and flowers of that color, for the darkest 
parts, mixing with the brush. 

Hair Brown is a warm brown used for shading leaves, 
branches and stems. 

Deep Blue Green is a most satisfactory color for blue 
flowers, as forget-me-nots, and is much used for conventional 
work, in combination with other blues and greens. 

Banding Blue is useful for representing the "bloom" 
of fruits, mixed with a little Copenhagen Blue makes a better 
shade than alone or with black as it is generally used. 

There are several combinations for making greys, and 
a little practice soon enables one to know which harmon- 
izes with the work in hand. 

A, good grey for yellow flowers is made by mixing Rose, 
Albert Yellow, and Banding Blue. Used softly it will also 
do for pink and white flowers. Apple Green and Rose 
makes a soft grey for pink flowers. Yellow and purple for 
Yellow flowers. Red and Violet (Banding Blue and Ruby) 
for red flowers. A dark, almost black grey may be made 
by mixing Shading Green and Ruby, to use under the 
darkest mass of flowers, by using rather more Ruby as it 
emerges to the lighter part of background, a beautiful 
effect is obtained. 

Mix Yellow Brown and Rose with the Yellow Brown 
predominating for the salmon pink of tea roses. 

Having the colors at hand we may now get them ready 
for use. For this purpose, the covered palette, while not 
an absolute necessity, is such a vast improvement on the old 
tile, that the additional cost is more than offset by the saving 
in time, patience and paint. 


It is better for the beginner to use a prepared painting 
medium, as Fry's or Mason's. There is then no doubt about 
the paints being mixed properly, as there is a tendency to 
lay the blame of difficulties of first attempts on the material. 

Later on it will be found that as good progress can be 
made with Balsam Copaiba and Clove oil mixed in propor- 
tion of 6 drops Balsam Copaiba to i drop oil of Cloves. 
Have also a small bottle, i oz. of Oil of Copaiba — (not 
Balsam Copaiba) — which can be had at any drug store. 
Have at least a pint of turpentine in a bottle with mouth 




large enough to admit a small funnel, in this place a neatly 
folded piece of filtering paper. When the day's work is 
done pour the turpentine that has been in use into the 
filtering paper; in this way none is wasted and the turpen- 
tine is always clean, as is also the jar for holding it, as it is 
only the work of a minute to wipe it. Habits of neatness 
and cleanhness tell here as in other matters. 


A steel palette knife, with a three inch blade, if kept 
free from rust, will answer all purposes. 

Placing the palette before you, have the jar, or cup 
with turpentine at the upper right hand corner, to the left 
of this the bottle of medium, next a small white jar (or 
convenient holder, with cover), with a smaU quantity of 
the Oil of Copaiba. To the right of the turpentine place a 
folded white rag for wiping brushes and knife, also have a 
rag at hand for wiping palette, etc. These are little things 
in themselves but help or hinder greatly according to the 
worker. It is well to form good habits at the beginning so 
the work may be done with neatness and dispatch. 


Take a little of the powder color on the palette and mix 
with enough medium to make a smooth, stiff paste. After 
working the oil into it thoroughly gather it up with the knife 
and place it in a compact pile in the upper left hand corner. 
Clean the palette and knife and repeat until the required 
colors are prepared. 

For the tube colors work with a little turpentine to 
"cut" the oil then add a drop of oil of Copaiba. Place the 
colors in a row at the top of the palette; if more space is 
necessary place along the side, so that one color may not 
brush into another, and also to allow as much space as 
possible for charging the brushes with oil, and mixing the 
colors. Always put the colors in the same place, in this way 
the eye and hand reaches them instantly, from force of habit. 

More depends on the quality of the brushes than the 
size, as one good brush may be used for an entire design, 
with better effect than with half a dozen of more suitable 
size that are poor in quality. Be sure to "get the best." 

No. 9 or I o square shaders for broad washes. No. 7 or 6 
for general, and No. 3 or 2 for fine work, and one sable liner 
will be found ample for beginning. New brushes may be 
soaked for an hour in cold water to make the quills pliable, 
if they do not fit on the cedar handles easily. To prepare 
for painting dip the brush in turpentine, then wipe on the 
rag, dip in the painting medium and work the color well into 
the brush, and then work off the superfluous oil, touch 
lightly to the oil of Copaiba and work again, so that the 
bristles hold together without separating, and are pliable. 
Take up a little of the desired color into the brush and enter 
into the joy of an art that "age cannot wither nor custom 
stale, its infinite variety." 
2d prize. 


Second Prize — Anne Seymour Mondy,. Coudersport, Pa. 

It is well at first to have a list of colors as simple as possi- 
ble, to which may be added as occasion demands those 
special colors needed for special uses. No list is infallible, 
but the list appended is one which has been in use for flower 
painting by my own pupils for several years: Silver Yel- 
low, $ .20; Yellow Brown, .20; Peach Blossom, .25; 
Roman Purple, .60; Light Violet of Gold, .30; Deep Blue 

Green, .30; Apple Green, .20; Moss Green, .20; Brown 
Green, .25; Dark Chocolate Brown, Black, .20; Total 
$2.90. Brushes, 6 or 7 ; 2 square Shaders .20; 2 Red 
Sable Riggers, .20; i Tinting Brush, .15; i Oil, .20; 
I Palette, 1.25; Turp, .10 Alcohol, 10; Total 55.00. 

With this list may be painted white, pink or red roses, 
violets, forget-me-nots, wild asters, in fact almost any 
_ flower; but for fruit I would suggest the addition of Blood 
Red (Fry's), Pompadour Red, Capucine Red, for use in 
currants, red raspberries, light grapes, apples, etc., and for 
grapes, the darker varieties, Ruby, Banding Blue, with 
possibly Air Blue, which, though not necessary, gives the 
bloom so desirable in painting grapes or high lights on 
blackberries, etc. 

The Marsching ' ' Peach Blossom ' ' should be used witli 
Roman Purple on the same palette because they each take 
a light firing satisfactorily; but Fry's Rose or any other 
hard fire pink requires Ruby or some other hard fire color in 
retouching; hence, in making up a simple palette include 
those colors which fuse at about the same temperature. 

The greens are used for painting leaves and some stems, 
and a very little Apple Green on the brush before using 
Moss Green keeps it from turning brown in firing. Remem- 
ber also that Moss or Royal green should never be used 
on Belleek, as they are apt to turn brown in firing. Use 
Apple Green and Brown Green instead. 

For woody stems or shadowy ones use Black, very thin, 
either by itself or with Yellow Brown. The stems are 
softer and not so staring. Black by itself for tints will not 
always be a good black. Add a Httle Deep Blue Green or 
Banding Blue. 

If you can spend but $3.00 on an outfit, still include a-cov- 
ered palette. It is economy always, as after the colors are 
once ground and mixed with oil, by keeping covered air- 
tight and in a cool place, w^hen not in use, they will be 
good for several days and even for weeks. 

Don't use too much oil in mixing. It makes the colors 
"run" and is not only wasteful, but makes bad work, as 
crispness is impossible to obtain and depth of color is also 

The powder colors are better than tube colors, because 
they keep indefinitely in bottles, and when mixed with oil 
will not "dry" as tube colors do, and are good as long as 
there is any left on the palette if kept clean and free from 
dust. Have a little extra piece of glass slab on which to 
' ' grind ' ' j'-our colors, removing to the palette after they are 
smooth. In this way you will not scratch the opalescent 
glass of your palette. If you find you have used too much 
oil in mixing, breath on the paint and mix again when it will 
stand up better. If the paint seems ' ' grainy ' ' use a tiny 
bit of turpentine rather than too much oil. It will help 
dissolve the particles and will dry out. When the colors 
become dry in time, grind up with a little turpentine, but 
never again with oil as it makes them ' ' gummy. ' ' 

Have an order about putting your colors on the palette, 
beginning at the bottom left-hand corner, going up and 
across the top and down the right side. Allow at least an 
inch between each color, and as much between the color and 
the japanned edge of the box. It will keep your colors 
cleaner and also make it easier to clean the palette each 
day when you have finished painting. Be neat about your 
palette and you will find it easier to do good work. Love 
your palette as your house and don't track color or dirt 
all over it leaving it to dr)^ on. It wears out your brush 
and makes it harder to get work which is not ' ' lintv. ' ' 



Use cotton cloth for paint rags-old sheets or pillow cases 
are best-do not tear as that makes lint-but cut the cloth 
with shears into squares about the size of a handkerchief 
fold several times and use to wipe brushes. Put on the 
table just under the right hand corner of palette. Do not 
wipe brushes on your apron; use the cloth or run them 
through your fingers to remove particles of paint or dust. 

Paint in a cotton, linen or silk gown, also to avoid lint or 
dust. A plain black silk gown is economical, for spots of 
paint or oil can be cleaned off at once with alcohol, leaving 
the silk as good as before. Never wear woolen or flannel gowns 
for painting, even with an apron. A black sateen apron is 
good, but a simple calico, white with tiny black spot or 
stripe, made to hang from the shoulders, can be laundried 
each week and always looks neat. Have a pocket on the 
left side. You are less apt to catch it and tear it, and it is 
handy to keep the dabber and cotton in that pocket. 

For tinting use a piece of soft silk, India or China silk, 
without a twill; a silk handkerchief is preferable, not too 
old or it will shed lint. This can be soaked in a little turpen- 
tine or kerosene oil when it becomes soiled and washed out 
with soap and warm water. Always iron smooth, as the 
wrinkles make bad places in the tints. Keep the cotton 
alwaj^s on the same side of the silk, also to avoid lint. Sur- 
geon's wool is best and can be washed out after ' ' dusting' ' 
colors ; but for ordinary tinting any cotton free from lumps 
will do. Do not tie your cotton into little hard pads; it 
makes much better work to slip it around under the silk 
handkerchief as you need a clean spot. If the silk is too 
thin you may use two thicknesses of silk so that the cotton 
will not pull ' ' through. ' ' 

A medium of 5 parts copaiba and i part clove oil is best, 
but excellent results are obtained with other oils and 
proportion if others be at hand; as fat oil of turpentine 
lavender oil. One-third fat oil, ^ copaiba, and j- each of 
lavender and clove oil is good. Remember that the fat 
oil and copaiba are for body and the clove oil to ' ' keep it 
open longer. ' ' Lavender oil dries quickly. If your medium 
is gummy, thin with turpentine or lavender or clove oil or 
tar oil. To clean your brushes when painting, use turpen- 
tine or alcohol. To some the odor of turpentine is offensive. 
There are two ways to obviate this. Either pour alcohol 
on your turpentine-it is lighter and will float and thus 
covers the odor of the turpentine-or keep a glass jar of tur- 
pentine uncovered always on the outside window-sill or 
out of doors when not in use. It becomes almost odorless. 
The jars in which come Beechnut bacon or some kinds of 
dried beef are fine for turpentine; fill them at least half full. 
The edges of the glass are sharp and as the brush is wiped 
across the edge after cleaning, the turpentine runs back 
into the glass instead of on the outside, saving far more 
than one has any idea. The little low flat salt cellars 
which some use for oil and turpentine are an abomination 
as they are not only wasteful but most untidy. A whisky 
glass is also good for turpentine, oil or alcohol — anything 
which has a sharp thin smooth edge. 

In regard to brushes, get square shaders inclined to be 
long rather than short, and thin rather than too thick at the 
base, so that in tinting, as well as in painting, you may get a 
lighter, softer and more even tint when you desire, and so 
that each stroke may have ' ' swing. ' ' The red sable riggers 
should be carefully selected; not too long, nor too short; 
uncut hairs preferred; with good backbone, which means 
the instant springing back to position of the hairs directly 
pressure is taken off the brush in bending in the fingers or 
painting. Make strokes always drawing toward you, or so 

that the hairs hang together, feel every hair in the brush 
(mentally of course), and keep them together as you would 
stroke fur or velvet-always the right way; you will keep 
your brushes longer and do better work. Use a very little 
oil to keep the hairs together, and work it into the brush 
first by dipping the tip of the brush into the edge of the oil, 
laying it flat with a side to side motion and then drawing it 
toward you. 

The most important thing in painting is first to grind the 
colors smooth and to the right consistency; next comes 
taking color on to the brush. The better and more smoothly 
the color is worked into the brush, the less padding you will 
have to do, and the greater depth of color you can put on 
safely with one stroke. 

Do not be so anxious to do great things that you slight 
the details, which seem so trivial but really mean so much. 
Master the mechanical part of the work so thoroughly that 
finally it will be an unconscious part of your artistic efforts 
and you will be free to exercise your mind in the more inter- 
esting planes of composition and design. 
Third Prize — Sydney Scott Lewis, Georgetown, Ky. 

For the beginner in china painting — first a course 
in drawing and designing with a good teacher. But 
these will not avail unless there is good working material 
close at hand. — Cheap china, a scanty stock of colors, in- 
different mediums and brushes handicap many a good 
worker and make them wonder at the poor results of their 

For the beginners let them by all means invest, ist, in 
one of the covered palettes (a wonderful economy it is). 
2nd, a well selected, liberal range of colors. To have just 
the right color always at hand and plenty of it is most 
satisfying. Not to have to substitute something that is 
"almost" but not quite the color desired — a thing that so 
often happens and which may ruin the whole effect. Either 
Fry's or Miss Mason's colors are excellent. The following 
is a very complete list: 

Banding Blue, Baby Blue, Copenhagen Blue (Fry) ; 
Royal Blue (Mason's) ; Yellow Brown (Fry and German) ; 
Dark Brown (Fry) ; Hair brown (Mason, heautiful) ; Finish- 
ing Brown, Meissen Brown, Gold Grey, Copenhagen Grey, 
Pearl Grey, Grey for Flesh, Royal Green (do not use on 
Beleek), Russian Green, Yellow Green (use on Beleek in- 
stead of Royal), Shading Green, Apple Green, Dark Green, 
Brown Green, Sea Green, Deep Blue Green, Empire Green, 

Ruby , (Fry's) ; Osgood's Standard Pink (for roses) ; 

Yellow Red, Pompadour Red, Carnation, Violet i, Violet 2, 
Albert Yellow, Lemon Yellow, Neutral Yellow, German 
OutHning Black, Black, Hard Black (Fry's); Azure Glaze 
(Mason) ; Mason's Paste for Raised Gold; Mason's Enamels 
and enamel medium; Fry's lusti'es; Hasburg's Gold (Roman 
and unfluxed. 

To set palette begin lower left hand corner with darkest 
greens shading into lightest, then lightest yellow into yellow 
brown, going into darkest brown, on into the reds, into 
violets, to blues, leaving the centre of palette for brush play. 

Mix a generous supply of each color thoroughly with 
Fry's medium until it stands up proudly (you might say). 
For the second day rub down only with lavander oil. In- 
stead of turpentine I use entirely alcohol (grain) and 
lavander oil — the alcohol only to wash brushes in, in passing 
from one color to another — never to mix paint unless mixed 
with the lavander oil. Have three cups, one medium, one 
alcohol, one lavander oil. Use lavander oil in mixing enamels 



(also enamel medium), gold and paste. First put into paste 
■ a small bit of oil of tar, then rub until perfectly smooth 
with lavander oil. If lavander oil is thick, dilute with 
alcohol. Fry's special tinting oil is good for light tints and 
flushing. Dresden thick oil when a dark tint is desired. 
One small steel palette knife answers all purposes, 
provided it is kept bright and clean. In fact keep things 
clean is one of the main things to be kept in mind — dust 
and dirt ruin paint, paste, gold, and lustres (especially). 
The question of brushes is most important; a poor brush 
means poor work. Use as large a brush as possible, a large 
flat square shader (Camel's hair). I find a large flat tinting 
brush excehent in background work. Also in china work I 
use the short, flat Russian sable brushes that are generally 
used for oil and get fine results from their use. A good 
miniature brush and a carefully selected outliner are verv 
necessary. Outlining is one of the most important things to 
master, as it at once stamps the amateur. If one has a 
steady hand, a good brush and the paint mixed to the right 
flowing consistency, practice will soon make perfect, or 
nearly so. Brushes should be cleaned in alcohol with little 
lavander oil, then washed in soap and water, then pointed 
or flattened as the case may be and put away straight and 
flat. A well arranged palette with a generous supply of 
well mixed, clean paints, not runny or oily, but just right, a 
good supply of clean, well kept brushes, plenty of the right 
kind of oil and mediums — not many kinds laut the right 
kind, — a lot of nice cotton and soft silk and last but not least 
rags — is a delight to the heart of any teacher who sits down 
to instruct a pupil, and the wise pupil will soon learn that a 
palette so supplied has very drawing qualities, and the 
teacher always likes to stay awhile, 
o o o 
Fourth Prize — A. L. Dowd, Saratoga Springs, N. Y. 
[extracts oxly.] 

The powder colors are better than the tube as they will 
keep indefinitely, the tube colors dry up and one that does 
not paint all the time soon finds them useless. Begin plac- 
ing the colors on the palette in the order in which they are 
named (Yellows, Reds, Violet, Blue, Green Brown, Black, 
and Grey) , then always keep them in the same order so that 
when you paint you will be able to put your brush in the 
color you want, in so doing you will be able to paint as 
one plays on the piano — one knows just where the keys are, 
therefore where to put one's hands. 

The ready mixed medium is better for beginners as it is 
always the same and costs no more. 

All colors will mix when you know how to use them. 
Albert Yellow will mix with everything, but it is a strong 
color and eats up the others, therefore use sparingly. For 
greys use Violet and Yellow Brown, Violet and Brown 
Green, Gold Grey and Blue Green, mixed greys are better 
to use in painting flowers than the ready mixed as you 
naturally get more of a variety. In mixing for conventional 
work be sure and mix enough for it is hard to match. For the 
brushes you will need No. 5 and 8 square shaders for ordi- 
nary painting, for finer work No. 5 pointed shader and for 
very fine lines No. o Red Sable liner and No. 11 square 
shader for background work. The brushes want to be 
washed in turpentine after each painting before puting away. 
Keep in a pint can, handles downward so as to keep the 
brush part in good order, do not put them where the brush 
part will get bent as that will spoil the brush for good work. 

Always start in painting with a clean palette as you 
cannot do good work with all the old oily mixtures on the 

palette, I do not mean the good clean paint you have left 
as that win be just as good as fresh, but you will find that 
as you paint, your palette wiU get mussy, that wants wiping 
oft" and if your colors run together separate them, for al- 
though color will mix, when you want to use a clear color 
you want it to be clear. 

Fifth Prize— Miss Lucy L. Brown, Roxbury, Mass. 

[extracts oxly.] 

As this is a lesson for beginners, it is wefl at the 
commencement to bear in mind that experience and 
knowledge come to those who work with patience and care ; 
and although the first processes of china painting, such as 
knowing how to manipulate the brush, and to lay on the 
color in the correct way, may seem to them easy and not to 
require much practice, it is this good foundation which 
brings success later. 

A simple palette for beginners would be hacroix colors : 
Mixing Yehow, Jonquil YeUow, Silver Yellow, Orange 
Yehow, Carnation i, Deep Red Brown, Capucine Red, 
Violet of Iron, Deep Blue, Deep Blue Green, Apple Green, 
Moss Green J, Olive Green, Brown Green No. 6, Dark Green 
No. 7, Brown 4 or 17, L. Violet of Gold, D. Violet of Gold, 
Deep Purple, Neutral Grey, Yellow Brown, Rose Pompadour 
Carmine i, Carmine 3, German, Brunswick Black, and tube 
of Flux, also a box of Roman Gold. 

These may be bought in tube or powder form. 
A horn palette knife for mixing gold and a steel palette 
knife for colors. 

The brushes required are square shaders Nos. 3, 8, and 
10; pointed shaders Nos. 3, 5 and 8; 1 flat camel's hair 
brush for tinting about f inch wide ; 2 outlining brushes or 
liners of red sable No. o and No. i. 

A lithographic pencil and India ink are needed for 
drawing on the china. 

If using tube colors, squeeze some of the color (about 
as large as a pea) on the palette, by pressing the bottom of 
the tube, mix a drop or two of the medium mixture witli it, 
and rub well, then dip your brush in the turpentine and 
then into the color on your palette, using only enough 
turpentine to cause the color to leave the brush in a firm 
even touch when put on the china, not enough to make it 
thin and watery. Never use dirty turpentine, always mix 
all the colors you expect to use before commencing to paint. 
To set your palette for a flower study, put the local 
color of the flower at the left hand corner and other colors 
for shading the flower next, then beginning with the lightest 
yellow then lightest greens through the darkest for the 
leaves — keep your colors distinct on your palette, never 
mixing them promiscuously, or you will soon have a muddy 
result on your china, as a union of two or more colors genera- 
ally produces a grey. 

Now draw some simple flower form, not too large, and 
practice making each petal with one stroke of the brush, 
using one color say deep red brown, thus getting 3'ourself 
accustomed from the beginning to a good clear, firm touch, 
and not the patched stipply look which we too often see on 
china, which spoils the best design. In china painting as in 
Avater color, everything depends on the clearness and trans- 
parency thus obtained; having succeeded in getting this to 
your satisfaction, color some simple design in the same color 
on the border of a plate. 

One may draw the design either with the lithographic 
pencil and go over it with India ink, or with the India ink and 
a fine brush at first; or you can use the pencil only; the 



India ink is not disturbed by using the mineral paint over 
it; while the lithographic pencil marks are often lost if 
mistakes are made— both disappear all right in the firing. 
Now let us try to tint a plate or saucer in one even tint. 
To do this, take about enough color to cover half of a one- 
cent piece, add one-third flux, (as in thinning colors for 
tinting more flux is required to unite the color with the 
glaze of the china) then rub well together with as much fat 
oil as color and flux combined and thin with lavender oil 
till it flows freely from the brush ; have ready a wad of cotton 
covered with a piece of silk (an old handkerchief is good), 
take the broad tinting brush and fill with the paint and 
cover the china to be tinted as evenly as possible with the 
paint; wait until a little tacky, and then pad in little quick 
dabs all over the tint until every brush-mark is merged into 
an even tint; if not successful the first time, do not be 
discouraged, but wipe off and go through the same process 
again. When the clear, even stroke of the flower and the 
process of tinting is mastered we have gone farther than a 
beginner realizes in the art of china painting. 
o o o 

Ella F. Adams, Yellow Spring's, Ohio. 

[extracts only.] 

As much depends upon the painter as upon the cook 
who makes a good or bad cake with the same material. Vial 
colors seem preferable since there are no oils to ooze out and 
leave the paint to harden. No one make seems the make 
since all are similar! Reliable stores are careful to carry 
only paints that have been tested, so there is little danger of 
securing poor color. All colors should be well mixed with 

the palette knife so that they are perfectly smooth and free 
from grain. Always use as little mixing medium as possi- 
ble, since it keeps the paint open and gathers dust. Don't 
be afraid to experiment with the mixing of different colors 
for they are not explosive, even if the wrong colors are 
combined at times. A rag wet with turpentine removes the 
experiment and gives one courage to try again. The best 
way to fill your brush with color is to first cleanse the brush 
in turpentine, wipe dry, keeping the shape of the brush. 
If a square shader, wipe flat; if a pointed brush, roll into a 
point. Brushes should be "wiggled" in the color to fill 
them well with paint, always putting the brush in shape 
before painting with it. A brush should be washed in tur- 
pentine after each color has been used and every few days 
a bath in soap suds will prove effective. Always keep the 
brush in shape or it loses its usefulness. 

Mix color with medium on a ground glass slab, using 
steel palette knife, then remove to covered palette. Add 
to your list of materials a package of surgeon 's cotton and 
a lot of old white wash silk for padding color in tinting, also 
a pointed stick to use with a little cotton wound on the point 
for removing high lights, etc. 

We are not satisfied to do simply the things which we 
can do. We must draw something too hard for us. We 
must sing songs that have notes too high for us. How rare 
to hear a singer whose voice is not strained to reach im- 
possible tones! Who wants to hear the highest tone that 
you can sing? We want to feel that there is a reserved 

JAocuit} ^■ouJZa.u.<^ 



Flowers violet blue, leaves a whiteish green. 




THE flowers come in a very soft shade of light green with 
a touch of red, use Canary Yellow with a small part 
of Grass Green mixed, shading with Brown Green; for the 

red part, Yellow Red. The Stamens paint with Albert 
Yellow. For the leaves, Dark Green, Yellow Green, Brown 
Green. The background can be painted in the same shades. 




Ground, cafe au lait ; flowers, light dull pink ; leaves and stems, light olive ; background of border, dark olive ; handle 

and rim, dull red ; outlines black, dark olive or warm brown, 


Sarah Reid McLaughlin 

PAINT the main cluster of leaves and berries more 
prominent than the rest of the design which is quite 
flat and greyer in tone. 

First fire — For berries use a wash of Banding Blue, 
shade with a mixture of \ Banding Blue and f Black, in 
some places a small portion of Deep Purple. Let berries 
in shadow tones be kept in grey Green with suggestion of a 
little Sevres Blue and Royal Purple for half ripe ones. 

Second fire — A wash of Banding Blue and Purple 
shaded with Banding Blue, Deep Purple and Black. 

Leaves, first fire — Rose Purple shaded with Deep 
Purple for principal leaves. For shadow leaves Rose Green 
and Yellow mixed, some with a wash of Yellow Green. 

Second fire — For principal leaves wash with Yellow 
Brown shaded with Sepia, Dark Brown and Deep Pompa- 

Stems, first fire — Rose Purple, blending into Grey 
Green tones in shadowy parts. 

Second fire — Sepia and Dark Brown. 

Thorns, Deep Pompadour. 

Background, first fire — Upper left hand make a delicate 
wash of Lemon Yellow; flush towards the right hand side 
with Turquoise Blue, Olive Green and Shading Green, 
letting background color run over shadowy leaves. 

Second fire — Strengthen above color. 




Mabel C. Dibble 

SKETCH in the design, tint the small panels, clouding 
the background, use Deep Blue Green, Dark Blue 
and Brunswick Black. Wipe out berries and leaves and 
outline all the fruit in black — Ivory Black §, Dark Blue I. 
Outline panels and bands with heavy line of blue — Dark 
Blue, touch of Deep Purple and Brunswick Black, fire. 
For second fire — Use the Dark Blue enamel mixture. Dark 
Blue, Deep Purple and Brunswick Black. One-eighth 
Aufsetzweiss, for the dark berries, use it thin, coating over 
the darker part a second time. 

For the light berries, mixed enamel to which has been 
added a little Apple Green and Brunswick Black, to give 
it a grey tone, one part being darker than the other but 
blended while wet. Leaves, green enamel — Apple Green, 
Brown Green, \ Aufsetzweiss for some; add Brunswick 
Black for darker leaves, and for the very lightest use mixed 
enamel, colored with Apple Green and Brunswick Black. 

When berries are dry scratch out the white lines, touch 
up with black. In the light berry vein with Brown No. 4 
or 17 and add the prickles in same color. Branches, Brown 
No. 4 or 17, shaded with brown and black. Blue dashes 
are of Dark Blue Enamel. 


Riissell Goodwin 

GROUND Cafe au lait, (Yellow Ochre with a touch of 
black) ; leaves, Calyx and seed pods Meissen Brown 
with a touch of black; flowers. Pompadour thin, first fire; 
Rose, second fire. The knob may be brown or the color 
of the flowers. 


Em ily Hesselmeyer 
ROUND a dull brownish Ochre — design in dull red. 


outlined in a darker shade. 






Beriho. Drennen 
Two shades of greyish OUve on a buif ground ; brown 





Lucia Jordan 

Ground, Pearl Grey. Design in three shades of blue 
on a grey ground; dark blue outlines. 




FOR this subject we have a choice of two color schemes — 
Greens for the unripe hops, and the tans and browns 
for the ripened stage. 

For the Green scheme — Use Apple Green, Moss Green, 
Brown Green and Dark Green, all La Croix (or their sub- 
stitutes). Paint the lightest portions with Apple Green 
modeling with Moss Green and Brown Green and Dark 
Green. For the space at top and base of stein lay in flat 
with a mixture of Brown Green and Dark Green. Handle 

same. For the tan color scheme — Select Albert Yellow, 
Yellow Ochre, Yellow Brown, Chocolate and Chestnut 
Browns. Dresden colors. Mix Albert Yellow and Yellow 
Ochre for the lightest portions. Model with Yellow Ochre, 
Yellow Brown and Chocolate Brown. Lay in the handle 
and space at top and base of stein with a mixture of Choco- 
late and Chestnut Brown. Make the background cream or 
tan by using Yellow Ochre thin or stronger, as you 




FIRST Fire — Wash in background using Silver Yellow 
blending into Royal Purple — for middle tones use 
black and Ruby Purple, for dark shades. Keep leaves soft 
and use Ruby Purple for red berries, have the unripe ones 
pink; blossoms should be kept clear — use Olive Green and 
Yellow Brown for shade. 

Second fire — Strengthen leaves and berries keeping 
high lights clear and crisp — use same colors as in first fire. 
Third fire — Bring out desired detail. 

No. 27 is a bowl of pure white K'anghsi porcelain, wide 
spreading, decorated on outside with mythological subjects 
painted in great detail and with great delicacy of brush. Colors 
vermilion-red and enamel color. Inside a branch of the peach 
tree, bearing one fruit and several leaves, in green, shaded and 
varied with darker tints of the same color with the exception of 
two which show a great variety of shades of decay. On the 
peach is the character Shou (longevity) in the "seal" style of 
gold. This bowl constitutes an almost unique specimen of the 
highest style of decoration during the period when the manu- 
facture of porcelain had reached its highest point. 






IT was mis-stated in the last article on the St. Louis ce- 
ramics, that the exhibit of Prof. Kornhas of Karlsruhe 
was similar to that of Prof. Max. Lauger. The mistake was 
due to an illegible name in the notes. As a matter of fact 
the work of Prof. Kornhas was quite different as the accom- 
panying illustrations wiU demonstrate. Some of the pieces 
show very interesting copper crystal glazes. The exhibit 
of the Royal Berlin factories was perhaps the most varied in 
crystal effects of any exhibit at St. Louis. 

The ceramics from Great Britain were not as much in 
evidence as might be desired, but what was shown was good 
and interesting. Perhaps the work exhibiting the rarest 
skill is that of M. Solon, a Frenchman who has long natural- 
ized himself in England. His work we have illustrated 
before, but no one will regret seeing new specimens. This 
work is what is called pate sur pate, a cameo effect ob- 
tained by delicately painting white slip upon a dark ground , 
building up and modelling the figures by almost impercepti- 
ble degrees until the desired relief is obtained . The shapes 
of the vases, and especially the handles, are rather more 

eccentric and ornate than desirable, but the pate sur pate 
work is certainly of a very superior quality. 

Of a quite different genius, but equally clever, is the 
work of his son, Leon V. Solon. Executed upon panels and 
simply framed, the effect is rather that of a color drawing 
touched here and there with enamels and gold. The general 
surface has the almost glazeless effect of the old Italian 
painting upon a stannifer ground. The designs and draw- 
ings are exquisite, the color subdued and yet rich. The work 
of the elder Solon was to be found mostly in the exhibit of 
Mintons, Stoke on Trent. 

Perhaps of the large potteries Doulton & Co. showed the 
greatest variety. Beside the famiHar painted and gold dec- 
orated work, were the now famous Doulton reds, brilliant in 
color and a puzzle to potters, who wonder how these colors 
are produced at a comparatively low heat, and question 
whether it is a true flambe red or an enamel. The presence 
here and there of sharp patches of brilliant yellow and tur^ 
quoise green, like sharply cut maps of North and South 
America, adding to the wonderment if not to artistic admir- 
ation. Doulton & Co. also showed a lot of nice brown and 
yellow salt glazed pottery, copying old jugs and three 
handled mugs or loving cups. Beside this was a lot 
of vases in rather the style of L 'art della ceramica of 
Florence except that the outlines were raised. 

Pilkington &]^Co. exhibited a few sets of majolica tiles 
designed by Lewis Dey. These were rich in color and inter- 
esting in design. One set was in blue, green and violet; 
others in red browns, greens and blues. The art pottery we 
were unable to find, but there appeared a description by 
A. V. Rose in the Pottery Gazette. 



The Ruskin Pottery was the most interesting shown in the 
arts and crafts section. The glaze was high and the colors 
rich, the forms simple and good. We add a letter from the 
pottery which will give a better idea of the work .than any- 
thing we could say. 

The Ruskin Pottery is made by W. Howson Taylor, 
member of the London Arts and Crafts Exhibition So- 
ciety, and his father, Edward R. Taylor, Associate of the 
Royal College of Art, London, retired head Master of the 
Birmingham Municipal Schools of Art and who, until he 
turned his attention to pottery, was a fairly constant exhi- 
bitor of oil paintings at the Royal Academy, London, and 
other exhibitions. 

The little pottery w^as built and experiments com- 
menced about five vears ago. The results were first ex- 













hibited at the London Arts and Crafts Exhibition and on 
the merits of the work Mr. Taylor was made a member of 
the Society. St. Louis is the first international exhibition 
to which the pottery has been sent and to it has been awarded 
a grand prize. 

Very little that is useful can be written about the 
pottery in the absence of examples as the experiments are 
artistic rather than scientific and illustrations can only 
show the shapes and not the coloring or the feel of the ware. 
The clays used are yellow and white, carefully prepared so 
that, beside ware of the ordinary thickness, bowls, cups, etc., 
can be made extremely light in weight. All the pottery is 
made on the potter's wheel; the patterns are hand painted, 
derived from plain forms and kept very subordinate, many 
of the pieces being without pattern; the glazes are leadless 
and the colors are the few oxides which will not be destroyed 
by the great heat of the oven. 

Efforts are directed not to the finding of what is pos- 
sible with these self-imposed limitations, but what of this 


possible is desirable both for use and artistic expression, 
bearing in mind that the materials lend themselves to the 
production of enamels under the glaze similar to those seen 
in a rocky sea pool. No moulds are used for casting or 
pressing the ware, no patterns are printed, stencilled or 
lithographed, no patterns or lustre are applied on the glaze, 
there is no imitation of other material (as in the later work 
of Wedgwood) such as bronzes, etc., or the realistic painting 
of figures, landscapes and flowers in rivalry of oil or water 
color painting. These things have proved pitfalls in the 
development of pottery as an art because they were pitch- 
forked into it at a time in its growth when it was not strong 
enough to assimilate them. 

The exhibits of Ruskin pottery at St. Louis were 
chiefly rich blues, greens, purples, etc., and did not include 
the robin egg's blue with gossamer like patterns, peach 
blow and effects like cloissonne'enamels' which are the most 
artistic results of the factorv. 






THE red raspberry is handled in very much the same 
manner as the blackberr3^ The color is applied in 
masses of light and shade and the high lights wiped out with 
care to preserve the form. Maroon is used in these berries 
with the exception of those unripe which are painted with 
Lemon Yellow shaded with Pompadour. The leaves are in 
the warm green tones with strong accents of Yellow Brown, 
Chestnut Brown and Pompadour, in one or two of the more 

The general tone of the background is grey, Stewart's 
Grey may be used to which about ^ Shading Green is added 
in the darker tones. The lighter side of plate is done with a 
very thin wash of Ivory Yellow. 

Add the shadows in third fire with grey and a little 

Ruby Purple. A thin wash of Banding Blue is washed over 
the high lights in the berries in third fire. 

Art is not always recognized in the present. In fact, 
most people prefer it cannedl There are some individuals 
who are farther from the present than the earth from the 
fixed stars; and light may eventually reach their posterity. 

You thought it needed viore work. It needs less. You 
don't get mystery because you are too conscientious! 
When a bird flies through the air you see no feathers ! Your 
eye would require more than one focus: one for the bird, 
another for the feathers. You are to draw not reality, but 
the appearance of reality \ — Wm. Hunt. 


iije:ramic studio 




Under the management of Miss Emily Peacock, Karat Shop. 22 East i6th St., New York. All inquiries in regard to the various 
Crafts are to be sent to the above address, but ivill be answered in the magazine under this head. 

All questions must be received before the 'iOih day of month preceding issue and will be answered under -'Answers to Inquiries" onli/. Please do not send stamped 

envelope for reply. The editors will answer questions only in these columns. 


Helen R. Albee 
Part II 


ALL cloth must be thoroughly wet before going into the 
dye bath. I find it easier to plunge the flannel into 
scalding water, and stir it about until there are no white 
dry spots left. It should then be drained and cooled (if 
one is inexperienced) for if very hot when plunged into the 
dye bath at a scalding point, the color may spot. Tem- 
perature plays an important part in dyeing, the hotter the 
dye, the more quickly the cloth absorbs the color; and it 
takes rapid stirring, lifting and spreading of the cloth in the 
kettle with two stout sticks to distribute "the color evenly. 
I find, for many reasons, that three yard lengths of goods 
are the most convenient for dyeing, and all my formulas 
are based upon multiples of three, which can be divided or 
increased at will. 


For mordants I use for every yard of fiannel, one-half 
ounce of Glauber Salts and three quarters of an ounce of 
pure undiluted sulphuric acid. Care should be exercised 
in the use of the acid, as it destroys all vegetable fibre, 
such as cotton, linen or jute; but when neutralized by 
Glauber Salts it merely sets the color in pure wool material. 
After measuring the acid I turn it into a small china vessel 
and add a little cold water, as it has a great affinity for water 
and a violent chemical reaction occurs when poured directly 
into a kettle of hot water. 


In preparing a dye bath for six yards of cloth, allow 
three gallons or more of water. Dilute f oz. of sulphuric 
acid and add to the water, stirring well. Then add 3 oz. 
Glauber Salts and stir well. The temperature should be 
about 150 degrees Farenheit. I do not use a thermometer 
as I can tell by the sound of the kettle when the temperature 

is right. If, however, the bath is too cold, the color will 
not take well, especially blues. 

Having prepared the bath, gather the wet cloth, already 
drained, in the left hand along the selvage at intervals, and 
drop it in, using the sticks at once, lifting the flannel up and 
down, spreading it out so as to distribute the color evenly. 
Continue this for at least five or eight minutes, until the 
tone grows somewhat even. Increase the heat and let the 
cloth boil for three quarters of an hour, stirring and lifting 
at intervals. A little experience is necessary to know just 
how much stirring must be done ; for, if too even in color, a 
rug lacks that life and variety which come from slight 
differences of tone. These differences are secured in three 
ways: by heat; by a greater proportion of dye; and by the 
amount the flannel is stirred. The less it is stirred, the le,ss 
uniform the color. When the color is well set there should 
be but little residue of dye left to color the water. If much 
color is left after the full time of boiling has expired, it is 
likely that more acid should be used. The acid absorbs 
water from the air after standing for weeks unless the bottle 
has been closely stoppered, and a little more of it must be 
used. Too much, however, dulls the color, particularly 
old rose and old pink. 

I should advise a beginner to choose some simple range 
of colors such as dark blue and ivory; old red, ivory and 
black; old blue and ivory, or green and ivory. It is difficult 
at first for one to calculate how much cloth of each color 
will be required in any pattern, so I always prepare more 
than I expect to use, that I may not run short. Then, if 
materials are left over, they can be used in the next rug 
calling for those colors. Do not attempt to use undyed 
flannel for the cream or ivory tones; the result will be a 
harsh crude white. 

In all of the following formulas each portion of the dry 
powder is dissolved separately in a pint of water, as before 
described, and the proportions called for are of the liquid 


Of \ oz. Bright Yellow take i teaspoonful of liquid 

Of \ oz. Dull Red take \ teaspoonful of liquid. 

Of I oz. Dark Blue take just a trace. 

Of \ oz. Green take i tablespoonful of the liquid to 6 
yards of cloth. 

Mordants: f oz. sulphuric acid and 3 oz. Glauber Salts. 

Dip the flannel in, and stir quickly until it is the proper 
tone. This color is the only one that is not boiled the full 
v of an hour. 




Dissolve I oz. Dark Blue in one pint of water, using the 
whole measure for 6 vds. cloth. 

Mordants: i oz. sulphuric acid and 3 ozs. Glauber Salts. 
When the cloth has boiled half an hour take it out and add 
^ oz. more sulphuric acid and boil the cloth half an hour 
longer. Dark Blue is slow to set the color. 


The above formula with 4 to 6 tablespoonfuls of Green 
liquidPjadded will yield a dark Persian blue. 

Dissolve J oz. Dull Red in one pint of water using the 
whole measureful. 

Of \ oz. Green take 3J tablespoonfuls to 6 yds. of cloth. 
Mordants: same as Old Ivory. Boil f of an hour. 


Of I oz. Dull Red take 4 tablespoonfuls of liquid. 
Of Bright Red take 2 tablespoonsfuls of liquid. 
Of i oz. Bright Blue take i teaspoonful of liquid to 
6 yds. cloth. 

Mordants: same as Old Ivory. Boil f of an hour. 


Of I oz. Dark Blue take 3 tablespoonfuls of Hquid. 
Of I oz. Green take 5 tablespoonfuls to 6 yds. cloth. 
Mordants : same as Old Ivory. Boil f of an hour. 


Of ] oz. Bright Yellow take 16 tablespoonfuls of liquid. 
Of T oz. Dark Blue take 4^ tablespoonfuls of liquid. 
Of Tf oz. Green take 3 tablespoonfuls of liquid to 6 yds. 
of cloth. 

Mordants : same as Old Ivory. Boil f of an hour. 


Of \ OZ. Bright Yellow take 12 tablespoonfuls of liquid. 
Of. } oz. Dull Red take 6 tablespoonfuls of liquid. 
Of I oz. Dark Blue take 1} oz. teaspoonfuls of liquid to 
6 yds. of cloth. 

Mordants: same as Old Ivory. Boil f of an hour. 


Dissolve I oz. Black in i pint of water, using the whole 
measureful to 6 yds. of cloth. 

Mordants and boiling"same as in Dark Blue. 

Please note that sometimes a teaspoonful is called for 
instead of a tablespoon as a measure. With these for- 
mulas as a basis, all sorts of variations of tone can be made 
by diminishing or increasing the proportion of any of the 
colors used, 

I include a few formulas for vegetable dyeing. I 

have not tried them, but they were gathered from an old 
housewife's collection. 

To each pound of cloth take one pound of Fustic and a 
quarter of a pound of alum. Soak all night in soft water 
enough to cover the cloth easily, to obtain a good yellow. 
Take out the cloth and drain it. Add to the yellow water 
enough Liquid Blue to obtain the required shade of green — ■ 
the more, the deeper. Put the cloth in the liquid and boil 
about half an hour. Rinse in cold water. 

A deeper and richer green may be obtained by using 
Tumeric instead of Fustic and proceeding in the same 


A splendid blue (so the receipt runs) may be secured 
by boiling cloth in a brass or copper kettle for one hour 
with two and a half ounces of cream of tartar to each pound 
of cloth. Remove the cloth and take sufficient warm water 
to cover the cloth easily and color it to the desired shade 
with Liquid Blue. Put the whole into a copper kettle and 
boil a short time. Remove the cloth, rinse and dry. 


The making of an indigo vat is as follows: To a vat 
containing 20 gallons of water from f of a pound to a pound 
of powdered indigo, mixed with a little water until it is a 
smooth paste, is added, and from i to 2 pounds of dry 
slaked lime, and the whole well stirred. Then, from a 
pound to one and three quarters of sulphate of iron, pre- 
viously dissolved in a little water, is gradually poured in. 
The vat must be covered and stirred systematically for 
twenty-four hours, or until the indigo is reduced, and the 
liquor has a faint yellow tinge. It is then allowed to settle. 
The scum on the surface is removed, and the goods im- 
mersed for the duration of from one to five minutes, or 
more, according to the shade desired. The goods are then 
taken out and hung up in the air to oxidize. They are 
almost colorless at first, but soon turn green, then blue. 
After oxidation the goods are rinsed in a weak acid to 
remove any lime salts, then in water and finally dried in 
steam heat. 

The urine vat is only suitable for dyeing on a small 
scale. It is made up of stale urine, common salt, madder 
and ground indigo. 


For^every 2 pounds of cloth take I pound of Madder. 
Take enough warm water to cover the cloth and soak the 
Madder in a brass kettle over night. Next morning add 
3 ounces of Madder compound for every pound of Madder 
soaked. Wring out the cloth and put it into the dye. 
Place over the lire' and bring toa scalding heat.*^ Keep at 



this temperature for half an hour. The color will grow 
deeper the longer it is kept in the dye. When the color 
suits, rinse the cloth in cold water and dry. 


For ever}' 2 pounds of goods take I pound Madder, 
i pound alum and } pound cream tartar. Dissolve the 
alum and cream tartar in enough soft water to cover the 
goods well, and heat with the goods in it for two or three 
hours. Throw away this liquid and rinse the kettle and 
put in the same amount of soft water as before, and soak 
the Madder all night. In the morning make a slow fire, 
put in the goods, increasing the heat until scalding hot. 
Let remain from one-half to one hour. 

Two oz. powdered Cochineal and ^ oz. cream tartar 
for every three pounds of goods and sufficient water to 
cover the cloth. Simmer for two hours, then immerse the 
cloth, previously wrung out in clear water. Bring to a 
scald. In a few minutes it will be finished. Increase or 
diminish the amount of Cochineal to darken or lighten the 
tone. Cochineal is fugitive compared with Madder. 


All shades are made by boiling in an iron vessel one 
teacupful of black tea with one teaspoonful of copperas 
and sufficient water. Dilute this until you get the right 


For each pound of wool take \ pound of alum, 2 ozs. 
of cream of tartar, and boil half an hour. Soak over night 
^ pound Red Powder, \ pound Fustic and 2 ozs. of Log- 
wood with sufficient water to cover the goods. Take out 
the goods from the mordant and boil with the dyestufF for 
one half hour. A tablespoonful of copperas will darken 
the shade. 


The studio of the Misses Mason will open Oct. 23rd. The 
class in design under .Miss Maud Mason jwilljbegin its term 
on the same date. 

The studio of Mrs. Vance Phillips will open Oct. ist. The 
Chautauqua class had a successful season. Miss Fanny 
Scammel of New York being in charge of the decorative 
work. Miss Nora Foster of Jersey City, a student of Arthur 
Dow and Marshal Fry, gave an illustrated talk on design to 
the ceramic students, the color drawings showed the prog- 
ress made in a three years ' course and was of great interest 
to the students. 


Painting, E. A. -Charge the large flat shades with color; begin with a 
flower petal, spreading the brush at the outside edge and drawing liglitly to 
the center. After a little practice one can, in one stroke, by graduating the 
pressure on the brush, paint an entire petal, pressing the color to the darker 
portions, and drawing the brush so lightly over the lighter parts that the petal 
will be sufficiently shaded for one fire. The same method will be followed for 
leaves, scrolls, etc., where shading is used. For flat, conventional work, the 
endeavor will be to keep an even pressure of the entire surface to be painted 
so that there will be little variation in depth. A good teacher is needed in 
learning to paint more than in any decorative work on china; written In- 
struction is not enough. 

Tinting, S. A. J. -If tube color is used, take one-third as much color as 
flux as much fat oil as color and flux combined; rub together thoroughly on a 

ground glass palette, thin with oil of lavander until the color wiU flow freely 
from the brush without feeling sticky. Go over the surface to be tinted rap- 
idly with a large square shader or grounding brush. Then take a wad of cot- 
ton covered with a clean piece of old soft silk and pad lightly over the entire 
surface, not trying to finish one spot, but repadding over the surface until 
tlic whole is a uniform and smooth tint. Several pads sl:ould be kept in 
readiness, as when one pad becomes charged with color a fresh one sliould be 
taken. The large camel's hair dusters are splendid for this work, l^ut are ex- 
pensive and do not last very long, the hairs coming out, a few at a time, every 
tinting. In this case pay little attention to them, just brushing a little to one 
side to be sure that they do not adhere; when the tinting is dry they will 
then brush off easily. If powder colors are used, rub the powder down with 
fat oil until of the consistency of stiff tube paint, then thin with oil of lavan- 
der and proceed as above. 

Grounding, A. B.-To ground a color, cover the surface to be grounded 
with grounding oil laid as smoothly as possible; pad lightly with a sUk pad 
until the surface is perfectly even and a little"tacky." Then take a lot of 
powder on the end of a palette knife and drop on the oily surface until covered ; 
then take a wad of cotton and distribute it evenly, avoiding touching 
the cotton to the uncovered oil ; bru,sh off the superfluous color onto a paper 
spread under the piece. The surface should present a uniform dull surface: 
if any spot looks wet repeat the process until dry. 

Sr. M.-Red enamels can only be obtained ready mixed. Miss Mason has 
a very good red enamel. Blue enamels can be made by mixing with aufsetz- 
weis any desired blue, using not less than one-fifth enamel. Dark blue enam- 
els also may be bought ready prepared. When directions are given to dust 
with two or more colors in certain proportions, as Pearl Grey three parts, 
lemon yellow one part, it is best to mix those two colors thoroughly on the 
palette with alcohol and when dry use the mixture for dusting. 

Mrs. F. H. -When certain colors, like Yellow Brown, disappear in the 
firing, they were not used strongly enough. Two or three firings are necessary 
for any successful painting, in order that any colors that disappear from 
weakness may be replaced and weak spots strengthened. 

V. S.-Wood alcohol, followed by soap and water is very satisfactory for 
washing brushes where turpentine is offensive in the "Class Room" read 
directions for substituting grain alcohol and lavander oil for turpentine in 

J. B.-Matt colors are grounded. They are not appropriate for painting. 
They are sometimes called gouache, but matt is the customary designation. 
See directions for grounding in the "Class I^oom." 


Cor. Hassacbusells .4ve. and Bojlslon Sis. 

Head Instructor and Director, Erie Pape; Manager, Charles A. Tjawrence. 
EIGHTH YEAR:-OCTOBER 2, 1905, TO JUNE 2, 1906. 

irNo exanjinatioiis for admission to any of the classes. IT Students begin by drawing 
from the nude and costnme models, as is done in tiie Paris academies, upon which the 
school is modeled. IT Fine large studios. IT Drawing, Painting, Composition, Illustra- 
tion, Decorative Design and Pyrogravure. IT Drawing and painting from " life," sep- 
arate classes for men and women. IT Portraiture, Still Life, Flower Paintinir, Water 
Color, Pastel, Composition, Decorative Design and Painting, Practical Design for Tex- 
tiles. 'J Ilhistration, Pen, Wash, Gouache, Poster and Book Covering Designing. 
irMorning, Afternoon and Evening Classes. IT Scholarsliips, Medals and Prizes. *T For 
illustrated circulars address the Secretary. 


Photographs on Cliina fired in, also fine relief gold work ; Monograms ; Acid 
work on China and Ulass ; Photos on Ivory ; China and Grlass flred for Ama- 
teurs. Instructions on China Painting; Designing of any kind. 

Why n(,t try luy own make of Roman "FULL VALUE" Gold, in Glass 
Jars, .lil UO and .f:i.(lU. Sent on receipt of money, prepaid to any address. 

H. CANTIUS, China Decorator t^ Glass Painter 



China Painter's Colors 10 cents each 

658 Lemcke, . INDIANAPOLIS, IND. 

We have a large assortment of 
colored studies. Our 1905 Catalogue 
i54 pages, 200 illustrations, is a text 
hook on China Painting. Mailed on 
receipt of 10c. Address KERAMIC 
SUPPLY CO.. 65S Lemcke. Indianapolis 



The Revelation Kilns 


Especially well Adapted for Glass Firing 


Now is the time to order a new i<iln for your winter work. Discard the old one, which has given inferior 
service and which has been a burden to operate. By installing a Revelation, you will be assured of perfect re- 
sults, economy and general satisfaction. 

These kilns being of fire-brick construction, closely approx- 
imate "built-in" kilns. They develop colors, enamels and lus- 
tres, so that they are pure and transparent— not merely baked 
on. The whole surface receives a uniform glaze, with a profess- 
ional finish. Good chimney connection is all that is required 
for perfect operation, so that a novice can meet with success 
from the start. 

No plumbing. No gas bills. No flying back in the mixer. 
No escaping of disagreeable fumes in the room. 

No. 3. 

This is our new No. 3 round kiln. The removable 
tubes I33'' the door constitute the essential advantage of 
this kiln, as they make a complete circle of flame about 
the oven. They may be used or not, at the will of the 
firer, but are especially desirable when an even strong 
heat is necessary for certain classes of work. 

Many of the ceramic materials used at the present 
time for fine work can be fused properly only in a fire- 
bridi kiln, as the heat required would melt a cast-iron 
firing pot. We have a melting furnace for general assay- 
ing crucible work, and melting small meltings of puVe 
metals. When desired it is arranged to receive the charge 
from above and allow the melt to flow from below, keep- 
ing a continuous fire. It maj^ also be used for testing 
clays in the open flame. It has a muffle for chemical or 
experimental work in bodies and glazes. 

There is no more perfect device for enameling on 
metal. Those who are taking up the work in this interest- 
ing line will find that this little kiln will just meet their 

Send for one of our catalogues, containing testi- 
monials of the foremost decorators in this and other 
countries who make exclusive use of Revelation Kilns. 

"^^ No. 6 

This is the most popular size for general studio work. 

No. 7 is for professional and factorj^ firing. These kilns 
may be arranged with a series of shelves to accommodate flat 



China Kilns, Enamel Furnaces, Dental and other High Heat Furnaces 

44=46 Gratiot Avenue, DETROIT, MICH. 


»-^E-E^T=> n^ti 

F"l R^I 



MISS M. M. MASON j^ j^ ^ ^ 
MRS. H. B. PAIST ^ ^ ^ .^ ^ 

NOV. MCMV Price 35c. Yearly Subscription $3.50 


[ The entire contents of this Magazine are cdbered by the general copyright, and the articles mast not be reprinted ')»ithout special permission. ] 



National League of Mineral Painters 

The'Class Room — "Enamels" 

Norwegian Poppies 

Begonia Design for Plate 

Hawthorn Berries 




Orange Leaves 


Mountain Ash Berries 

Steins— I St and 2d Prizes 

^d Prize and Mention 

3d Prizes and Mentions 

Apple Study (October Supplement) 
Cobaea Design For Border 
Grapes Arranged For Stein 
Ceramics at the St Louis Exposition (Concluded) 

The Crafts— Carved Wood Trays 
For Christmas Gifts 
Newcomb Embroideries 
Answers to Inquiries 
Gooseberry Plate (Supplement) 
Answers to Correspondents 


Jeanne M. Stewart 

Chas. Babcock 

Nancy Beyer 

Hannah Overbeck 

Mary Overbeck 

Hannah Overbeck 

Ahce Witte Sloan 

Russell Goodwin 

Nancy Beyer 

Marie Crilley Wilson and Nancy Beyer 

RusseU Goodwill and Marie Crilley Wilson 

A. W. Sloan, H. Overbeck, M. Overbeck, A. Sharrard 

H. Overbeck and N. Beyer 

M. M. Mason 

H. B. Paist 

M. E. Hulbert 

Sarah Reid McLaughlin 
Haswell Clarke Jeffery 
Emily F. Peacock 

Mabel C. Dibble 





Some Leading Agencies of Keramic Studio 

We take pleasure in mentioning a few of the leading agencies for the sale 
of the Kebamic Studio, where, also, subscriptions may be placed; 

Boston Mass. — Miss E. E. Page, 286 Boyslton St.; Smith & McCance, 

Old Comer Book Store. 
Brooklyn — A. D. Mathew's Sons, Fulton Street. 
Buffalo — Mrs. Filkins, 609 Main Street. 
Chicago— A. H. Abbott & Co.; A. C. McClurg & Co.; Brentano's; Burley 

Cincinnati— Miss M. Owen, 245 Elm Street; A. B. Closson, 110 W. 4th St. 

Traxel & Maas, 4th Street, near Elm. 
Cleveland, Ohio— Vinson & Korner, 150 Euclid Ave. 
Columbus, Ohio— Lee Roessler, 116 So. High Street. 
Denver, Colo.— H. R. Meminger, 409 16th Street. 
Detroit, Mich.— L. B. King & Co.; Art China Co. 
Hartford, Ct.— E. M. SUl. 
Grand Rapids, Mich.— Miller, Wolfe Co. 
Indianapolis, Ind.— Keramic Supply Co., Lemcke Building. 
Kansas City, Mo.— Emery, Bird, Thayer Co.; Geo. B. Peck Co. 

Minneapolis, Minn. — Minn. Art China Co., 607 1st Ave. So.; Elizabeth 

Hood, 18 W. 6th St., St. Paul, Minn. 
New York City— Brentano's, Union Square; M. T. Wynne's, HE. 20tb 

St.; The Fry Art Co., 11 E. 22d St.; Wanamaker's; American News Co.; 

J. B. Ketcham, 107 W. 25th Street. 
Newark, N. J. — Keramic Novelty Co. 
Oakland, Cal.— Smith Bros. 
Omaha, Neb. — Megeath Stationery Co. 
Philadelphia — Wanamaker's . 
Pittsburgh, Pa.— Otto Schaffer & Bros.; Kurtz, Langbein & Schwartz; 

R. S. Davis & Co., 346 Fifth Ave.; John G. Yergan, 420 Penn Ave. 
San Francisco— Mrs. M. E. Perley, 207 Post Street. 
St. Louis— F. Weber & Co.; A. S. Aloe & Co. 
Syracuse — Wolcott Book Shop; Welch & HoUingsworth; W. Y. Foote: 

A. L. Varney & Co., 336 S. Salina Street. 
Toronto — ^The Art Metropole. 
Washington, D. C. — Wood & Lothrop. 

The Magazine may also be ordered from any news dealer or book store 
in this country, who can procure it through the American News Company. 
New York, or its branches. 

Vol. VII, No. 7 


November 1905 

HIS month's problem of the deco- 
ration of a stein, had a number of 
interesting solutions. The prizes 
were awarded as follows : First 
prize to Marie Crilley Wilson ; 
Second prize, Nancy Beyer; Third 
prizes, Alice W. Sloan, Hannah 
Overbeck and Russell Goodwin; 
mentions, Alice Sharrard, Mary 
Overbeck, Marie Crilley Wilson, 
Hannah Overbeck, Nancy Beyer. 

The shape of the first prize stein would have been im- 
proved by a little more height. The color scheme was es- 
pecially attractive as was also that of the second prize. It 
was a matter of note that few made any attempt to include 
the handle in the decorative scheme, either it appeared as if 
attached to the upper border only or it had an altogether 
' ' stuck on ' ' effect. The stein of Mrs. Sloan was one excep- 
tion, this was attractive in color but the upper part of the 
tree did not appear to have any hold on the stein. The stein 
of Russell Goodwin was attractive in design but the coloring 
was rather too heavy, making it especially difficult to repro- 
duce. The two steins of Hannah Overbeck were very good 
in design, the heavy line under the border, however, seemed 
to detach the border from the stein. The stein of Mar}' 
Overbeck was cleverly designed but weak in execution. 
The stein in mountain ash byMiss Nancy Beyer was also very 
attractive in color but not as simple and original in treat- 
ment as the second prize. The stein in blue and white by 
Marie Crilley Wilson would have been equally as fine as, if 
not, perhaps finer than the first prize, if treated in the same 
color scheme. 

We wish to call attention to a mistake in the first prize 
essay on a color palette in the last issue. The sentence 
"shading green is another good color; mixed with green, 
etc. ' ' should read ' ' mixed with yellow, etc. ' ' 

The punch bowl and cup Christmas competition will 
be held over until December 15. Although a few good de- 
signs were submitted, they were not quite good enough to 
select a first prize and we prefer to give a little more time 
and hope that our designers will renew their efforts and 
submit additional designs. This time it will not be neces- 
sary to submit the whole design in black and white, only a 
a section of the design in black and white and the whole 
design in color. 

Owing to increased expenses in the production of the 
Keramic Studio, we are compelled to change the price of 
the magazine to $4.00 per year or 40 cents per copy. This 
change, however, will not take place until February ist. 
New subscriptions and renewals will be accepted at the old 
price up to and including January 31st. This will enable 
dealers who have advertised Keramic STUdio at the pres- 
ent price to fill all contracts. 


THE following is the Study Course for rgo.s -1906. Open- 
ing exhibition to be held at the Art Institute, Chicago, 
May 3rd to 27th, 1906: 

Problem i — Outline drawing for a 14 inch punch bowl. 
Problem 2 — Stein, conventional fruit decoration. (Willets 

Belleek No. 599) 
Problem 3 — Ink well, thrown or modeled in clay. 
Problem 4 — Dinner plate with rim, conventional border 

Problem 5 — Panel 7x9 inches, natural treatment. 
Problem 6 — Bowl, decoration to fit form. (Willetts Belleek 
No. II.) 

As will be seen the chairman of education has planned 
a similar line of development as that followed last year. In 
some instances, those problems were carried out satisfactorily 
but in others a misunderstanding or remoteness from proper 
instruction, was evident. This year instead of incurring the 
expense of sending finished pieces to the exhibition perhaps 
to be refu.sed, the advisory board has arranged a plan to in- 
sure more equal, individual advantage, and better final 

This is a course of study by correspondence, which, if 
successful, will bring the League a step nearer its ultimate 
purpose of establishing a national school of mineral painting. 
There will be six lessons, one for each problem ; one each 
month. A fund will be used to secure a capable and varied 
corps of critics. The executives will write and mail these 
criticisms promptly, asking only in return the encouragement 
which will instigate a desire on the part of indifferent members 
to again take up this work. 

The study course for several years previous, has con- 
tained one article for over glaze decoration, wdiich was manu- 
factured in our own country from an outline drawing made 
by a League member. Last year although several designs 
for cup and saucer were submitted, none were good enough 
to be manufactured. We therefore urge the importance of 
studying carefully this first problem and producing an outline 
for a punch bowl which, manufactured, will be artistic and 
salable. For the first lesson, then, let every member send 
an outline drawing for a 14 inch punch bowl, to Belle B. 
Vesey, 6228 Wabash Ave., Chicago, on or before Nov. 17th. 
These drawings need not require much time in execution, but 
they should clearly express a thought, in simple structural 
lines easily understood by the critics. Enough margin 
should be left for explanatory notes or sketches to make the 
instruction intelligent. The executives are intensely inter- 
ested in promoting League study, in making the comparative 
feature intelligible to every member, and in giving a better 
exhibition to the public. BELLE Barnett Vesey, 


Lay aside your intelligence and draw things as they 
look to you, no matter if you don't know what they are. 
Some people who wear two or three sets of spectacles draw 
well. Now you have learned to get the masses, copy for 
accuracy and form. Then draw from memory, and thus 
make them a part of yourself. — William Hunt. 




The subject for the next class room will be "Gold Work." The 
same prizes will be awarded as for the previous articles. 

First Prize— Mrs. G. B. Strait, Cazcnovia, N. Y. 

AS "a workman is known by his chips, "and a tailor by his 
scraps, so the status of the one who works in enamels 
may be determined by the manner in which he keeps his 
tools, — as absolute cleanliness is indispensable. 

A trace of color remaining in a brush or on the mixing 
slab, may ruin an otherwise perfect piece of work. 


The materials necessary for good work are few. A 
tile for mixing and a palette knife (the ones used for paint- 
ing will do), tube Aufsetzweiss, lavender oil for use in flat 
enamels, turpentine and a small cup in which to keep it 
when at work, flux, powdered preferred, two square shaders, 
one large and one of medium size, a couple of small pointed 
brushes for lines or dots, the smallest round sables used in 
oil painting are admirable for the latter, and some lintless 
pieces of old muslin cut into convenient size for use in wiping 
the brushes. Also such china paints as may be needed to 
tint the enamels when colored ones are desired. 


Enamels come in two forms, — in powder, and in tubes. 

The former is prepared for use by taking as much of the 
dry powder on the mixing slab as will be needed, moisten 
with just enough Dresden Thick Oil to go all through but not 
make it appear like paste, breathing upon it frequently while 
working it. Next make thin as needed with lavender oil, 
which will be about the consistency to which you mix your 
paste. After the lavender oil is added breathe upon it until 
it will not settle back as if oily when the knife or brush is 
drawn from it, but will follow them in a little point. Now 
rub until the mixture is absolutely smooth, as any little 
grains that are barely perceptible before firing will appear 
much more roughened after. Many advise the use of ;^ best 
English enamel to | of the powdered Aufsetzweiss. 

But unless one has much time in which to experiment, 
or possesses more experience than the majority of china 
decorators, it is better to use the tube Relief White Aufsetz- 
weiss as it is less troublesome to prepare for use, and will 
stand more than one fire. Besides it may be tinted with 
the regular china paints to any depth of color desired. 

When the Aufsetzweiss is removed from the tube it is of 
a dingy yellowish tone, which color disappears in firing, 
appearing pure white with a fine glaze. If the Aufsetzweiss 
is too oily when taken from the tube, squeeze it out on blot- 
ting paper until the superfluous oil is absorbed, then mix with 
a little lavender and turpentine. Now see that the mixing 
tile and knife are perfectly clean. Squeeze out a whole tube 
of the Aufsetzweiss. With the knife shape the contents into 
an oblong mass and lightly mark the top into six parts. Nom^ 
add another part of the powdered flux, mix together, and 
add turpentine, rubbing until absolutely smooth, and using 
enough turpentine so the mass will smooth itself, and any 
lines or dots made with it will not have any sharp edges or 
points. Some use but ^ flux with fine success. Aufsetzweiss 
when used without flux needs a hotter fire than the pinks 
used in painting, so the flux is added in order that a lower 
temperature may be used in the firing process. With the 
enamels prepared in this manner, and with the addition of 

color, anything may be done. It is a great convenience to 
mix a whole tube of the Aufsetzweiss at once, then as you 
wish to use it, remove such a portion as you will need from 
the mass and rub smooth with turpentine. The object in 
not wetting up the whole is that repeated moistenings with 
turpentine, and the consequent evaporation, will create an 
oiliness that may cause the enamels to chip oft' when fired. 
Overfiring will also cause it to chip. As it frequently be- 
comes hardened when in use, thin with turpentine as often 
as needed. 

The mass of prepared enamel may be kept free from 
dust or lint by being placed in a tiny covered palette, or if 
expense is any object, in a low, wide mouthed bottle, or even 
on a bit of china in a pasteboard box. Anywhere so it may 
be kept clean. 


The only suitable setting for enamel jewels is made of 
fine paste dots covered with gold. Although the enamels 
will stand more than one fire, it is advisable to place the 
jewels last, after the paste dots have received the final cover- 
ing of gold. To make colored jewels any paints may be used 
■ with the exception of iron colors, such as ochres, reds and 
most browns, including pompadour, yellow brown, blood-red, 
etc., which fire out entirely or leave only a faint, disagreeable 

Red enamels may be bought ready for use or white 
enamels may be fired, then painted with the color wished. 


To make colored enamels, take a portion of the white 
enamel prepared according to directions, and add one-fifth, 
more or less, of color according to the intensity desired, 
remembering that the fired enamels arc much brighter than 
the unfired. It is well to make tests if there is a feeling of 
doubt as 'to the result, before applying to any piece of im- 
portance. The flux may not be a necessity if color is added, 
but no harm comes from its use. If ruby jewels are needed 
add to the prepared white enamel the powdered ruby. For 
pink jewels use Carmine, Rose, or Peach. For green jewels 
use Apple, Royal, or Moss. For turquoise jewels use Deep 
Blue Green, or Deep Blue Green and Night Green. For 
yellow jewels use vSilver Yellow, or Mixing Yellow. It is not 
wise to use silver near the pink enamels, as the color is spoiled 
by so doing. Lustres cannot be mixed with enamels. 


For jewels of large or medium size, take one of the point- 
ed sables, push it under the enamel so that a portion comes 
up in a mass on the tip of the brush, hold the brush handle 
perpendicular to the dot wanted, touch lightly, and with a 
slightly rotary motion, cover the spot where the jewel is to be. 
This is to cover the place in such a way that no air bubbles 
form to produce blistering in firing. When the brush is re- 
moved the jewel should be round and full, but if there is any 
little point remaining, dip the brush in turpentine, wipe on a 
cloth, and touch the projection with the point of the brush 
in the most delicate way possible. The point will then flat- 
ten, leaving a perfectly formed jewel. If the brush becomes 
clogged during use, or the enamel works into the heel, clear 
it at once by using turpentine. 

In forming the dainty scrolls so much used to divide pan- 






THESE delicate blossoms are found in yellow and white, 
and the handling of the petals should be extremely 
delicate. Lemon and Egg Yellow are used in the first 
painting in yellow flowers over which the delicate grey 
tones are thrown in second fire. The centers are green 
white, the stamens are a deeper yellow. The white blos- 
soms are shaded with Grey for flowers and Ivory Yellow. 
The.leaves should be kept in the blue green tones, very light 

in color. The background shades from a dainty green to 
very strong dark tones under principal cluster of flowers. 
In this tone, Brown Green, Shading Green and Yellow 
Brown are used with dark accents of Ruby Purple and 
Pompadour. A light dull pink, made of Pompadour in a 
very thin wash is used in background on lighter side of plate. 
The shadow leaves and flowers are painted in third fire 
with Grey and Pompadour. 



els, pick the enamel up carefully on the very tip of the brush 
and with a Hght,careful stroke draw the enamel from the hea- 
vier part toward the tip. It is not necessary for the brush to 
touch the china, simply the enamel. If a wrong stroke is 
given, let it remain a moment until surface dried, Avhen it may 
readily be removed with a pen knife. This is sometimes easier 
than to use a brush. Where long lines are to be drawn 
the joining must be done with care as is displayed in paste 
work, keeping it even and full, not allowing it to look skinny. 
If it is necessary to make a line narrower ,remove the part and 
try again, or else, with a small square shader dipped in 
turpentine and wiped on cloth, press along the enamel line 
where it is too broad, carefully drawing it along until of the 
required width. Any projecting points on jewels or dots 
must be corrected while the enamel is still moist. Blisters 
and bubbles in enamel are caused by too much oil being used, 
or not being properly placed and air being inside them, while 
small black specks or a dingy appearance may be due to un- 
clean brushes or palette. It is possible to model small fig- 
ures, or tiny roses of the enamels, preferably white on celadon 
grounds. In attempting this work one must remember that 
if the design is in quite high relief, and the edges are extreme- 
ly thin as compared with the body of the decoration, there is 
danger of chipping or cleaving from the china. Knowing 
this fact one can readily avert disaster by avoiding too great 
a contrast of thicknesses. AU enamels should be dried with- 
out artificial heat, as that causes them to flatten and spread 
out of shape, and before putting in the kiln they should ap- 
pear dull and dry. When in this condition there is no ob- 
jection to the piece being dried in the oven, if the painted 
parts seem to need to be hard dried before firing. Some- 
times enamels do not glaze well on a gold ground. In this 
case prepare flux as for painting and give a thin wash and re- 
fire, or better still, add a tiny bit more flux to the enamels 
before firing. It is better to fire a painted ground before 
placing the enamels, though if lightly painted it is only nec- 
essary to hard-dry. If the ground is heavily painted, or is 
dusted or ground laid, it is necessary to fire first or the 
enamels will sink slightly into the color. Ordinarily enamels 
need a hard fire, unless when used over a dusted ground in 
which case it may be lighter. 

Fine colors are offered for sale in "soft" enamels, or those 
needing only a light fire, but as these will stand but one fire 
they must be used last. 


Enamels are used extensively in various ways. And 
while it is easily possible to overdo in the use of them, a care- 
ful study of the manner in which the Japanese apply them, 
the tact and skill with which they use white enamels to re- 
present plum blossoms decorating a mottled reddish yellow 
ground, or the skill with which they use it on the soft browns, 
greens and grays of a landscape, will prevent even a novice 
making serious blunders. Dainty touches on miniature 
draperies, ropes and festoons of tiny flowers of colored en- 
amels on heavier pieces, faint suggestions of "straws" on 
strawberries, light touches on the crest of waves in a tiny 
marine. Delft green landscapes separated from a border of 
the same by delicate scrolls, and the application of it to con- 
ventional and Indian effects, are only a few of the uses to 
which it may be successfully applied. However, a too gener- 
ous use of it wall surely make the work look coarse. An 
attractive way to finish wild oranges or fruit with similarly 
roughened skins, is to prepare colored enamels of the required 
strength, and apply to fruit with a short haired Bright 's 
bristle brush of medium size, using the enamels rather dryer 

than for jewels, and striking squarely against the part of the 
design where you wish the enamel to be. 


Flat enamels are those applied to a surface in such a way 
that it is entirely covered with an even coat, kept ver}^ thin, 
and only slightly heavier than ordinary colors. They possess 
a richness and intensity not obtainable by a flat wash of color. 
The different colors of these enamels are usually separated 
from each other by alhin line of black paint, or of black and 
red, or black and blue, although black enamel, made by add- 
ing one-fifth enamel to four fifths color, may be used. In 
this case make the raised line as any long line of enamel or 
paste, keeping it even and of the same blackness througliout. 

For ordinary flat enamels add about one-eighth flux 
and one-fifth color to Aufsetzweiss, then thin with lavender 
oil until it will flow smoothly from the brush, making it 
rather thin, only a little thicker than ordinary paint. If it 
seems too oily, breathe on it a few times while mixing. 

Now fill your large square shader full, so it will spread 
easily and quickly, and without "picking "into it make it as 
smooth as possible on the surface. 

Flat enamels may be blended like colors if the right 
amount of Aufsetzweiss has been used, and it is kept thin 
enough. Some people prefer turpentine as a medium l^c- 
cause it is not so liable to spread over the lines. 

For the lighter tones, add the necessary amount of color 
to the enamel, using but little color. For very dark tones, 
add a little enamel, about I, to the color. 

Conventional designs are well adapted to this style of 
decoration, and any colors suited to a given design may be 

The soft gray violet tones made by the use of Old Blue, 
or the imitation of the rare old blues seen in some of the old 
porcelains by the use of Dark Blue, Deep Purple, and a 
touch of Black, are very attractve. Slight irregularities in the 
shading are not objectionable, in fact the wavering of color in 
small conventional flowers and leaves is more pleasing than 


Sometimes it is desirable to mend a bit of china. To do 
this, thin some of the white enamel with turpentine, put it on 
the broken edges, carefully tie the pieces together with 
asbestos cord, and fire. Small missing portions may be re- 
placed by this method. 

There is a certain fascination about the study of enam- 
els, and a kind of satisfaction that comes from successful ex- 
periments,that will repay one for the most painstaking efforts 
possible along this line. 


Second Prize— Anne Seymour Mundy, Coudersport, Pa. 

The subject of enamels is an important one. Used ap- 
propriately and for variety, many beautiful effects can be ob- 
tained, with care, a little practice and knowledge of propor- 
tions of color and flux to be added to the ordinar\- "Aufsetz- 
weiss" put up by Mueller and Hennig. 

Enamel in powder form is constantly advertised and 
some makes are good, but all things considered the prepared 
Aufsetzweiss is probably the most reliable. 

To seven parts Aufsetzweiss add. one part flux, soften 
with a little turpentine. If the enamel seems too oily take a 
piece of clean white silk Cone or two thicknesses of your silk 
pad will do) lay it on the palm of the left hand, take up the 
enamel with a clean palette knife, lay it on the silk, pressing 
it down, then turning it over once or twice. It will seem to dry 

heramic studio 


To be executed in several tones of grey gfreen with gfold outlines. 


HlEramic studio 

out. The oil will go through or be absorbed by the silk. 
Do not use cloth or any thing but silk, to avoid lint. Do this 
before you add flux to the enamel, then divide as mentioned 
before into seven parts and add one of flux. 

If the enamel has hardened in the tube, open and scrape 
out with a knife and add a ver}^ little Dresden thick oil and 
turpentine to soften. It will be quite as satisfactory as the 
fresh enamel. 

Do not take out more enamel than you need because 
constant turning with the palette knife not only darkens it 
but seems to take the life out of it. 

If the enamel seems too "fat" or oily use alcohol in put- 
ting it on. Dip the end of the palette knife in your glass 
of alcohol, drop it off on the enamel and turn over once or 
twice, under no circumstances mix or grind it much. If just 
right, use turpentine and if too dry use lavender or tar oil, 
a little, and then turpentine. Remember that even if the 
enamel is too fat in the beginning, using alcohol dries it out 
rapidly and it may become necessary to use turpentine to 
finish the work. In enamel work as well as in paste work a 
great deal depends on how you take it on the brush. Have 
first a brush No. o or No. i., Red sable rigger with good 
"backbone" as described in October number of the "Studio" 
Let it be clean, dipping first in turpentine, touching on sharp 
edge of the turpentine glass to let surplus turpentine run off 
then twisting to a point on the paper beside you. Having 
the enamel just right scoop up with the point of the brush 
just enough so that it will hang from the point, and so that, 
when swinging it into scrolls, or dropping or landing as 
jewels, the enamel only, not the brush, will touch the china. 

In making jewels after the enamel has been landed, if 
right it will stand up a little and possibly with a little point 
on top. If so, dip brush into alcohol, twist to a point on pa- 
per till alcohol is absorbed and "touch it down" gently. 
If too much alcohol is used, after firing the jewel may look 
bubbly, may flatten or you may pick a hole in it. It is 
better to use alcohol than turpentine for this purpose as 
then the brush does not cleave to the enamel. 

For Persian designs in flat enamel use lavender oil in 
putting them on. 

In coloring enamel there are two good ways, either to 
mix color with it or wash a tint over it after firing. If your 
enamel is too heavily fluxed, too oily, or is used over a too 
hard glaze white china, in the second firing, particularly if 
the second firing is not so hard as the first, it is apt to chip. 
It will not chip on Belleek. If there is one thing which has 
been abused it is enamel work, if there is one thing which 
makes or mars the beauty of a piece, it is enamel. If there 
is any one thing which is salvation in time of trouble it is 
enamel. It has covered a multitude of sins and is most 
sinned against. 

Leaving out the question of taste, if you do enamel 
work make it lacy and fine and dainty. But it has been used 
so many times to cover defects in tint or design or in the 
china that one's first impulse on seeing a design of this kind 
is to look deeper for the reason. If 3^ou put enamel work on 
china be sure that it is in keeping with the style of decoration. 
For instance do not put enamel work of any kind on a piece 
decorated in imitation of Rookwood,no, not even jewels in the 
border. It is like putting chiffon ruffles on a directoire 
gown. If you find a little crack in a plate just before the 
last firing, manage to make a stem follow it and then adding 
a little "stem" color to the enamel, paint the stem over wnth 
the same. It will hold the crack together and usually make 
the china as good as new. If you find a crack in the bottom 
of vase or pitcher paint enamel over it flat using lavender oil 

and a square shader. It is not safe to put enamel ov^er un- 
fired color although if the color is dried brown in the oven 
it can be done with satisfactory results. 

For mending handles to cups or pitchers use aufsetzweiss 
to fire them together. It is better to let such pieces dry out 
naturally for some days before firing so that they may not 
slip in the kiln. The same thing applies to jewel work. If 
your china has a tint which has been highly fluxed or is heavy 
do not flux the enamel quite so much, it may chip. Over 
dusted color it is apt to do the same. Don 't put it on dishes 
which may have to be scraped by knives, forks or spoons, it 
is not durable. 

For stamens, as in wild clematis, for dots around the cen- 
ters of forget-me-nots or wild roses, for occasional and ver\' 
sparing touches on the tips of turn over petals on white flowers 
enamel is pretty and effective sometimes, but it is not used 
so much as formerly probably because it has been so much 
abused that we have grown tired of it. Don 't use it for high 
lights on grapes. Studyyourchina.itsuse, its form and style 
and make your design in keeping. Every line means some- 
thing either for usefulness, grace or dignity. Do not put on 
a refined and dignified Grecian vase what would be perfectly 
dear on a wee small button. Do not overload your china. 
Enamel is generally superfluous. Do not do as the German 
professor suggested when he ordered a set of buttons to send 
to his sister in the Fatherland : "make them all roses, and silver 
and gold and jewels, all on one .small button, purely Amer- 
ican !" Study the oldest forms and decorate with a purpose. 
The oldest were most simple. They have lived through many 
centuries and do not weary. Make your work mean some- 

P. S. It is interesting to know that on the dark and 
heavily painted base of a punch bowl where the color had 
separated in firing, enamel mixed with dark shading green and 
painted on with a square shader entirely covered the defect 
and produced highly satisfactory results. 
Third Prize — ^Sydney Scott Lewis, Georgetown, Ky. 

To properly handle enamels and obtain first class results, 
needs much experimenting and many failures perhaps. 
Nothing in the keramic line shows so quickly the lack of 
experience as poorly applied and under or over fired enamels. 
For flat enamel work for the beginner I would advise; ist. 
draw in carefully the design, outline and fire or outline in 
color (powdered) mixed with sugar and water (need not fire). 
If the design calls for enamels in many colors get out your 
colors just as for painting, greens, blues, yellows, rub 
down each one with just enough medium to hold the powder 
together. If tube colors no medium is required. Next rub 
down with very little lavender oil some flux and German Auf- 
setzweiss (separately) to have ready for use when either is 
needed. Next prepare a body enamel for the light colors- 
t Aufsetzweiss, j Hancocks' Hard Enamel, l flux. Mix 
together any of your prepared colors to get the desired shades 
then put in the body enamel using much or little as the tones 
require. If very light tone put very little color into some of 
the enamel, if darker tones use more color and less enamel. 
For dark shades of green or blue use Aufsetzweiss (only) I. 
The colors thus prepared with the enamel are now ready to be 
used just like ordinary painting colors, only they must be 
used thin, using, to make them wet and flow easily for floating 
on the enamel, enamel medium or lavender oil or a little of 
both ; use a red sable line No. o and No. i . If the color does 
not flow on the same thickness this vibration in color does not 
detract. But the surface covered by the enamel must be 









perfectly clean and free from dust for every speck of dust 
shows in the finished work. It is well to always test samples 
of the different enamels as they fire much stronger than they 
appear on the palette (except the reds.) If the enamels fire 
too pale a wash of color and refiring will remedy it. 

In light greens and yellows always use a touch of black 
(Brunswick) to soften the intensity of the tone. For yellows 
use the mixing and silver yellow (silver yellow is much strong- 
er.) Never mix red with enamel (use the prepared red ena- 
mels.) For light greens use Apple Green toned with Chrome 
Green 3b, the yellows, Brown Green and black. For dark 
greens any of the darker shades mixed and ^ Aufsetzweiss. 
For turquoise blue — Deep Blue Green, Night Green, mixed 
with body enamel. For dark blue — Dark blue, Brunswick 
black, little Ruby Purple, Aufsetzweiss For pink — Osgood's 
Standard Pink with body enamel, l^flux. 

Miss Mason's prepared enamels are excellent and fire at 
same temperature as the china and are to be recommended 
to beginners. Her glazes (green, azure and turquoise) mixed 
with color give good enamel effects and can also be dusted 
on over color before fired or grounded on over fired color giv- 
ing a fine underglaze effect. Enamels used over a tint re- 
quire a lighter fire than when used on white china and a still 
lighter fire used over a grounded color; used over gold, the 
gold should first be fired to be perfectly safe. Some mix 
enamels with a horn knife. I find a steel one answers quite 
as well. In raised enamel work it is best to buy and use 
those already prepared, rub down smoothly with enamel 
medium, after that when they become dry, use only lavender 
oil to make it drop smooth and round from the point of a sable 
liner, No. o or No. i., fire only once and a light fire. For a 
relief white for a last fire, use Aufsetzweiss and | flux. Give 
a rather hard fire. 

Great care must be used in doing relief enamel or jewel 

work, else the dots will look like lumps or knobs. The dots 

must be round and smooth, not with a little point on top and 

full of air holes as is so often seen. Take them off not once or 

twice but many times until practice makes perfect. Sartor- 

ius Co. prepares a very fine gold relief enamel in Cobalt blue. 


Fourth Prize— Lucy L. Brown, Roxbury, Mass. 

[extracts only.] 

The best enamel and that which will stand the hardest fire 
is the German Aufsetzweiss in tubes ;this is what is called hard 
enamel, as it stands a hard fire and seems to be the most reli- 
able, as we use more French china for decorating than any 
other, and as it is very hard, it is better to add a little flux to 
the Aufsetzweiss, to help unite it to the glaze of the china 
and prevent it from chipping; some do not add any flux 
when color is used but it seems safer to add a very little. 

For dark jewels, you can make the jewels white, not 
mixing any color with the enamel and flux, and after firing, 
paint the dark color over them and fire again. 

Sometimes, when the brush is lifted, a little point will 
be seen on the dot, often by breathing on this the trouble is 
remedied and a smooth surface is formed. Never dry jewels 
by artificial heat as the outside dries more rapidly than the 
inside and keeps the inner part moist, so that it may bubble 
in the firing. Wait till the surface looks dull before having 

For fiat enamel, use a square shader as large as the 
design will allow and let the enamel flow off the brush as 
evenly as possible on the china, as 3'ou cannot meddle much 
with this kind of painting. 

For powdered enamel, take out sufficient powder on a 

ground glass slab, mix with it just enough fat oil to hold it 

together, add color, if needed, and thin with oil of lavender; 

make thinner for flat enamel than for jewels, and foUow the 

same method as above in applying to china. There is a good 

red and orange enamel in powder form, that it is well to buv 

when those colors are needed, also an enamel medium to use 

with the powdered enamel which is very convenient. 


Fifth Prize— Mary Powers Afcam, Flandreau, S. D. 

[extracts only.] 

First and most important use only MuUer & Hennig's 
relief white or Aufsetzweiss, to this add any color you wish to 
use. If your relief white is very oily use dry color with it, 
working in the powder thoroughly. If it is still somewhat 
oily place it on a clean blotter, the oil will be absorbed in a 
very short time. Now remove to your palette, mix again 
and for each portion of enamel the size of a pea add one 
drop of water; this will take about a minute's thorough 
mixing, it is then ready to use; if it should be too dry to work 
freely add a drop or two of turpentine. In the case of relief 
white that is dry or nearly so, use the. tube colors for tint- 
ing, one-fifth color is the general rule,though I have used more 
with excellent results, add water as before and turpentine if 

Never use enamel that has been exposed to the air 


heramic studio 


for any length of time, by this I mean from twelve to 
twenty-four hours. ■ If you are painting a set to be decorated 
in colored enamels, which must be the same shade and yet 
could not be painted at one time, mix your color and 
rehef white sufficient for the set. Place this in any small 

jar with tight cover (one of the tiny gold jars would be good) ; 
when you are ready to use the enamel, take out a little, add 
the water and proceed. If too stiff use a drop of turpentine 
occasionally to keep the enamel glossy and so it will work 

All color must be fired or removed where you wish to 
put the enamel. Use the No. oo or No. o water color brushes 
for fine work, and never let the enamel work up in your brush, 
it will spread the brush and cause ragged work, always clean 
the brush in turpentine when working. By mixing your 
enamel in this way, most beautifully modeled roses, chrysan- 
themums, grapes, hops, birds, beetles, and even faces can be 
made. For this work, use the rehef white alone, adding the 
water as this is the secret of the enamel staying "put" If 
you wish to make a rose finish it up at once, do not think you 
can make one petal to-day, another to-morrow. If your 
enamel is mixed just right you can model anything and it will 
stay where you put it no matter how high the relief. The 
higher the relief the harder must be the fire for fine results. In 
modeling high relief designs in enamel, always dry twenty- 
four hours before firing. 


Ella L. Adams, Yellow Springs, Ohio. 

[extracts only] 

All enamels are mixed with the mediums used for paints, 
turpentine for tube enamel, copaiba and clove oil for vial 




enamel, and lavender oil to keep the enamel open. In model- 
ing small flowers use enamel of the same consistenc)^ as for 
dots. Fill the brush as for dots and place a dot on the edge 
of each petal. With a larger pointed brush pull the enamel 
towards the centre of flower, modeling each. 

Enamels as a usual thing require a hard firing but there 
are exceptions to this rule. Some manufacturers make both 
hard and soft enamel, which can be used for heavy or light 
firing as their names indicate. The various kinds of china 
influence the effects of enamels. English and Belleek do not 
require as soft enamels. as those of French manufacture. 
When colors are mixed with enamel the flux that some colors 
contain (green or yeUow for example) is quite enough for a 
satisfactory firing. As a rule other colors should be fluxed. 
Too many firings are apt to make the enamel chip off, so, if 
possible, put on enamel for last firing. 

Think all that you can! Put in as little hand-work as 
possible, and as much intelligence. Permit yourself the 
luxury of doing it in the simplest way ! — William Hunt. 




Ground, greyish brown ; background 
of border, white ; leaves, grey green; ap- 
ples, pale pinkish ochre; dark brown out- 



Base, dark olive; berries, light olive; 
leaves and handle, dark green (not too 
dark) ; top of stein blue grey (Copenhagen 
with a touch of Green 7). 





Top and handle, olive green; base, 
dark mahogany red ; berries, deep pink ; 
leaves and stems, pale olive with dark 
olive outlines ; grey blue margin around 


Grey blue on warm grey ground. 




Handle and bands at top and base, dull red with orange 
discs; wide bands at top and base, also trunk of trees, pale 
brown; leaves and roots, grey green; fruit, dark orange; 
outlines black, center band white. 


Body, dark greenish grey (Green 7) ; design in old 
rose (violet thin, first fire; Pompadour, second fire): old 
ivory margin. 

Black or gold outlines. 


Body of stein, also pears, light ochre ; handle and 
ground of border, sage green; wide outlines, old rose; gold 
or red brown outlines. 


Body, pearl grey; leaves, stems and light bands, grey 
green; grapes, light violet; handle and dark bands, purple; 
gold outlines. 

GOOSEBEIRRY plate: mabel c. dibble 


heramic studio 




Body, grey green; design, yellow ochre 
with black outlines ; a white margin is left 
around design. 



Base and stems, olive green; top, dark 
ochre; berries and band on handle, dark 
orange; leaves, pale olive; outlines black 
or gold. 


heramic studio 

APPLE STUDY (October Supplement) 

M. M. Mason 
For the study of apples the general palette is required, 
ranging through the yellows, yellow browns and reds; the 
yellow greens, blue greens and dark greens; the greys, 
violets, ruby and black. The background is painted with 
Yellow Brown, French Grey, Shading and Dark Green. 

For the leaves use Celadon and YeUow Green, modeling 
slightly with Shading and Dark Green and Violet. 

Lay them in, in simple fiat tones and depend on the sub- 
sequent paints for accents of color. The brightest note of 
color in the apples is Carnation, the deeper ones. Blood Red 
and Blood Red and Ruby, with Albert Yellow in the lighter 
tones. When dry, the same colors are used in dusting, 
carrying the French Grey over most of the greens. Retouch 
by washes of color carried over the entire surface of the 
panel, rather than by working out individual parts, as in this 
way a simpler and less realistic effect is obtained. 


M. E. Hulbert 

This design would be effective worked out in mono- 
chrome. Shading green would be a good color. The band 
may be done in a similar color but with a mat surface and the 
letters in a greenish gold and the shading of the letters in 
shading green, or the band may be of green bronze (the met- 
al) and the letters in shading green. It will require at least 
three firings. 

A good color scheme would be green grapes with yellowish 
lights through them and blue green leaves on a warm back- 

In the grapes use yellow, green, yellow ochre, warm grey 
and a little brown green; for the background, yellow och/e 
and chestnut brown, violet of iron and chocolate brown, 
yellow green, brown green, moss green and shading green 
and a Httle deep blue green for the leaves. The band to be 
done in gold with the letters in black on finishing brown. 


THE flowers are a beautiful purple. Use any good violet 
mixture or mix 1-5 Ruby Purple with 4-5 Dark Blue. 
Use Olive Green for the leaves, pods and calyx of the flower. 

The stamens Albert Yellow and the background of centre 
Ivory Yellow. The background of corners Dark or Shading 
Green. Outline the whole with Outlining Black. 













THE little country of Holland, for its size sent perhaps the 
most varied and interesting exhibit in arts and crafts 
and in ceramics also. Three potteries of note were repre- 
sented beside individual work of merit. 

The potteries represented were Delft, De Distel and 
Rosenburg, as distinct from each other in style of decoration 
as in body and glaze. The Delft pottery has been largely 
illustrated before in Keramic Studio. The body is pottery 
with an opaque white stannif er glaze on which is painted the 
decoration either in blue or polychrome. The traditions of 
the old Delft are well kept up, although many innovations 
have been introduced in form and decoration in what is 
called the Jacoba ware in red, blue and gold. Lately a 
cream tinted porcelain biscuit ware has been produced and 
decorated in green and gold. 

The pottery De Distel is of a white body sometimes of a 
creamy tone, decorated mostly on the biscuit in pale tones 
of grey, green and blue but sometimes glazed. The decor- 
ation is I'art nouveau in style but delicate and dainty. 

The Rosenburg pottery showed two different types of 
ware, the table porcelain decorated with birds, flowers and 
scrolls in an ornate style similar to the designing of Habert 
Dys, executed in color and gold on white, but rather quaint 
and attractive for all that, and the art pottery which is in 
deeper richer colors and simpler bolder designs but with the 
same sweeping curves. 

Hungary was represented by varied individual exhibits 
running greatly to lustres, bronze and rich color effects often 
somewhat garish. 

The exhibit of L. Zsolnay was perhaps the most unique and 
clever. The claim of the artist is that the lustres are not 
only on the surface but incorporated in the glaze. The 
artist says ' ' The colors or rather chemical matter put on the 
glaze, give color to the latter by reduction in the fire, but 
the chemicals themselves remain after firing on the surface 
and can be brushed off." The modeled pieces also are 
clever and unique and show an original mind. 


Denmark was represented by two well known potter- 
ies. Royal Copenhagen, and Bing and Grondahl all of 
which have been well and thoroughly written up in 
former numbers of Keramic Studio. It only remains to 
say that the Royal Copenhagen showed beside the decora- 
tions in under glaze with which we are so familiar, crystal- 
line glazes in great profusion and a mottled glaze called 
"truite" which was perhaps the most interesting of all. 












a mottled effect as of fine discs of white raised slightly on a 
colored ground, usually blue or grey. The Rorstrand (Swe- 
den) exhibit had perhaps the greatest variety of fine crystal- 
line effects, especially noticeable were the crystals in yellow 
and pink not seen elsewhere. The other work in under glaze 
resembled somewhat the Royal Copenhagen. The Bing 
and Grondahl exhibit we were unable to find. 

The Italian exhibit of ceramics was confined mostly to the 
I/'art della Ceramica which was well illustrated in Keramic 
Studio at the time of the Pan American Exposition. 
There is nothing new to add in regard to it except that 
several pieces were in a lower tone and richer in color notably 
a large jar in browns and lustre which was extremely inter- 

We regret exceedingly that we were unable to obtain 
photographs from the Japanese exhibit, which contained a 
little of all the finest styles of work found elsewhere. Some 
notable examples were, — A Satsuma incense burner like 
carved ivory, intricately patterned in open work; a pottery 
vase by Ito Josan, a greenish cream ground with a wistaria 
design in violet conventionally arranged in low relief. A 
vase with the same motif by Hayashi Jisaburo with white 
flowers in a violet grey ground; interesting crystalline 
glazes by J. Uno, especially crystalline brown on flamme red, 
green, turquoise and grey. 


Kosan, of the Imperial Court was represented by a curious 
blackish brown bronze with brown crystals like slices of 
agate. Kawara Taro showed some clever pottery of a com- 


mon yellow body showing the circling marks of the fingers 
in throwing. The decorations were mostly in browns with 
a broad and sketchy treatment. 





The other countries had of course a few ceramics here and 
there, more or less clever, usually less, but nothing distinct- 

We may have missed some things worthy of mention 
but as we have conscienciously looked for and examined 
all exhibits that we could find, we may be forgiven for 
small omissions. 

This then sums up the work in ceramics at the St. I^ouis 
Exposition and we trust our readers have gained not only 
information but inspiration from the review. 


Miss C. L. Joy, Boston, Mass., has removed her studio 
from No. 3 Park Place to 356 Boylston Street. 

Miss Dorothea Warren, Kansas City, Mo., has gone to 
Munich, Germany, for two years study of design. 

Elaboration is not beauty, and sand-paper has never 
finished a piece of bad work. — William Hunt. 



IN painting the berries work for transparent efi"ects. Keep 
the high lights and shadows clear and retouch with 
clear, clean color, giving accent to lines in the berries. 

Use pointed brush in wiping out high lights keeping them 
crisp. The ripe ones may be painted in Lemon Yellow, Silver 
Yellow, Yellow Ochre, shaded with Olive Green, touches 
of Pompadour in ones not quite ripe strengthened with 
touches of Chestnut Brown. Others in Temon Yellow in 
lightest tones, also a little yellow Green and Brown Green 

in one not ripe. Usual greens are used in leaves with Yellow 
Brown, Chestnut Brown and Pompadour where old and 
withered effect is desired. 

The background may be treated in same color, keeping the 
main part of the design sunny using Egg Yellow, and Yellow 
Brown, keeping the rest of the design in harmony with back- 

Strengthen above colors in second firing, giving accent to 



Under the management of Miss Emily Peacock, Room 2j, 22 East i6th St.. Nezv York. All inquiries in regard to the various 
Crafts are to be sent to the above address, but ivill be ansivered in the magazine under this head. 

All questions must he received before the 10th day of month preceding issue and will be answered under -'Answers to Inquiries" only. Please do not send stamped 

envelope for reply. The editors will answer questions only in these columns. 

Illustration No. 1. 


Haswell Clarke Jeffery 

THE trays illustrated are cut from various hard woods. 
The upper one at the left is maple wood and has a 
finish of green stain with wax. The lower one at the right 
is of Circassian walnut, beautifully clouded in separate grain 
which the wax and turpentine coat develops. The two cen- 
tral ones are of Chinese tonquin wood of a dull gold color 
tending toward brown. The other two at opposite corners 
are of English oak in rich browns and yellows. 

All the patterns are cut first with a small veiner, the 
background lowered a little for shadow, and a touch of sand 
paper used to soften the edges. 



Emily Peacock 

AT this season when so many are thinking of making 
Christmas things, workers will probably be glad to 
have suggestions in different branches of handicraft. 

For the workers in wood , the carved trays, Illus. No. i ., 
by Mr. Haswell Jeffery with instructions for^ carving, are 
simple in design, and if the turned trays can be bought, are 
quickly and easily' *made. Simply carved paper cut- 

No. 2. Address Book. Made and 
designed by GUT D. HOWLETT. 

No. 3. Modeled Leather Table Centre. 
Made and designed by EDITH L. NICHOLS. 

No. 4. Magazine Cover. 
Made and designed by NELLBERT MURPHY. 



ters made from olive wood, or beach, a nut bowl with six 
small plates, a table book rack, or a mirror back, are all pos- 
sible for beginners, and do not demand much time, or ex- 
perience. The instructions given above for the wood trays 
will be found helpful in the making of all these things. 


For the workers in leather, Ihus. Nos. 2, 3, and 5 are 
interesting. The address book and the mats for librar}'^ tables 
were made of heavy calf skin, and the design modeled. 
(Tools and process for modeled leather were given in Nov- 
ember issue 1904.) Holes for lacing the cover to the address 
book were made with a steel punch and a narrow strip of 
leather laced through them. The magazine cover, Illus. 
No. 4, was slightly modeled and tooled. Holes were punched 
in it along the edges to lace the inside piece to the outside. 
This lacing with narrow strips of leather is carried all the way 
round for effect. Card cases can be made of ooze leather, 
using a very simple border design, or an all over pattern for 
decoration. The lines of the design can be tooled, and the 
motive filled in with water color, or a small figure can be cut 
out, and the case lined with leather, or silk to harmonize. 
Belts can be made of ooze, kid, or calf skin but the ooze and 
kid must be lined to be strong. These can be tooled, pierced, 
or modeled. Very attractive bags, pocket books, and 
music rolls can be made of leather, with linings to harmonize. 
Divan pillows of soft leather with the edges laced together 
with narrow strips of the same, are both pleasing and dur- 


For the metal worker,there is something truly fascinating 
about a copper bowl, and almost endless are the different 

sizes and shapes that can be made. Shallow bowls can be 
fitted with the lead or bronze flower holders, that are used for 
the narcissus, jonquil, or other flowers that grow straight and 
tall. Small bowls can be made for violets, and larger ones 
for nasturtiums or nuts and fruits. Ash trays, card trays 
and pen trays can be made of brass, copper, or silver. 

Illustration No. 6 shows a Japanese jar of pottery with 
a metal top. The jar was a beautiful brown, and the cover 
was made of copper and colored to match. It was made in 
four pieces, the top part was cut perfectly round, and beaten 
in a wood pattern until it was the right shape, then a ring was 
soldered on this to lie flat on the top of the jar, a second ring 
was made, and soldered on to the first one, this ring, or collar, 
fitted inside the neck of the jar. A ball was soldered on the 
top for a handle. The cover was finished with files and 
emery cloth, and then colored, by rubbing with machine oil, 
and applying a gentle heat, until the right color came when 
the metal was cooled. 



The salt cellars, and spoons, Illus. No. 7, are made of 
silver 19 Gauge. Cut a circle of silver the size desired for 
the salt cellars and hammer into a wood pattern until they are 
the proper shape. The bottom of the salt cellars should be 
perfectly flat so that they will stand firmly, or they may be 
left round and three silver balls soldered on for feet. Those 
illustrat-ed were perfectly plain excepting for the etched 
monogram, but a single border design could be etched on the 
inside or the outside. The spoons are made of the same 
gauge silver cut out very accurately and hammered in the 
same manner as the salt cellar. Both are finished with files 
and emery cloth. 



The bonbon spoon, Illus. No. 8, was made in the same 
way, excepting that the handle was etched. The smah 
sugar tongs illustrated should be cut out of 18 gauge silver, 
f of an inch by 7 inches. The bowls are beaten into shape 
just as the salt spoons were, then finished with files and 
emery cloth. The centre is bent over a round piece of wood 
and planished with a planishing hammer to give the metal 
spring. The tongs would be very effective etched or pierced. 

In these days of many buckles, silver ones for slippers as 
well as for belts are not a difficult undertaking. Those illus- 
trated were made from 1 9 gauge silver. The larger pair were 
I X ij inches and the smaller onesfxi inch. Avery true 
pattern should first be cut out of brass, and the silver 
cut from that. When all the edges are filed and finished 
the buckle is curved by hammering it between a convex and 
concave piece of wood. The last thing to do is to solder a 
bar on for the center piece. 



Mounted for a Fob. 


Mounted for a Fob. 


The watch fob illustrated, No. 10, is made of a Japanese 
coin. A stone was set in the centre and the coin bound with 
silver. In No. 11, a carved Chinese bead was used. Hat 
pins can be made of beads and three are used in a set nowa- 
days. Paper cutters, candlesticks, ink wells, book slides and 
sconces are among the many things to make in copper; and in 
. silver, napkin rings, olive or butter picks, tea spoons, muff 
chains, and stick pins. 


The embroideries from Newcomb College New Orleans, 
lya., attracted universal attention at St. Louis. Great 
interest was centered in the fact that each piece was not only 

designed and embroidered, but also spun and woven bv tlie 

The simplicity and quaint irregularity of the homespun 
web united with the harmonious coloring of the design show 
training in the laws of art and deserve recognition. Of the 
artistic crafts few lend themselves to individual treatment 
so satisfactorily as embroidery especially for interior dec- 
oration where coverings and hangings into which the skilled 
use of design and color have been brought, carry charm and 

The work illustrated was done by the following students. 
No. I. By Marie Delavigne. A table cover in tussah 
silk with applique magnolia bud in couched outline. It is 
about 32 inches square. The color is a yellow ash, with 
ivory white flowers; the stem in dark green and browns to 
simulate the color of bark. 

No. 2. By Ada Lonegan. A center piece about 15 
inches, of gray canvas with a cross stitch motif of dragon 
flies in dark green, outlined with blue. This particular 
design has caused a great deal of flattering comment from 
connoisseurs of embroidery, and we regard it as one of the 
most successful. 





No. 3. By Gertrude Robert Smith. A wall hanging 
of dark red Razee cloth; the motif is the china ball tree in 
dark blue with light green stitchery for the body of the tree 
This effect is extremely rich and powerful, and much darker 
than the photograph would lead you to expect. 

No. 4. By Sally Holt. A table scarf of white home 
spun linen, with tobacco plant and flower as the motif. 
The color is green and golden- pink in couched outline. The 
strip is about 18 inches wide and 2 yards long. The other 
end of the scarf has a similar design on the other side of the 



J. E. — The last firing should leave enough polish on the enamel, but finely 
powdered pumice No. 00 made into a thick paste is used for polishing . 
If the surface is flat a wooden wheel can be used, but if there are crevices, a felt 
wheel will reach them better. 

For deep cavities a pointed spindle of wood or felt, should be used. Tripoli 
and oil wUl polish enamel also. 

AA". K. — To get a green finish on brass, mix powdered acetate of copper 
and carbonate of copper well together until you get the right tint. Mix this 
with a white lacquer and apply to the brass with a soft brush. When this has 
thoroughly dried apply a thin coating of white lacquer over the whole. 

Statue — The following method is highly commended by Lehner for 
mending statuary. The broken edges are washed with water until more can 
not be absorbed, and the surface remains wet. Then stir fresh calcined white 

plnstcr of Paris vviih wntei (o a thin paste, continue tostiriintil this is cold. 
Then rapidly paint the paste on the broken edges, pressing the pieces together 
until they set liard. Plaster of Paris and alum combined with the fine powder 
of calcined glass, form a very hard and durable cement for all mending of stone 

B. T. — A filler for coarse grained wood is often made of soft wa.x Hour and 


Mabel C. Dibble 

vSketch in the design. Tint small panels in clouded 
effect, using Dark Blue, Light Violet of Gold and Bruns- 
wick Black. Wipe out berries and leaves, outline all of 
design in black, Ivory Black |, Dark Blue ;',. Outline 

panels and bands with heavy line of same using only turpen- 
tine, no oil fire. For second fire tint white panels and centre 
of plate with Chinese Yellow very light. Leaves in light 
panels, Apple Green, Brown Green, little Brunswick Black, 
1 Aufsetzweiss, leaves in purple panel, Apple Green, Bruns- 
wick Black added to mixed enamel, J Hancock's Hard White 
Enamel, | Aufsetzweiss. Purple berries. Dark Blue, Light 
Violet of Gold, Brown No. 4 or 17 and Brunswick Black. 
Use no enamel. Paint them in, using a little tinting oil, 
shading quite heavily. For light berries, shade the mixed 
enamel with Apple Green and Brunswick until a soft grey, 
float the color on, and when dry wash lightly over parts of 
berries with Violet of Iron. Vein leaves with black, also 
purple berries, scratch out white lines, vein the light berries 
with brown and black tuixed, and add prickles in black. 
The little dashes in narrow panels arc of the purple mixture. 


Miss A. K. — For your charcoal kiln it is absolutely necessary that you 
have a chinmey, the higher the better, and a sheet iron hood like an inverted fun- 
nel with a pipe going into the chimney and supported by iron braces from the 
roof. But why do you prefer a charcoal kiln when oil is easier, better and 
cheaper as a fuel. If you must use charcoal be sure and have your funnel 
wider than the diameter of the outside of kiln and high enough above it to 
admit of putting on coal easily. Sometimes a sheet iron drop is put on the 
funnel, hanging straight down all around except for a space in front. The 
charcoal has then to be poured on top of kiln and distributed with a poker. 
I'o protect yourself from sparks, an oil cloth apron is useful. The sheet of tin 
would be in the way. Only powder colors can be used for dusting on. You 
can, however, paint with the La Croix Colors and when the colors are "tacky", 
dust the powder color on by taking sonic on a palette knife, dropping it on the 
|)ainting and pushing it over tlie surface witii a pad of cotton. For regular 
(histed grounds however, the regular grounding oil is necessary. This is first 
liainled on, tlien |)added until even and tacky. Then color is ap|)lied as 
above until the oil will alisurb no more color and the surface looks dry. 

A. G. C. — Bm-nishing sand is used wet and applied with a soft rag or cot- 

M. C. A. — We only know of one tile wliich comes for decorating and that 
is white 6x6. If you wish to decorate tiles already colored you had better 
write to the manufacturer for sizes and colors as you will have to use all of one 
make, and each factory turns out special sizes and glazes. You will find 
directions for making gold from gold foil, such as dentists use, in Keramic 
Studio, September, 1901. Never having put up gold we 'can not tell how 
many boxes can be made from an ounce. You will have to judge for your- 
self how much will leave a fair profit. 

J. E.H P. — To dust powder colors over painted grounds when partially dry, 
take the powder on the palette knife and drop on the part to be dusted, then 
take a clean brush and distribute it evenly until the painting will absorb no 
more, a piece of surgeon's cotton serves this purpose very well; the same 
procesF can be used on light grounds by allowing the painting to become 
still dryer, before dusting. 

R. M. — The "reddish glow" on the mountain asli pitcher is not on the 
original. It is very diflicult to reproduce a round piece of china in colors as 
the shadows and lights affect the color. However, if you would like to have 
that effect, the use of a little yellow red in the dusting would produce it, 

K. M. A. — AVill be answered in December magazine. 




I White China j 

I for Decorating l 

iD.&Co. I 




If you want the best Quality, Shapes, Results 
in Firing 


New Catalogue just issued, will be sent on application. Goods must 
be ordered through nearest local dealer. 


EndemanD £> Churchill 

I 50 Murray St. 

New York ♦ 

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For Firing Decorated China, Glass Etc. 


























I Marschin^'s 

Roman Gold 



♦♦♦ ♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 4 «, «««♦«♦♦« ♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ ♦♦ 



Gold for China Painting 

Other Golds have come and gone, but Marsch- 

ing's Gold still holds its place as the 

best Gold on the market. 

I ...AliA^AYS UNIF ORM... 

If you want your Gold work to last, use Marsch- 
ing's. Have no other. 



NEW \ 49 Barclay Si. 
YORK : \ 54 Park Place. 

108 Lake Street. 




jBiscHorrs j 


j COLORS (tor China) j 


The only color ground 
fine in turpentine. 

The following lifted col- 
ors constitute a complete 
palette for flowers and fruit 
Peach Blossotn, . . 25c 

Ruby, 50c 

Ashes of Roses, . . 50c 
Celadon, .... 30c 
Old Rose, .... 35c 
Purple Black, . . ■ 35c 
Verdigres, .... 25c 
Dark Yellow, . • • 35c 
Magenta, .... 50c 



Technically free of 
iron, can be mixed with 
one another, the effect 
is unequaled. Har- 
monious, subdued in 
tone, with equal results 
on all makes of China. 



Mr. Bischoff will teach First of October. Arrangements have to 
be made by communication only. .Ji -^ ^ -^ J* J^ <^ r^ 



(Wayne County) 



I^E-E--R T^M E- F"l 

fV_l-l V^E- 

€i|ri0ima0 Pumlt^i^ 






MR. H. C. ter MEER 















DEC. MCMV Price 35c. Yearly Subscription $3.50 

fl noNTHLY nmmwi for tme potter and decorator- 

t Tie enUrt contents of this Magiiine art albered hy the general copyrigU, and the articles matt not be reprinted tMhoai special permission. ] 



The Class Room "Gold" 

Roman and Liquid Bright Gold 

Burnish. Gold and Silver 

Holly Plate 

Child's Pitcher and Bowl 

Plate borders in Holly, Mistletoe and Oranges 

Orange design for cup and saucer 

Children's Cups 

Mistletoe Plate, 

Designs for Child's Candlesticks 

"■ " " Set 

" " " Bread and Milk Set 

" " " Cup, Bowl and Mug 

" " " Mug 
Christmas Tree Stein 
Child's Plate 

" Loving Cup 
Tobacco Jar 
Child's Plate 
Tiles for Child's Room 
Strawberry Plate 
Oranges (Supplement) 

Child's Set in Gold and White 
Apple Design for Plate 
The Crafts— 

The Making of a Paper Knife 

(Illustrated by Mrs. Hugo Froelich) 

Rug Making (Concluded) 
Answers to Correspondents 
Treatment of Designs by 

Emily F. Peacock 
H. C. ter Meer 
Jeanne M. Stewart 
Margaret Overbeck 
Anne Seymour Mundy 
Minna Meinke 
Ophelia Foley 
Jeanne M. Stewart 
Mary Overbeck 
Ophelia Foley 
F. A. Rhead 
Marie Crillcy Wilson 
H. B. Paist 
Sabella Randolph 
Margaret Overbeck 
F. A. Rhead 
Lottie Rhead 
Sabella Randolph 
H. B. Paist 
Maud Meyers 
M. M. Mason 
Ida M. Ferris 
Alice W. Sloan 
Minna Meinke 

Emily F. Peacock 

Helen R. Albee 

Mrs. Wilson and Mrs. Paist 













Some Leading Agencies of Keramic Studio 

We take pleasure in mentioning a few of the leading agencies for the sale 
of the Keeamic Studio, where, also, subscriptions may be placed: 

Boston, Mass.— Miss E. E. Page, 286 Boyslton St.; Smith & McCanee, 

Old Comer Book Store. 
Brooklyn — A. D. Mathew's Sons, Fulton Street. 
Bufifalo— Mrs. Filkins, 609 Main Street. 
Chicago — A. H. Abbott & Co.; A. C. McClurg & Co.; Brentano's; Burley 

& Co. 
Cincinnati— Miss M. Owen, 245 Elm Street; A. B. Closson, 110 W. 4th St. 

Traxel & Maas, 4th Street, near Elm. 
Cleveland, Ohio — ^Vinson & Komer, 150 Euclid Ave. 
Columbus, Ohio — Lee Roessler, 116 So. High Street. 
Denver, Colo.— H. R. Memmger, 409 16th Street. 
Detroit, Mich.— L. B. King & Co.; Art China Co. 
Hartford, Ct.— E. M. SiU. 
Grand Rapids, Mich.— Miller, Wolfe Co. 
Indianapolis, Ind. — Keramic Supply Co., Lemcke Building. 
Kansas City. Mo. — ^Emery, Bird, Thayer Co.; Geo. B. Peck Co. 

Mmneapolis, Minn. — Minn. Art China Co., 607 Ist Ave. So.; Elizabeth 

Hood, 18 W. -eth St., St. Paul, Minii'. 
New York City — Brentano's, Union Square; M. T. Wynne's, HE. 20th 

St.; The Fry Ait Co., 11 E. 22d St.; Wanamaker's; American News Co.; 

J. B. Ketcham, 107 W. 25th Street. 
Newark, N. J. — Keramic Novelty Co. 
Oakland, Cal.— Smith Bros. 
Omaha, Neb. — Megeath Stationery Co. 
Philadelphia — ^Wanamaker's . 
Pittsburgh, Pa. — Otto Schaffer & Bros.; Kurtz, Langbein & Schwartz 

R. S. Davis & Co., 346 Fifth Ave.; John G. Yergan, 420 Penn Ave. 
San Francisco — Mrs. M. E. Perley, 207 Post Street. 
St. Louis— F. Weber & Co.; A. S. Aloe & Co. 
Syracuse — Wolcott Book Shop; Welch & Hollingsworth ; W. Y. Foote; 

A. L. Vamey & Co., 336 S. Salina Street. 
Toronto — The Art Metropole. 
Washington, D. C. — Wood & Lothrop. 

The Magazine may also be ordered from any news dealer or book store 
in this country, who can procure it through the American News Company, 
New York, or its branches. 

Vol. VII No. 8 


December 1905 

HRISTMAS Greetings to our read- 
ers! We hope they will like our 
holiday number. We have worked 
hard to spread a Yuletide feast 
for them and wish them a good 
digestion! The New Year ap- 
proaches and with it we hope to 
turn^^many new f pages with the 
help of our subscribers. Will 
they not write us a New Year's 
letter, making suggestions as to what they would like for 
the New Year. We will do our best to fulfil their desires. 
Tell us what you think would improve the usefulness of 
Keramic Studio. We may not always agree, but we 
will surely receive many valuable hints. 

It has been thought best to extend the time for the 
competition for the punch-bowl and cup. (See back of 
cover.) Beside the color drawing, as called for, a section 
in black and white, working size, can be submitted rather 
than the entire full size bowl. If preferred, the bowl may be 
done in black and white, accompanied by black and 
white section in full size and a section in color. The full 

size bowl should be 12 to 15 inches in diameter. Special 
attention is called to the shapes of bowl and cup. 

Our ' ' Fruit Book, ' ' which we are sure will be fully as 
popular as our ' ' Rose Book, ' ' will be ready in January. It 
will be a larger book, as it will contain the studies published 
in six years, while the ' ' Rose Book ' ' was the collection of 
four years. 

We are approaching the season of exhibitions. Have 
the various clubs given up their fall sales. W^e will be glad 
to hear from them with illustrations of the more interesting 
exhibits. We are always glad to give club and studio news, 
and illustrations when received in time. Sometimes we 
have to cut the cloth according to the space, but where pos- 
sible we give as much space as we can. 

We would be glad to have drawings in black and white 
of any subject suitable for china decoration submitted 
from time to time by our subscribers. At present we are 
needing greatly studies and arrangements of miniature 
flowers, fruit, etc., for small pieces; also good simple designs 
for beginners. 


On account of lack of space the articles on gold work 
will be continued in the January Keramic Studio. 

J. J' 



Emily F. Peacock. 
To the amateur, the preparing of gold for keramic dec- 
oration seems a great undertaking, but with the proper 
apparatus, materials and care, this should not be. Then 
the pleasure and profit derived from using pure gold more 
than compensates for time expended. There are two meth- 
ods generally used. In both the metal is dissolved in aqua, 
regia, and when precipitated is in the form of a light brown 
powder. By one method the gold is precipitated by ferros 
sulphate (copperas), the other by mercury. The former I 
prefer, and give as follows: Take four penny-weights of 
pure ribbon gold, cut into small pieces, and put in a large 
measuring glass or porcelain vessel holding not less than a 
pint, cover with about an ounce and a half of aqua regia, 
placing over vessel a piece of common glass. Let this stand 
over night in a large room, or preferably, in the open air. 
In the morning pour the chloride of gold into two glass ves- 
sels, each holding three pints or more, being very careful 
not to waste a drop, as every grain counts when the precip- 
itate is formed. Then make a solution, taking about a 
quart of warm water to an ounce of ferros sulphate. When 
thoroughly dissolved, add to the chloride until precipita- 
tion begins, clouding the liquid, and the gold in the form of 
brown powder will begin to fall to the bottom of the vessel. 
Tet this stand four or five hours, or until entirely settled; 

then pour off the clear liquid from the precipitate, treating 
it as before, as the gold held in solution may not all have 
been precipitated; i. e., pour off clear liquid into another 
vessel, to this must be added more of the prepared solution, 
until it is cloudy as in the first instance; if it refuses to 
cloud there is no more gold in solution. Wash the precip- 
itate left in the vessels with warm water, let it stand until 
settled, pour off, and repeat the process twice. The wash- 
ing consists of stirring the precipitate with a glass rod a 
few times in the water. When it has settled for the last 
time, pour off the water and transfer to a shallow plate 
that will bear heat; place over this a paper cover, and put in 
front or over a fire. When quite dry, rub down with a muller ; 
when it is ready for use or to be fluxed. Divide your pow- 
der into penny-weights. In this way you will find out how 
much you have made. All liquid used should be poured 
through filter paper afterwards, to make sure you do not 
lose the smallest quantity. When dry this may be burned, 
and only the grains of gold remain. To make flux, use 
nitrate of bismuth, twelve parts, to one part of pulverized 
borax; mixing one part flux to twelve parts the gold 
powder. When ready to use, rub down to a proper con- 
sistency with fat oil and spirits of turpentine, taking care 
not to make it too thin. If made as directed, one coat of 
this gold is sufficient. 

A couple of glass rods, several pieces of glass for covers, 
and a large jar to hold solution, besides vessels already men- 
tioned, will be necessary, and each one of these must be 
washed scrupulously clean before using. Glazed paper is 
best for wrapping up gold powder, and a small pair of scales 
will be found very useful. 




Emily F. Peacock. 

Dissolve I drachm of gold in f ounce of aqua regia. 
Add 6 grains of metallic tin, using more aqua regia if re- 
quired to dissolve it. Pour with constant stirring into a 
mixture of ^ drachm of balsam of sulphur and 20 drachms 
of oil of turpentine; as it stiffens, add ^ drachm of oil of 
turpentine and mix well. More gold gives brighter effect, 
and more tin a violet tinge. Balsam of sulphur is made 
by boiUng together in a covered vessel i part flowers of sul- 
phur and 4. parts oil of lavender until the mass thickens. 

H. C. ter Meer. 

It is not as difficult to prepare burnish gold and silver 
for use for china decoration as is generally supposed, the 
preparation of burnish silver being especially simple In car- 
rying out this work, cleanliness and care in handling the 
chemicals must be observed, as the acids are caustic and 
produce stains. The gold and silver solutions produce 
stains and silver nitrate is also caustic. Only chemically 
pure chemicals and distilled water should be used. 


In order to prepare this gold powder, three penny- 
weights of pure gold are dissolved in one ounce of aqua 
regia, obtained by mixing equal volumes of hydrochloric 
and nitric acids. When the gold has dissolved completely, 
evaporate the solution to dryness on a water bath.*, and 
dissolve the residue (auric chlorid) in 28 ounces of water. 
Then filter the solution. 

If it is desired to save time and to avoid the handling 
of nitric acid, 120 grains of c. p. gold chloride (as employed 
in photography) are dissolved in the above quantity of 

Pour the filtered solution into a clean 3 2 -ounce jar, 
preferably a precipitation jar and add small quantities at 
a time of a solution composed of: Water, 3-I- ounces; fer- 
rous sulphate, ^ ounce; sulphuric acid, three drops; until 
no further precipitate is produced. After every addition, 
stir the solution thoroughly with a glass rod. When all 
the gold is precipitated, allow it to settle, decant the clear 
liquid and digestf the powder for about eight minutes 
with hydrochloric acid. Then wash the powder six times, 
by adding water, stirring, allowing the gold to settle and 
decanting the clear water. Finally, decant as much as pos- 
sible of the last wash water and wash the powder into 
shallow dish, evaporate the water and dry. After drying, 
rub the gold powder through fine silk gauze (bolting cloth) 
with the finger. This powder is unfluxed gold, and when 
prepared in this manner is very dense. After mixing with 
the proper quantity of thick oil and turpentine (somewhat 
more thick oil of turpentine should be used than is used 
with powder colors, and the mixture should have the con- 
sistency of Avell prepared tube colors) it is ready for use 
over colors which have already been fired. In order to use 
it over white china, gold flux must be mixed with it. 
Gold flux can be bought of A. Sartorius & Co., New York, 

* A water bath is a metallic vessel, with a cover composed of overlaoping concentric 
rings, which are used to support the vessels to be heated. It is used in the same manner 
and serves the same purpose as a double milk boiler, i. e., it prevents over heating. In this 
case the solution to be evaporated is poured into a porcelain dish, supported on the 
water bath (filled nearly full with water), in such a manner that the bottom of the dish is 
in contact with the water in the bath. The water in the bath is then boiled until all the 
hquid contained in the dish has evaporated, leaving a yellowish crystalline residue. The 
water bath must not be allowed to boil dry as this would ruin it. 

t Digest means to wash the gold powder with hydrochloric acid (literally to soak in 
the acid) in order to remove any iron present. It is accomplished by pouring the acid on 
the powder contained in a suitable vessel and shaking or stirring, the gold is then allowed 
to settle. After the specified time has elapsed the acid is poured off. 

in any quantity, and is so cheap that it does not pay to 
make it. The gold flux is incorporated with the gold pow- 
der when the latter is mixed with the thick oil of turpentine. 
GOLD NO. 2. 

A cheaper grade of gold suitable for large surfaces, 
such as feet, handles, etc., on ordinary work, is prepared 
as fohows: Dissolve ij oimces of metallic mercury in 3I 
ounces of nitric acid. This should be accomplished out of 
doors, or in a good draught of air, near an open window, 
so that the red fumes evolved, which are poisonous, are 
carried away. Then dissolve 3I penny-weights of pure gold 
in a solution composed of nitric acid, 2+ ounces, ammonium 
chloride ^ ounce. 

When the gold and the mercury have dissolved, mix 
the two solutions by pouring the mercury solution slowly 
in small quantities into the gold solution. The gold is 
hereby precipitated in the form of a bulky powder, which 
is washed, dried and sifted, as described aJoove. This gold 
must also be mixed with gold flux, if it is to be applied 
directly to white china. 


In order to prepare burnish silver, proceed as follows: 
Dissolve 480 grains of pure silver nitrate in 32 ounces of 
water and suspend a sheet of bright copper in the solution. 
The silver is precipitated, on the copper, as a loosely coher- 
ent powder, which is shaken oft' the plate from time to 
time. When the precipitation is complete, wash the silver 
powder with boiling water and dry. Finally, after mixing 
the powder with 24 grains, or with i-i2th its weight, of 
bismuth subnitrate and rubbing fine with a muller, on a 
ground glass plate, it is ready for use. 

These gold and silver powders can be preserved in the 
dry state, or they may be rubbed up with a suitable quan- 
tity of fat oil and preserved. The powders are also suitable 
for ' ' dusting on " ; when used for this purpose, gold No. 2 
is recommended, as it is more voluminous than No. i, and 
is consequently cheaper to use. 

The silver preparation in question requires no flux for 
use on white china. The bismuth subnitrate, with which 
the silver is mixed, is the flux. 
First Prize — Anne Seymour Mondy. 

ALMOST the first thing which a pupil wishes to learn 
is — ' ' how to put on gold, ' ' and as this is to be a little talk 
for pupils rather than teachers, we must confine ourselves 
more strictly to its use rather than to its composition — 
except perhaps as to how to select a good and durable gold. 

A $5.00 gold piece is the standard in color and wearing 
qualities — so the best gold for china is one which after 
firing will stand continued washing, a great deal of wrap- 
ping, packing and moving perhaps — and keep its surface 

A good gold, however, will not be responsible for rough 
ragged edges or bare thin spots on edges or handles if care- 
lessly manipulated, or more carelessly handled to and from 
the drying oven, or from the class room on the way to the 

For the pupil the first thing to be considered is ' ' what 
is the best gold, ' ' and then ' ' how to use it. ' ' As to what is 
the best gold, where opinions differ it should be left to the 
responsibility of the teacher until observation and experi- 
ence have formed a basis for self judgment as to its merits. 
In this article let us consider first how to use the usual 
Roman gold. [To page no.] 




IN sketching this design it should be borne in mind 
that the French holly berries are larger and many 
more in a cluster than those in the United States. 
Lay in the berries first in a tone composed of equal 
parts of Yellow Red and Pompadour No. 23 shaded 
with Pompadour No. 23. The darker berries and those 
in shadow with Stewart's Pompadour with | Ruby Pur- 
ple. The leaves which are very dark and glossy in Yel- 
low Green, Turquoise Green, Olive Green and Shading 
Green. Care should be taken with the sharp narrow 
points of the leaves which are often tipped with a faded 
brown. Chestnut Brown to which a little Pompadour has 

been added makes a good color. The background in soft 
greens and greys is added in the second fire, shading 
from ivory yellow to the dark tones under the leaves, 
made with Shading Green and Stewart's Grey, Brown, 
Green, Pompadour and Ruby Purple. 

The bright reds should not be touched in the second 
fire but in the third the whole design should be brightened 
and strengthened and shadows added. 

Pompadour and Grey in equal parts, forms an ex- 
cellent shade for the shadows. These reds should be given 
careful firing as much depends upon this for a bright, 
brilliant red. 




You will require i small palette knife to be used ex- 
clusively for gold; i No. o Red Sable Rigger for fine lines, 
tracings, etc.; 1 square or pointed shader for fiat surfaces 
(about 8 or loc.),; 1 small covered palette to be used only 
for gold, (costs about 75c.) ; i small thin glass for turpentine; 
I receptacle for alcohol, a wide-mouthed bottle, preferably, 
so that it may readily admit brushes and be corked when 
not in use ; pieces of cotton cloth which have been ' ' cut ' ' 
■ — not torn, and a box of Roman gold. 

For Roman gold, as usually sold: With a clean palette 
knife transfer part of your gold to your absolutely clean 
palette. Dip your palette knife into the turpentine glass, 
drop it off on to your gold, repeat, and mix to the consis- 
tency of paint for tinting purposes. After mixing the gold 
do not scrape your knife off on the turpentine glass — learn 
to work the gold off on a clean part of your palette. Gold 
is expensive and these little points of economy are well 
worth looking after. Whenever you wish to thin your gold, 
do it by dipping the palette knife into the turpentine ; never 
use brushes for this purpose, because you can not dry them 
out sufficiently to do good work afterward without wasting 
gold, and the turpentine is apt to ' ' run ' ' into the work. 

There are two good ways to apply gold to rims. Taking 
the plate with the right hand, support its base on the thumb 
and four fingers of the left hand. Having filled the brush 
with gold according to directions in October number of 
Studio (same as you would fill with paint) , rub the flat side 
of the gold filled brush along the edge, slowly turning the 
plate on the fingers. The hand with gold brush remains 
stationary, with elbow resting on table or not, according to 
the steadiness of your hand. Cover the rim so that it may 
be seen best by looking down at the plate or tray Many 
forget this and cover the rim so that it runs over the edge 
and shows most under side. The quicker way, however, 
to put gold on edges and to make it more even and true is 
to use one finger of the right hand . Dip the finger in the gold 
don't get too much on your finger nor cover too much sur- 
face on the finger, do it somewhat daintily. Apply the 
finger to the china, rubbing from right to left back and 
forth around the edge until the edge is uniform in width, and 
the gold becomes tacky, the rubbing back and forth makes 
it spread evenly. Do not bear on too hard. 

If the gold (pure gold) is applied too thickly in one coat 
it will scale off after firing, and is worse than not enough 
gold. If the edge of the dish is finger marked, sometimes 
the gold burnishes off after firing. You know how careful 
the dentist is in putting in gold fillings never to touch his 
fingers to the gold leaf. The same principle holds good in 
china, an imperceptible oil in the skin causes the trouble. 
So, before a piece is gilded, wipe the edges or handles, what- 
ever is to be covered, with a cloth moistened with turpen- 
tine or alcohol. Putting the cloth around your finger, dip 
it into the turpentine, sop it almost dry on a dry corner of 
the cloth and wipe the edge. If the cloth is too wet it may 
run on to your tint or design and spoil your work. Two 
thin coats are better than one thick one — always. 

It is better to have the gold as perfect as possible for 
the first firing, as usually the first firing is the hardest and 
you are sure of a good foundation which will not rub off. It 
is possible with practice and experience to put gold on 
edges, handles or surfaces so that they may come from the 
first firing absolutely perfect. Bear this always in mind — 
absolutely perfect. 

The object of gold work is to enhance the beauty of your 

piece, do it beautifully. Be not wasteful nor slovenly 
with an exquisite material. 

The directions for putting on rims or surfaces apply 
also to handles, except that 5^ou use your square shader to 
paint it on. For a broad band of gold, get the edges even 
first by means of the "lining brush" (red sable rigger), then 
fill in between with the square shader. In applying gold 
to large surfaces, as the inside of a punch bowl, lavender 
oil will be found an excellent medium to make it cover 
smoothly. Better yet, use liquid bright gold for founda- 
tion, being careful not to let it come quite to the edges of 
your ' ' gold surface to be, " as it " creeps, ' ' and if not en- 
tirely covered by Roman gold after — shows an ugly pink- 
ish edge. 

After putting on liquid bright gold, dry very hard in 
the oven, so that it will not "pick up." When it has 
cooled, apply an even thin coat of Roman gold, because it 
is much easier covered then, than after firing, when the gold 
has become bright, shiny and slippery. Dry again before 
firing. There is a saving by first using liquid bright gold 
on large surfaces — ^besides it makes a smoother foundation 
for burnishing. Line cups, salt dips, etc., this way before 
applying Roman gold. Do not use liquid bright gold on 
small surfaces or edges. It is risky, because it is difficult to 
handle neatly, and a slight accident in using it on a small 
surface would cost more than you could save. 

If the gold has become hard on the glass, with the knife 
drop on a bit of turpentine and apply a lighted match under 
the slab to warm it. Be sure to use turpentine first, else 
you only dry out the gold the more. Move the glass or the 
match around all the time (being careful not to ignite the 
top) else the uneven heat may crack the glass. This is one 
reason why it is better to remove to the larger slab only 
what you wish to use soon, as it is much more readily soft- 
ened on the small glass than on thecovered palette. 

If the gold has become old and ' ' fat ' ' use alcohol in 
softening and applying it. Never use alcohol with freshly 
made gold unless you find it too ' ' fat, " as it will become 
' ' mealy. ' ' A change back to turpentine will sometimes 
remedy this, or, possibly, addition of tar oil or lavender oil, 
but do not make yourself trouble by so doing unnecessarily. 

If the gold is fired properly it will come from the kiln 
pale yellow in color and dull in finish, according to the make 
and kind of gold. It is then ready, if you wish to be bur- 
nished. An agate burnisher makes the brightest finish. 
It is nice for rims of plates, also in etching or to make certain 
other finishes. Sand comes next, and used with plenty 
of water makes a soft prett)^ finish for handles, bands, etc. 
It is best for handles because with a wet cloth and a little 
sand you can get at places which another burnishing me- 
dium would not touch. 

Then comes the glass brush. It also makes a soft pretty 
finish, not so bright as either of the others, but oh — the trials 
to the soul caused by its tiny broken particles. It is apt 
to get in 3^our fingers — on your apron — on your palette — 
with no end of loss and discomfort entailed. On the other 
hand, if you wear an old pair of gloves when burnishing' 
burnish only over a paper which is afterward burned care- 
fully to avoid trouble, and wash the china in warm water, 
letting it run off into the waste pipes, it can be done with 
glass comfortably. If you get a piece of glass in your fingers 
hold under the hot water faucet, rubbing always the same 
way. It is very injurious to inhale the particles of glass 
which might possibly arise from too constant practice with 
a glass brush. To make the glass burnisher or brush 




To be executed in two shades of grey blue, in orange and olive green, or any desired color scheme. 



wear down more evenly and also to protect the fingers, 
wrap the new burnisher in paper, glueing down the edges. 
Do it tightly before it has had an opportunity to get loose 
from its cord binding or girdle. The paper wears down 
easily in burnishing and the cord may be cut ofi" as the ends 
come out. 

To go back to drying the unfired gold. It can be dried 
too much, but it is not usual that the oven will be hot 
enough to cause the gold to ' ' powder off. ' ' A coal fire 
will seldom get the oven too hot, but wood, oil or gas ovens 
should be watched, as well as the china, lest they burn out ' 
the oils so completely that there is nothing left but the gold 
powder, which will rub off if handled at all. 

An oil or gas stove oven which is not kept hot all the 
time, sweats, and should be heated first with the door open, 
before the china is put in. Otherwise the vapors will settle 
on the gold or tint, causing it to separate. After the oven 
is hot put in the china, leave the door open until the china is 
quite warm, then close the door and dry. It is better to put 
the china in on perfectly clean and dry tins' or asbestos mats, 
as the gold comes off most easily if touched or rubbed while 
hot. Do not touch with hand or cloth until cold. Thin 
spots are more readily seen after the gold has been dried, 
and may then be retouched. Do not attempt' to retouch 
gold which has not been bake'd hard, or it will work up. 
Do not retouch until the china is perfectly cold. Then 
redry. It is necessary to dry harder when the gold work 
is to be retouched. Always do the gold work last except 
when doing lustre work, then lustre comes last. It is dan- 
gerous to dry tints or gold on top of the stove or shelf, as 
steam from the tea kettle or cooking food may cause harm. 

The cautions given to insure absolute freedom from 
lint, dust or any foreign substance apply more to gold Avork 
perhaps than any other one subject. As you are careful 
to have perfectly clean clear turpentine and clear brushes 
in applying your gold, so will your results be. A rnuddy 
turpentine makes dingy gold. It is not necessary to clean 
gold out of the brushes or off the knife each time, it wastes so 
much gold; but if you do clean either, let them soak off into 
the alcohol bottle. When the alcohol has evaporated, the. . 
gold, which has settled in the bottom, may be scraped on to 
the gold palette and mixed again with fresh gold. 


All gold marked Roman gold is fluxed unless marked 
otherwise; and can be used on white china, also over fired 
pinks and violet shades, and on paste if you have no un- 
fluxed gold. 


This is to be used exclusively over fired color except 
pinks and violets and particularly gold on raised paste. 
It fires brighter over paste than the Roman gold and when 
the paste comes next to white china, pink or violet, if the 
gold has run over the outlines of the paste itself, the imper- 
fections will burnish off readily, leaving the paste pattern 
beautifully perfect. 


We have mentioned the gold piece of commerce as the 
standard of purity with durabiliiy. It contains beside gold, 
some copper and a little silver. Absolutely or chemically 
pure gold while it stands the hottest fire, is so soft that it 
wears off with use. Hence it is neccessary to have copper 
and silver chemically united with the gold to insure lasting 


To go beyond the proportions of copper and silver as 

used in the gold piece is to make adulterated gold just as 
much as to use lamps black, charcoal or various other 
things for color, and bulk, which fire out if fired hard enough. 


With a square shader apply to a piece of hard French 
china a thin wash each of the different makes to be tested. 

Give the china the hardest fire and the gold which comes 
out best, which does not sink in or disappear, is most pure. 
The purest is cheapest in the end. 

It takes a thicker coat and more coats to make an 
adulterated gold look rich. A pure gold cannot be put on 
thick without scahng off after firing. Of course a too fat 
gold will also peel off sometimes. It bubbles. Experience 
will soon teach you the difference and you can tell at a 
glance which was the cause. 

Diquid bright gold if fired at low temperature is bright 
and sparkling and easily deceives the uninitiated. Given 
a hard firing it looks thin and pinkish violet or disappears 
in spots. There is some tin and very little pure gold about it. 

Then, the cheaper the gold, the brighter it looks on 
coming from the kiln. Other things being equal it needs the 
less burnishing. 

Unburnished Roman gold has a matt finish after firing. 
Many prefer the dull finish of unburnished gold. It looks 
richer and with some colors is more harmonious. 

Except for rims, personally, I prefer the finish obtained 
by gold perfectly applied, burnished with sand after firing, 
then fired again for soft finish. It is really beautiful. Any 
unburnished gold wears brighter with use. 

Gold burnished while the china is still warm from the 
kiln, burnishes easier. There are no finger marks. 
Gold which has discolored in time by exposure to the atmos- 
phere, if the other decoration will stand it, can be fired 
again and come out like new. Sometimes rubbing with 
chamois wet with alcohol will restore color and lustre to 

Always use a clean cloth and clean water with Fry's 
sand which is the best we have so far been able to find. 
It does not scratch the gold so much as other sands. 

Always wash the sand off before refiring as it fires on 
like particles of glass. 

Have a pasteboard box over which to burnish and in 
which to keep sand, cloth and dish for water. Go away by 
yourself when you burnish. The sand dances up and down 
with every move. Even if one is three or four feet from the 
paint table, it manages to land on the paint or gold palette. 
By using a box you save all the sand from time to time. 
A IOC. bottle lasts a long time. 

If the gold looks brown or if it rubs off from under- 
firing, put on more gold at once before repainting, thereby 
saving the first coat 

Some years ago no piece of decorated china was com- 
plete without gold work, the more the better. Education 
has changed our standards. 

Gold should be used on china with a two fold purpose ; 
to enhance its beauty and increase its value. 

Used inappropriately or too lavishly it becomes un- 
refined and positively vulgar and savors too much of the 
loud and showy Mrs. Newly Rich. 

In fact gold very often actually cheapens an otherwise 
exquisite piece. 

A dainty and elaborate paste pattern which rvould 
be charming as a part of a royal Berlin decoration would be 
decidedly out of place combined with Rookwood or Losanti 
glazes, altogether stunning as decorations in themselves. 



On certain styles of vases as lining to dainty cups and 
little bits to be used as cabinet pieces, on an elaborate din- 
ner service for state occasions, more or less according to the 
taste of the decorator, gold work would be delightful and in 

It is better to err on the side of too little rather than 
too much gold. If only a fine Hne of gold is used see that 
it has no suggestion of scantiness. A heavy fish platter 

with a hair line of gold on the edge would be ridiculous. A 
small bread and butter plate border \ of an inch wide 
would be as bad. 

There is nothing more chaste, nothing more beautiful 
than gold work well done. But let the skill and the thought 
back of it all attract the eye first, not the patent value of 
cold dollars and cents. Let the real charm of gold work 
be the essence of pleasure, not the realization of materialism. 


Holly Leaves. — Apple, Moss, Royal and Shading Green, 
a few thorns of Blood Red used thin with greens on brush. 
Berries, Capucine and Blood Red, touches of Black. 
Stems- —Woody ones with touches of Shading Green. 

Oranges. — Silver and Orange Yellow, Yellow Brown, 
Yellow Red, with touches of Chocolate Brown. {Yellow 
red fires out over yellow.) Stems, greens; woody stems, 
same as cherry stems, but browner; thorns, sharp and thin, 
same colors. Blossoms and buds, white, merely wiped 
out of leaves, make sufficient shading for first fire. Leaves, 

Apple, Moss, Royal, Brown Green, Shading Green, Chocolate 
Brown on occasional edges for variety. 

Mistletoe. — Leaves, Apple, Moss and Royal Green, a 
few shaded with Brown or Shading Green, shadow leaves 
with Yellow Brown and Blue. Berries, white. 

Mistletoe. — Make band of Ashes of Roses, shading 
into Yellow Brown and Chocolate Brown to represent tree 
on which mistletoe grows. Capucine Red on border as 
Christmas color, use pale or make border of Blood Red. 




To be executed in dull orano^e and brown or olive on a cream tint. 


In grey greens. 


In greens or red brown and light ochre. 




THE same may be said of the French mistletoe as of the 
holly, keep the berries very large and full. 
After sketching the design in India ink lay in the back- 
ground in Ivory Yellow, Turquoise Green, Pompadour, 
Grey, Shading Green and Brown Green . After "padding" 
carefully wipe out the design and paint in while back- 
ground is still wet that all hard lines may be avoided. 
Very delicate shadows should be used in the berries 
made with Stewart's Grey and Lemon Yellow. The berry 

is modeled by picking out the lights with sharp pointed 
brush. A sHght touch of Chestnut Brown forms the blos- 
som ends. Yellow greens prevail in the leaves, and are 
obtained by mixing Lemon Yellow or Yellow Brown with 
the various greens. 

Retouch the background in the second fire throwing 
parts of the design in shadow. In white berries of any kind 
care should be taken to keep the lights clear and shadows 
not too strong but soft in tone. 




In olive green and orange with black outlines 
or in anv desired color scheme. 

In dark cream and yellow brown, or orange and olive. 




















" Tlie world is so full of a number of things, 
I'm sure we should all be as happy as kings." 






In gold and yellow brown, dar"k blue and light green or red brown and gold. 




Color Scheme: Base of cup, Banding Blue 
and Black dusted ground, handles White with 
stripe of Apple and Royal Green mixed; line 
between border and base, also roof of house, 
waist of girl and necktie of boy, Deep Pink ; sky, 
girl's dress and boy's breeches. Turquoise Blue 
and White; band on girl's bonnet, tower of 
wind mill and water below, pale Lavender; sails 
and base of wind mill, feet and bill of geese, 
stick and wooden shoes. Light Yellow Brown ; 
all outlines, Meissen Brown ; shadings on girl's 
cap and apron, on geese and house. Pearl Grey; 
stockings and boy's waist and spots on girl's 
dress. Dark Blue; trees. Royal Green; boy's 
hair. Yellow; grass. Yellow Gren; road Light 
Pink with darker stones; girl's necktie. White; 
boy's hat. Light Olive Brown. 


Color Scheme: Ochre, Meissen Brown and Black. 






1 84 



To be executed in grey blues or greens, or tint plate a deep cream and carry out design in olive for leaves, 
dull red for back ground and dark bands, berries in lighter red. 

ORANGES (Supplement) 

M. M. Mason. 

IN painting the orange study the best result is ob- 
tained by first sketching the study carefully, and 
beginning to paint on the background; laying it in with 
Black, Black Green, Yellow Brown, Shading Green, French 
Grey and Dark Green. For the leaves use the same colors 
used in- the background, with the addition of Yellow Green 
in the light ones. The stems are painted with Grey and 

The oranges are then painted in with Yellow Brown. 

and a little Albert Yellow in the Hght of the principal ones 
A good medium should keep the whole painting open 
until it is all laid in, when it is all softened and blended with 
a pad. Dust the entire panel w4th the exception of the 
brighter light m the oranges with dark Yellow Brown and 
fire. Retouch with the same colors given for the first 
painting, using simple flat washes to obtain the desired 
depth of color, and possibly another dusting of Dark Yel- 
low Brown may be advisable, to make it glow with orange 
color. Strengthen and accent in the third painting with 
the dark greens and black. 




Keep the berries light, they will look coarse if made too dark. Use yellow brown on light side with poppy red in 

some and poppy red with brown red to shade. Make light leaves of moss green and brown green, 

with yellow brown on tips of largest leaf. For darker leaves use brown green, yeUow brown 

and brown. Background Albert yellow, yellow brown, oHve green and dark 

brown. Retouch with same colors and dust both fires. 




Design in dull red and olive green on a deep cream ground, outline in red brown, black, or gold. 



Under the management of Miss Emily Peacock, Room 2j, 22 East i6th St., New York. All inquiries in regard to the various 
Crafts are to be sent to the above address, but will be anszvered in the magazine under this head. 

All questions must he received before the 10th day of month preceding issue and will be answered under "Answers to Inquiries" only. Please do not send stamped 

envelope for reply. The editors will answer questions only in these columns. 



Emily F. Peacock. 

GENERALLY the first step in almost all work in 
metal is to anneal the metal by making it red-hot 
with a blow-pipe; the second, to clean it from the effects 
of the fire, by putting it in a hot pickle made of one part 
sulphuric acid to twelve of water. This pickle must be 
made in a porcelain dish and kept hot by placing the dish 
in a pan of water, and keeping that at boiling point; the 
third to see that the metal is perfectly flat. If it is not it 
can be made flat by hammering it on a steel block, or on 
hard wood, with a wooden hammer. A metal hammer is 
apt to make hammer marks, hard to erase, and it also 
stretches the metal. 

But metal for a paper knife should not be annealed 
unless it is very hard and heavy. Then it can be hardened 
after sawing out, by hammering with a steel hammer on 
a steel block. 



f 2- 

Draw or trace the design on the metal and scratch it 
in with a steel point. Wash off the pencil marks and cut 
out the paper knife along the outer edge with a metal saw. 
See that the teeth of the saw point down, when it is put in 
the frame, and that the saw is taut. Hold the 'metal 
firmly in a horizontal position when sawing, use oil or bees- 
wax on the saw and hold the frame vertically, as in Fig. 2. 
Bevel the edges of the blade with a file until they are sharp 
enough to cut paper, and finish with emery cloth. If a 
design is to be pierced, start a hole with a steel punch in 
each space, and drill through. Put the saw in the drilled 
hole and cut out carefully. These spaces can be finished 
by filing. 

There are several other ways of decorating the knife. 
A stone could be set in the handle, enamel used in the design- 
ing or the design etched. To etch the design the knife must 

be quite finished, and thoroughly cleaned with powdered 
pumice and water, then with whiting or soap and water, 
until clear water will stay over the entire surface. Dry 
well and paint in the background of the design with asphal- 
tum varnish, using a small brush. If the varnish is too 
thick, thin with a few drops of turpentine, rinsing thorough- 
ly. The painting must be done neatly and carefully, taking 
care to have the edges very even, as the etching will follow 
the line of the asphaltum exactly. 

Paint over the blade and back of the knife, covering 
every part except the design. If there are any brown spots 
or streaks, cover again with asphaltum. When this cov- 
ering is thoroughly dry, make a bath of nitric acid, one 
part, and water, two parts, in a glass or porcelain dish. 
Put the knife in, and if all conditions are good, fine bubbles 
will soon rise from the exposed metal. The bubbles should 
be clear at first, then a slight green cloud appears. If the 
bubbles are large and come rapidly, so as to give a very 
cloudy effect the bath is too strong. Etching on copper 
takes from twenty minutes to three hours. Weather con- 
ditions affect the bath. In hot weather the bath is more 
rapid, and vice versa. When the exposed metal is etched 
deep enough, take the knife out of the bath with a piece of 
wood and wash it in water. Heat with a flame, when the as- 
phaltum can be easily removed with a rag which has been 
dipped into turpentine or kerosene. Wash in soap and 
water and dry. If there are any uneven edges from the 
etching, file them down with a riffle file. Polish with fine 
crocus paper or tripoli, and oxidize with chloride of anti- 
mony to give a soft tone to the copper. Put on the antimony 
with a small swab, work quickly and evenly; when this is 
dry rub gently with very fine tripoli and oil, or rouge and 
oil. The paper knife, Illus. No. i, designed and executed 
by Mrs. Hugo Froehlich, is pierced and etched. 


Ueleyi R. Albee. 

BURLAP. — For a foundation of a rug I use the best 
quality of burlap of heavy close weave, upon which 
a design is stamped by scrubbing a diluted solution of com- 
mon blueing through a stenciled pattern with a stout nail 
brush. Care should be taken to leave a margin of two or 
three inches of burlap beyond the pattern after it is stamped, 
for this edge is turned under on the wrong side for a hem 
when a rug is finished. 

Stencils. — The best material of which to make a 
durable stencil is common red press-board of light weight. 
A quarter of the pattern is drawn full size upon paper and 


Fig. 3. 

then transferred upon the press-board. With a small pair 
of very sharp scissors the pattern is then cut out, leaving 
throughout the designs small strips of the press-board at 
close intervals in order to hold it together. By turning 
over and reversing the stencil the whole pattern can be 
marked out. 

Designs. — As to designs, there is a great difference 
of opinion. I find those that represent small masses of 
color, straight outlines^and simple elements, as in Fig. i , are 
best suited to the hooked rug; for, when working with strips 
from three-sixteenths to a quarter of an inch in width, it is ob- 
vious that fine details, scrolls and curves are not practicable. 
I especially recommend the study of savage ornament. 
North American Indians have shown much artistic skill in 
their basketry and pottery, and simple elements derived from 
these admit of new arrangement and combination that are 
quite unusual. In working out even the simplest pattern 
much depends upon the ingenuity one uses in coloring, con- 
trast, superimposed ornament, all of which affords a free 
play of the imagination. It is difficult to explain just what 
this involves; but a study of certain little cyclopaedias of 
Japanese ornament, to be found in most public libraries, 
will show in how many different ways the same design can be 
presented by subordinating or emphasizing any single por- 
tion of the pattern. I would especially caution persons 
against imitating foreign rugs, no matter how good they 
are. The whole value of any handicraft, either to the 
worker or the public, is in an individual expression along 
new lines. If people want Oriental rugs, they will buy the 
genuine article in preference to any imitation ; so all copying 
of familiar makes should be scrupulously avoided if one 
desires personal recognition in rug-making. 

Methods op Work. — In putting the frame together, 
adjust it so that it will be several inches wider than the 
stamped burlap to be tacked on. The pattern should fall 
well within the frame, as it is difficult to hook close up to 
the frame. Double the burlap under along the end and two 
sides when tacking on the frame, as in Fig. 2 , keeping the bur- 
lap taut, but not stretched so as to strain the threads. Place 
the frame in a horizontal position at such a height as to 
allow a worker to sit erectly with shoulders thrown back, 
and the arms in an easy unstrained position. (Fig. 3.) If 
placed too high the shoulder will be forced to assume an un- 
natural elevation, which soon tires both back and shoul- 
ders. A chair, table, box, barrel or window-sill can be 
used to support the ends of the frame. 

In stripping the cloth I find it better to stand, and 
having divided the flannel into yard lengths, each piece is 
doubled over twice on the lengthwise, making it four thick- 
nesses to cut through. Fold carefully so that the edges lie 
exactly together. Begin at the lower left-hand corner of 
this folded cloth, and with a pair of large sharp shears cut 
with long regular chps even strips not over a quarter of an 
inch wide. One is apt to cut them too wide at first, but a 
little practice soon enables one to cut these four-ply strips 
with exactitude. If one cuts a bit deeper at either end of 
the folded cloth, it can be corrected by turning it over and 
cutting from the other end. These strips must be cut per- 
fectly true, and on the lengthwise, for if allowed to run to 
a bias, such narrow strips of twill will pull apart, and can 
not give the firm loop that a straight one does. 

To begin work, take the hook in the right hand, with 
handle well within the palm, the forefinger extended along 
the upper edge of the hook as a brace, and the other fingers 
closed tightly about the handle. Do not clutch; it causes 
strained muscles in the wrist and arm. With the left hand 
take a strip of the cloth, holding the end between the thumb 
and forefinger, and the other fingers closing tightly about 
the strip as one gauges yarn or thread in crocheting. (Fig. 4.) 
Begin at the right hand corner of the stamped burlap, holding 
the end of the strip just under the place where the first stitch 
is to be taken. Thrust the hook through the burlap, and catch 
the end of the strip and bring it up to about a quarter of an 
inch above the burlap. In bringing up the hook hold it 
almost horizontally and press the hole open with a slight 
backward movement of the hook. Never draw it straight 
up from the hole. Thrust in the hook again, and this time 
the strip will come up as a loop. Keep the tip of the fore- 
finger of the left hand always on the last stitch underneath ; 
this prevents it being pulled out as the succeeding stitch is 
taken. Continue to bring up loops until the strip is used 
and bring the last of it to the top as an end. Avoid leav- 
ing any loose ends on the under side. Loops should have 
two or three threads of the burlap between them. Along 
the very margin of the design a straight row of loops should 
be worked so as to make a good edge to the rug when finished 
The straight row effect is also used to outline the general 

Fig, 4. — Showing the manner of holding a strip, tlie Iiand held under 
the frame in working. 



Fig. 1. 

pattern, or to indicate any straiglit lines. But under all 
other conditions, loops are worked up and back in groups of 
threes with two or three threads of the burlap between each 
loop. Thus you take three stitches from you, then passing 
over two or three threads to the left, you make three stitches 
or loops towards you. Nor should these loops be set with 
exact accuracy, at just such a distance apart, but they should 
distribute themselves so as to cover the ground, working 
into and between alternate threads of the burlap. A little 
practise and occasional pulling out of the loops to see how 
far apart the holes are will explain this rather obscure point. 
Irregular distribution produces a play of color and depth of 
tone not possible under the old method of working the whole 
surface in straight lines. Straight rows catch the light in a 
uniform way, while triple rows worked in the way I describe 
disperse the Hght much as velvet does. Always work from 

Fig. 2. 

right to left until facility has been acquired ; then one should 
learn to work up and down, from right or left with equal ease, 
but always in groups of threes. Keep the strip worked close 
to the under side of the burlap, and do not carry any stitch 
across one already worked. Bring up the loops with a very 
slight irregularity as to height; for in clipping only the tops 
of the highest loops are cut off, while others remain un- 

dipped. This gives a smooth surface of cut and uncut 
loops, which catch the light differently and add still further 
to the beauty of the texture. In pulling up a loop use the 
whole arm from the shoulder with a slight movement back- 
wards. Never use the wrist or forearm. I,et it be done 
with a single quick stroke, without wriggling or twisting. 

Each strip of cloth cut from a yard measured before 
dyeing should make from forty-six to forty- eight loops. 
This gives a thick rug without waste. All patterns should 
be outlined first, then filled in so as not to crowd the outline, 
and then the ground worked in last. Work from right to 
left away from you, and towards the middle of the frame. 
This is as far as is comfortable to work without strain. When 
the frame is half full, turn it about and work in the same way 
from the middle towards you until the frame is full. 

To shear it, begin at the lower right hand corner, and 
with the shears held horizontally, cut off the merest tips of 
the highest loops. Do not gouge into the surface, but cut 
very carefully, a little at a time, until the surface is smooth. 
If properly done, one should not go over the same place 
twice, and no appreciative amount will have been cut off, 
only a little fuzz from the higher loops. Should any vacant 
places show on the burlap on the under side, fill them in 
while the rug is still on the frame by hooking in a loop and 
its two ends, or more, if needed. Cut off the strip as each 
space is filled, and do not carry the strip across from one to 
another. When the frameful is clipped remove the burlap 
from the frame, and shift it along so as to tack the next 
portion of the pattern on the frame as before. 

In bordered rugs, work the centers first, then tack the 
burlap on so that the border shall run the long way of the 
frame, and proceed as usual from right to left. Some of 
these processes are hard to describe; but one must experi- 
ment and use his judgment about any obscure point. When 
a rug is completed, take it off the frame and turn the margi- 
nal edge of the plain burlap under in a hem about an inch 
wide, and sew firmly with linen thread. A further finish 
may be added, which gives additional strength, by covering 
the hem with a cotton binding such as is used for oil cloth 
or carpet. 


M. M. , Brisbane-American glass opaline and opalescent can be bought 
at wholesale from Louis Heidt, Manufacturer., McKibbon and Boerum St. 
Brooklyn, New York. 

F. H. MCG., Ont.-Work in silver, copper and brass, with description of 
tools, has been given in the following issues of Keramic Studio. July 1903, 
November 1903, December 1903, January 1904, Februrary 1904, March 1904, 
April 1904, May 1904, June 1904, July 1904, September 1904, October 1904, 
also in one or two issues of 1905. We hope to have more work in metal from 
time to time. 

M. A. J., Del.-The process of etching on metal was given in the July issue 
1903. It will be reprinted , however, in one of the coming issues. 

H. E. B,, Greenville-The same fixative is used for pastel and charcoal. 
Fixatifis made of Grain alcohol and white shellac. Reduce about a table- 
spoon of the shellac to a powder and add a quart of alcohol. When the shel- 
lac has dissolved pour off the clear liquid carefully, and throw away any sed- 
iment left. The fixatif should be thin and just a little sticky to be right when 
ready to use. A finishing wax for burnt or carved wood ,is made from equal 
parts of turpentine and beeswax. These ingredients hould be melted very 
carefully together in a double boiler over a small flame until it is smooth. 


L. S.-A good treatment for the bird design by Miss Ervin in October 
Keramic Studio to be applied to a fernery would be as follows. Tint the en- 
tire bowl with Apple Green. Clean out moons and paint twigs and birds 
withMeissen'Brown. Dust entire border, (except moons) with Olive Green, 



tint the moons lightly with Alberts Yellow, outline with Meissen Brown or 
gold. The design would be effective carried out in a yellow brown scheme 
of color or lustre using Ivory, Yellow Brown, Brown and Gold. Any color 
or combination of colors may be used in conventional work so long as they 
harmonize. It would be impossible to make a list which would be of prac- 
tical value. Each design must be studied by itself. Buff can be made by 
tinting with Yellow Ochre quite deeply, adding a touch of Brown, "Cafe au 
lait" is the color of coffee with milk in it. Use Yellow Ochre with a touch of 
Brown tinting lightly.. The berry plate , Olive Sherman, April Keramic 
Studio, might be carried out as follows : Tint the plate with Yellow Ochre and 
fire, then tint the border again with Yellow Ochre. Paint the panel border 
and leaves with Meissen Brown, the berries with Pompadour, dust Olive 
Green over part of the leaves, outline with deep Red Brown or Gold, if pre- 
ferred. Many times simple designs are given without treatment in Keramic 
Studio, thinking that our readers would like to use their own taste. The color 
schemes are only given as suggestions in case one is short of ideas. 

A. F.— Fat oil is made by evaporating turpentine. It is used to mix pow- 
der colors, enamels, paste for gold, etc. with the addition of oil of lavender 
to keep it open. Then spirits of turpentine are used in the brush for painting. 
You will find a recipe for grounding oil in the 2nd prize essay in gold work in 
this number of Keramic Studio. For gold, fat oil has tar oil added to it before 
using turpentine. 

M. C. A. -We have also had the same difflcultj'- in mounting the china 
backs to mirrors, brushes, etc., and finally had a jeweler set them for us. 
He used a sort of cement. We advise you to consult a working jeweler. The 
trouble with plaster of Paris is that every time the plaster becomes damp, as it 
will on damp days or when the brush, etc. are moistened, the plaster swells and 
cracks the china. Whenever water colors become dry, take them out and 
rub them down on ground glass with a little water and glycerine, about J 
glycerine to the consistency of tube paints. This will keep them soft for 
use. When china becomes too dry for dusting there is no remedy but wait 
for the next fire or take it out and do it over. We do not believe lustres can 
be used satisfactorily over enamels, unless, perhaps over the hard fired white 
Dresden Aufsetzweis. If your customer wants to furnish the blue tiles to 
alternate with your white ones, she will have to furnish the white, too, from 
the same firm, as fire place tiles do not run in regular sizes but each manu- 
facturer runs his own sizes. You will have to enquire of the manufacturers. 

Subscriber-We hope in an early number to give a variety of flower and 
fruit subjects in miniature, arranged for decoration. When copying a flower 
subject in no matter what medium, water color oil or mineral paints, it is 
necessary to observe first from what direction the light comes, then if you 
re-arrange the study, you will have to see that the same law of light and shade 
is observed in the re-arrangement. The Mueller and Henningand La Croix 
colors in powder can be obtained from Favor Ruhl & Co., you will find their 
address in their advertisement in Keramic Studio. 

J. H. P. For your fish set we would advise making an appropriate 
design from the many studies of fish, etc, in the April Keramic Studio. Con- 
fine the decoration to the border. If you are unable to design we would ad- 
vise you looking over old numbers of Keramic Studio. You will find many 
good fish borders as well as other borders suitable for your roll tray and bread 
and butter plates. Use your own taste in selection as well as in color scheme. 
It is impossible for us to select designs or color schemes for you, not know- 
ing your taste. 

As a general suggestion we would say, take simple border and color 
schemes in keeping with your other table decorations, gold and white are 
always attractive and in good taste. Monograms should always be on rims 
of plates out of the way of the scratching of knife and fork. 

K. M. A. — For an attic studio with bare rafters the simplest treatment 
would be to keep the rather rustic effect. A few fish nets to drape from the 
rafters would soften the outlines but are great dust catchers. Braided chains 
of fodder corn with mottled kernels of yellow , white, brown and black, are 
very decorative and old ginger jars and quaint bottles and old brass and copper 
make good effect on odd shelves. A piece or two of old blue china lends a 
pleasant color note. For the floor, rag rugs made of cotton rags dyed to a 
pretty color scheme, or matting or hemp rugs are clean and attractive on the 
bare boards. An old cot with a Bagdad rug and some cushions make a cozy 
resting spot for visitors and if you can afford it, a few willow, rattan or grass 
chairs and table will add to both comfort and appearance. A few odd posters 
or if you have a collection, a border of posters are interesting and decorative. 
The old ginger jars or brass or pewter jugs make nice holders for fresh flowers 
in season and for dried grasses, teasels, hydrangeas or other winter bouquets. 
Put sheet asbestos over the ceiling above your kiln, around the pipe where it 
passes through the roof and under your kiln, also have a tin collar on tlie roof 
exit of the pipe. This will make firing in your attic studio perfectly safe. Leave 
an air space between asbestos and ceiling. Little separate tin ovens can be 
purchased at the hardware stores which may be heated over an alcohol lamp 
sufficiently for drying lustres. For a lawyer's office an appropriate gift would 
be a desk set, ink well, corners for blotter pad, handle for blotter, pen holder. 
Pictures for such an office should be of some historical subject, or occasionally 

one finds a humorous sketch connected with law engravings, photogravures 
or water color drawings are preferable to oil paintings. 

C. L. B., Milwaukee, Wis. — Try putting white lustre over the rose 
lustre ; probably that will prevent its rubbing off. Yellow over rose is very 
permanent also, and often produces beautiful opalescent tints. 

Apples and Bees for Stein in Lustre 

Henrietta Barclay Paist. 
This design is pleasing in three tones either of brown 
or green. For the darkest color, the background, use a 
mat color. Draw the design with India ink. Oil with 
Grounding Oil for the background color. Dust. Clean out 
for the trees, wash on the lightest color for foliage, then 
paint in the second tone, carrying down into the panels if 
for vase. Fire. Repeat the dusting process if necessary, 
outline with Outlining Black and fire again. 
Strawberry Bowl 

Marie Crilley Wilson. 
Strawberries two-thirds Blood Red, one-third Violet 
No. 2. Deaves, Sea Green and Shading Gf-een. Base and dark 
six-sevenths Copenhagen Blue and one-seventh Banding 
Blue. Use wnth grounding. Leave background of border 
white. Second firing: Color tinting oil wath Brown Green 
and dust with Pearl Grey. Third firing: Same as first. 
Child's Milk Mog 

Marie Crilley Wilson. 
Trees in Brown Green. For first firing wash over Shad- 
ing Green and a touch of blue. Use this same color for dress 
and hat. Shoes and hair soft grey brown, using lighter 
color for hair. Feather, spots in dress, stockings, gloves, 
soft tan color. Flesh color for face, a touch of pink in cheek. 
Same color for apples. Sky, design at base and handle, gold. 
Road, fence and opening in handle, a warm grey. 

This design w^ould also be pretty in one color scheme, 
using equal parts of Copenhagen Blue and Pearl Grey, with 
one-fifth Banding Blue for first and second firing, making 
the tone correspond to those in India ink drawing. For 
third firing cover the design with tinting oil colored with 
Deep Blue Green, and dust with Pearl Grey. 
Block House 

Marie Crilley Wilson 
First firing: Windows, upper band and base. Black. 
Second band and trees, two-thirds Brown Green, one-third 
New Green. Sky, grass, two-thirds Yellow Brown, one- 
third Brown Green. Gateway and roof. Pompadour. Sec- 
ond firing : Paint with tinting oil colored with Yellow Brown. 
This will give sufficient color to the house. Third firing: 

Same as first. 

Little Castles 

Marie Crilley Wilson. 
Upper band, Yellow Brown with a touch of Black. 
Same color for band under design. Under upper band, and 
under and above lower band, paint a strong brown line. Sky 
and lettering in Gold, letters outHned in Brown. Main build- 
ing, pale pinkish Ochre with windows of Dark Brown. Trees, 
Brown Green and Shading Green. Base, greyish Brown. 
Roofs, Terracotta. Small buiIdings,Warm Grey, roofs Violet. 


The League Notes for this issue were received too late to be given in 
full. Mrs. Vesey asks all members to send both the outline drawing Prob 
I, and a conventional fruit design for ^^■illetts Belleek stein No. 599, Prob. II 
to Belle B. Vesey, 622S Wabash Avenue, Chicago, before December 17tli. 

K-EL-E^T=> T^M 


A^L-I V^EI-- 


MR»G.H. CLARK ^ j« ^ ^ ^ 
MRS. IDA M. FERRIS ^ ^ ^ ^ 
MISS M. MULLANY ^ ^ j* ^ 
MR. PAUL PUTZKI > > ^ .^ 
MRS. H. B. PAIST ^ ^ ^ ^ .K 

JAN. MCMVI Price 35c. Yearly Subscription $3.50 

[ The entire contents of this Mag^nine are <-o»ererf by the genenl copyright, and the articles must not be reprinted iDHhoui special permission. ) 


^--i™fS*'**»iKaa^lo^^»3 O S^S^ 

Editorial — League Notes 

The Class Room — Gold Work continued 


Fruit Borders 


Norwegian Blueberries for Fruit Plate 

Marmalade Jar in Browns 

Black Haw 

Black Haw Conventionalized for Pitcher 

Fruit Borders 

Suggestion for Fulton Chain Stein 

Currant Stein in Browns 



Punch Bowl 


Larkspur (Supplement) 

Boston Exhibition Notes 

Studio Notes 



The Crafts — 

The Making of a Silver Spoon 

Wood Carving 

Answers to Inquiries 
Artistic Forgeries 
Answers to Correspondents 

Paul Putzki 
H. B. Paist 

Sara Reid McLaughlin 
Jeanne M; Stewart 
Minna Meinke 
Hannah Overbeck 
Hannah Overbeck 
Anne Seymour Mundy 
G. H. Clark 
^M. Mullany 
Sara Reid McLaughlin 
Maud E. Hulbert 
Helen Patterson 
Mary Burnett 
Laura B. Overly 

Ida M. Ferris 
Mary Burnett 

Harry S. Whitbeck 
Haswell Clarke Jeffery 


206, 212 


Some Leading Agencies of Keramic Studio 

We take pleasure in mentioning a few of the leading agencies for the sale 
of the Keramic Studio, where, also, subscriptions may be placed: 

Boston, Mass.— Miss E. E. Page, 286 Boyslton St.; Smith & McCance, 

Old Corner Book Store. 
Brooklyn — A. D. Mathew's Sons, Fulton Street. 
Buffalo— Mrs. Filkins, 609 Main Street. 
Chicago — A. H. Abbott & Co.; A. C. McClurg & Co.; Brentano's; Burley 

Cincinnati— Miss M. Owen, 245 Elm Street; A. B. Closson, 110 W. 4th St. 

Traxel & Maas, 4th Street, near Elm. 
Cleveland, Ohio^Vinson & Koriier, 150 Euclid Ave. 
Columbus, Ohio — Lee Roessler, 116 So. High Street. 
Denver, Colo.— H. R. Meininger, 409 16th Street. 
Detroit, Mich.— L. B. King & Co.; Art China Co. 
Hartford, Ct.— E. M. Sill. 
Grand Rapids, Mich. — Miller, Wolfe Co. 
Indianapolis, Ind. — Keramic Supply Co., Lemcke Building. 
Kansas City, Mo. — Emery, Bird, Thayer Co.; Geo. B. Peck Co. 

Minneapolis, Minn.— Minn. Art China Co., 607 1st Ave. So.; Elizabeth 

Hood, 18 W. 6th St., St. Paul, Minn. 
New York City— Brentano's, Union Square; M. T. Wynne's, 11 E. 20th 

St.; The Fry Ait Co., 11 E. 22d St.; Wanamaker's; American News Co.; 

J. B. Ketcham, 107 W. 25th Street. 
Newark, N. J. — Keramic Novelty Co. 
Oakland, Cal.— Smith Bros. 
Omaha, Neb. — Megeatb Stationery Co. 
Philadelphia^ Wanamaker's. 
Pittsburgh, Pa. — Otto Schaffer & Bros.; Kurtz, Langbein & Schwartz 

R. S. Davis & Co., 346 Fifth Ave.; John G. Yergan, 420 Penn Ave. 
San Francisco — Mrs. M. E. Perley, 207 Post Street. 
St. Louis— F. Weber & Co.; A, S. Aloe & Co. 
Syracuse — Wolcott Book Shop; Welch, & Hollingsworth; W. Y. Foote; 

A. L. Varney & Co., 336 S. Salina Street. 
Toronto — ^The Art Metropole. 
Washington, D. C. — Wood & Lothrop. 

The Magazine may also be ordered from any news dealer or book store 
in this country, who can procure it through the American News Company 
New York, or its branches. 

Vol. VII, No. 9 


January, 1906 

E WISH all a prosperous New 
Year, including ourselves. In pre- 
senting this "Fruit number" we 
trust it will prove an "appet- 
iser" for the following feast of 
the New Year, which also re- 
minds us to remind you that 
our "Fruit Book" is about ready 
and we hope it will be as accept- 
able to our decorators as has 
been our "Rose Book." 

Do not forget, if there is any special subject you 
would like to have treated in the "Class Room," to write 
us about it. The next subject will be "Lustres." 
Do not forget our March competition for a decora- 
ive color study of a flower arranged in a panel with its 
application in black and white to some ceramic form. 
The competition closes January 15 th, and the prizes are 
$20 , $15, $10, and $5. See back cover for particulars. 


AVERY gratifying response was made to problem one. 
More outline drawings for a punch bowl than we 
dared hope for have been received, and best of all these 
forms are strictly original. League members who have 
sent these first problems for criticism, have taken one 
step forward. Our desire has been to obtain for this 
important work a critic who is an artist, and who having 
taken these initial steps, can understand our weaknesses 
and our efforts to overcome them, our emotions and the 
ordeal by fire which we, ourselves, must pass through 
before these imperishable conceptions can ' ' add to the 
knowledge and quicken the happiness of mankind. ' ' 
Such an one we have secured in S. Linderoth of the Al- 
hambra Ceramic Works, Chicago. 

The purpose of the League is to establish a National 
School of Mineral Painting. There is no greater field 
for improved design than in pottery and overglaze decora- 
tion. We have planted one seed, and have now the root 
of a school. The full power and right place will be accord- 
ed us. The self complacency which has been our stumb- 
ling block has given place to one primal touch of true 

Our next problem is now before us, a convention- 
al fruit design for Willetts Belleek stein No. 599. As 
holiday work takes precedence of everything else, we 
will ask for these problems on or before January 17th, 
instead of December 17th. The first problems, done 
on thin paper, rolled, or folded in an envelope, costing 
only two cents by mail, contained as much merit and 
were critcised as carefully as those done on fine cardboard, 
which cost fifty cents by mail. The excellence of 
technique can be on the finished drawings, after criticism. 
Only give the thought now, symmetry enough to give 
a clear impression to the critic, but we wish the privilege 
of correcting lines with pencil, as the technical terms, 

used by artists are often misunderstood. Please send 
problems to Belle B. Vesey, 6228 Wabash Ave., Chicago. 
One gold, one silver, and seven bronze medals, were 
awarded to members of the League who exhibited at 
the Lewis and Clark Exhibition at Portland, Oregon. 
Belle B. Vesey, President. 


Subject for February, "Lustres." Contributions must 
be received by the fifth of the preceding month. Prizes as 


GOLD WORK— (Continued) 
Second Prize — Mrs. G. B. Strait, Cazenovia, N. Y. 

THE materials needed for gold work are few, but should be 
of the best . A 2 ^ steel palette knife which must be kept 
free from rust or dampness, turpentine and a cup to hold 
it when at work, burnishing sand, two agate burnishers, 
one sharply pointed, the other large, flat on one side and 
curved on the other, tapering to a blunt point, a large 
square shader for the laying of broad surfaces, red sable 
liners for fine work of various kinds, a Bright 's red sable for 
spaces of medium size, and a palette on which to mix the 
gold, will be all that will be really necessary. For the latter 
a covered tile is excellent, though a 6"x 6" white glazed tile 
will do, as the surface is smooth and hard and prevents 
waste. A piece of ground glass of the same size may be 
used if the others are not readily procurable. Whatever is 
selected for this purpose should be reserved exclusively for 
the gold work and kept away from dust. Both knife and 
brushes are to be used for no other purposes than the gold 
work, as repeated washings of these would cause unnecessary 
waste. After brushes have become clogged with the gold 
by continued usage, they may be cleaned and the hairs made 
supple as when new by dipping them in a wide mouthed 
bottle containing a little alcohol kept exclusively for the 
purpose. When a sufficient amount has collected at the 
bottom, put with it the gold washed from the glasses on 
which the gold comes, and pass the whole through fine silk 
bolting cloth. When the gold has settled the alcohol may 
be poured off and the gold dried by artificial heat. Do this 
quickly to avoid dust. Add equal parts of Dresden Thick 
Oil and Venice Turpentine sufficient to make it the consist- 
ency of gold in its usual form. As this gold will be a little 
dark it is better to use it for first coats only. 

There are two general classes of gold, one the liquid 
bright, which is a sort of lustre, the other of a true gold 
finish, the familiar matt gold of commerce. The former is a 
preparation made from gold in a much diluted state, which 
thinly applied fires with either a pinkish or greenish iri- 
descence, but if used thickly comes out a brilliant metallic 
lustre that needs no burnishing, commonly called Bright 
Gold. This gold rubs off if underfired and cannot be sub- 
jected to hard usage. Matt gold, which may be procured 
at any art store, may also be prepared at home by dis- 
solving either ribbon or coin gold in Aqua Regia, precip- 
itating it from the solution in the form of a powder by 
means of mercury or copperas, and preparing it for use by 



adding oils and a flux made of i part borax to 12 parts 
bismuth. The use of the smallest trace of copper must be 
avoided in the preparations of gold as it will surely affect 
the color. Before firing, the gold is a rich brown if pure, 
but approaches blackness if bulking is used to increase the 
weight. Unless one uses very large quantities of gold there 
is no necessity for preparing it, as gold of excellent quality 
may readily be obtained. After firing, the gold changes 
from brown to a dulled yellowish tone, but when rubbed 
with one of the various burnishing appliances, it speedily 
becomes a clear golden hue whose soft glow brings out the 
pure colors on the china, enhancing its beauty with not 
only an attractive but a durable finish. The Roman or fluxed 
gold prepared by the addition of flux, is to be used on 
the white china, and the hard or unfluxed, while applied in 
the same manner as the Roman, is designed to be placed on 
paste that has been fired, or over color. Unfluxed gold rubs 
off when placed on white china, and also is undesirable when 
used over violets and pinks. Gold will rub off if insufliciently 
fluxed or if it is under fired. A small amount of flux is usually 
added to even the so-called unfluxed . Red or green gold can- 
not be unfluxed, as they are formed by combining red or green 
flux with the common unfluxed gold. A green gold may 
be produced by adding a small amount of silver to gold. 
Consequently they should never be used over colors but 
always on the plain surface of the china. Gold cannot be 
made into bronzes. By using thought, some one of the 
golds may always be found that will harmonize with any 
colors, whether light or dark, or any style of decoration. 
Liquid Bright Gold comes ready for use, but if it thickens 
by evaporation it may be thinned by adding essence that 
comes especially for the purpose, or lavender oil. The 
matt gold is usually thinned by adding turpentine until of 
the right consistency for free use with the brush. It must 
be used thicker than colors, though if pure a thinner coat 
may be used than if the gold is adulterated. In the end 
the purest is the cheapest. Liquid Bright Gold, being less 
expensive than other golds, is sometimes used for a first 
coat through a sense of economy, the Roman being used for 
the second coat. It may be finished in one fire by hard 
drying between the coats, or may be fired twice in the usual 


Some prefer to keep their gold in powder form, mixing 
with oil only when wanted for use, claiming that its color 
will be more brilliant and that it will flow better from the 
brush. The gold which comes in powder form will be found 
to contain a much larger per cent, of gold than the majorit}' 
of preparations on the market, consequently must be used 
thinner to avoid flaking off, or scaling. To prepare it for use 
mix with equal part of Tar Oil and Fat Oil, after which it 
may be thinned with turpentine. One method of applying 
gold to large surfaces, such as backgrounds and wide bands, 
is to spread a ground laying oil upon the surface to be 
decorated, pad smoothly and evenly, and when the oil has 
become slightly tacky, to dust on, by means of a blending 
brush, the red brown powdered gold fluxed with sub-nitrate 
of bismuth, distributing it as evenh- as possible over the 
surface, not touching the brush to the uncovered oil. This 
grounding oil may be purchased ready for use, or it may 
be prepared by mixing together 3 parts boiled linseed oil, 
essence of turpentine 6 parts, asphaltum 4 parts, boiling 
one half hour, stirring constantly with a stick upon the end 
of which is fastened a bag of litharge. It should be about 
the consistency of thick syrup. 


Gold should be put on after the rest of the design has 
been painted, carefully removing the color where the gold 
is to be placed by means of a cloth moistened in turpentine 
over the tip of a sharpened stick or brush handle. Some- 
times the stick alone will suffice. Or if on plate edges, hold 
the dampened cloth tightly over the thumb or finger, 
making the band of color removed wide or narrow as de- 
sired by means of pressure. Make the china perfectly 
clean where the gold is to be used. Next, rub the gold, 
which comes on tiny glass slabs, with turpentine until 
smooth. If desired, this may first be removed, for con- 
venience, to the larger tile kept for the purpose as suggested. 
Fill the brush so the hairs are well charged but not clogged 
at the heel, and go over the surface to be covered with 
smooth, even strokes, keeping the gold of as unvarying a 
depth as possible. It will be necessary to frequently re- 
mix as the turpentine evaporates and the gold settles. 
Occasionally the gold may require to be gently pressed 
from the brush with the knife, if it shows a disposition to 
clog. Only wet up such a portion of the gold as will be likely 
to be used, as repeated evaporations of the turpentine will 
in time make the gold too oily, and perhaps cause it to 
blister in firing. For common use, two good coats are 
necessary to insure good wearing qualities. These need 
be only of medium thickness, but will wear much better 
than one heavy coat and one firing. 

Sometimes it is practicable to apply one coat, hard 
dry with oven heat, then put on a second coat, finishing 
in one fire. For very broad surfaces, it may be advisable 
to follow the above plan of application, fire, then put on 
the third coat for a second fire. The two coats are advisable 
for even the finest lines. For edges of plates or other articles 
where narrow lines are desired, many find it convenient to 
touch a finger tip to the moistened gold, then carefully 
run it along the edge to be gilded. This is a quick method 
and works well. Gold must be put on after the background 
has been painted and not allowed to spread over the outline 
as it will not only present an untidy appearance if uneven, 
but if thin will appear like a spot of smut . Still the gold 
should be drawn close to the edge of the painting. 

For bands and circles of gold the banding wheel is 
sometimes used, and if the amount of work to be done 
will justify the extra outlay they may be considered an 
addition to a studio outfit. However, considerable expe- 
rience is necessary for good work. For general use the 
flat treatment of gold is to be preferred to that of raised 
work, and the latter should never be used on the inside 
of any piece of china. When extremely delicate lines 
are wanted they may be drawn in lightly with the waxed 
pencil, and this line partially erased with a clean pen 
knife until only the faintest trace remains. Then apply 
the gold. OutHning should be done with the raised paste, 
on the white china, or over fired colors. In some cases 
designs are drawn in India ink, (which will fire out,) then 
the article is painted and fired after which the gold out- 
lines are applied. 

Gold work should not be used too lavishly, but tact 
should be displayed in its application. Oriental designs 
in rich and satisfying color tones, flat enamels beautiful 
in line and true to the principles of good design, Japanese 
motifs of black birds, peach blossoms, or bamboo, or al- 
most any naturalistic or conventionalized design that may 
be conceived is greatly improved by the addition of gold. 

UlEramic studio 



(Treatment pagfe 206) 



even though apphed only in the form of a dehcate narrow 
band, or picked out with finest traceries. 


Burnishing the gold after firing may be done by 
means of a glass brush made of a compact mass of glass 
fibres bound together, in most cases using a circular mo- 
tion. In using this method care must be exercised in 
order to avoid getting the tiny particles of glass in the 
fingers, or worse still, inhaling them. An equally satiny 
finish may be produced wdth less effort by the use of burn- 
ishing sand. Pour some of this sand into any sort of 
a receptacle, wet with water a soft bit of old linen, 
touch to the mass of sand and with what adheres to the 
cloth rub the gilded surface until it glows with the desired 
brilliancy, frequently moistening the cloth as the best 
results are produced by the use of a small amount of sand 
and an abundance of water. When the piece of china 
has dried, the sand found clinging to the surface may be 
brushed gently off into the original pile, to be used again. 
By either of these methods a soft, lustrous finish may be 
obtained, more or less brilliant according to the amount 
of polish given. If the most intense brilliancy possible 
is desirable, an agate burnisher may be used, care being 
taken to touch each part as otherwise a scratchy appear- 
ance will result. The use of the burnisher will harden 
gold and cause it to wear better, in the same way as plat- 
ed silver is hand polished to insure wearing qualities. 
Consequently it may sometimes be advantageous, where 
a table piece is to receive continuous usage, to polish the 
gold with an agate burnisher after the first fire, and with 
the sand after the last fire if the finish produced by the 
use of sand. is the one desired. Burnishing may be done 
more quickly and perhaps better if polish is applied while 
the piece is slightly warm from the kiln, and, to produce 
the best results, it is essential that nothing touch the gold 
after the firing until the burnishing is done. Finger marks 
made before burnishing frequently detract from the beau- 
ty of an otherwise perfect piece of work. 

Sometimes a broad band or surface of gold may be 
greatly enriched by the use of a combination of polishes. 
For example, after the piece has been fired, burnish it 
and fire again without putting on an additional coat of 
gold. This dulls the gold without destroying its ident- 
ity. Then by means of the sharp pointed agate burnish- 
er trace on scrolls or some geometric design suited to the 
style of the rest of the decoration. The result will be 
clear, glistening lines on the more subdued gold ground 
work, and make a pleasing variation from the usual treat- 
ment of gold. 

For the gold on paste lines or around jewels, use the 
pointed agate burnisher. 

It is advisable to fire all color before putting gold 
over it, and then the unfluxed should be used, although 
if the color is thinly applied and hard dried, the Roman 
may be applied before firing with fairly satisfactory re- 
sults. Heavy colors require a hard fire, but even if ap- 
plied after firing the gold may peel off if the color is too 
thick. On an ordinary tinted ground the unfluxed gold 
may be used without cleaning out the ground, but if the 
surface has been dusted it will probably be too heavy to 
take gold well and the pointed stick may be used to remove 
the color, after which the Roman gold may be used. 
Sometimes liquid bright gold will look well, as when used 
over color it does not present so tawdry an appearance 
as when applied to white china. The Roman gold on 

bare china is to be preferred. Color is occasionally used 
over gold that has been fired, and if used thin will present 
a bronzed appearance but if just right the gold will not 
show through. If too thick, however, the color will flake 
off in scales, which defect cannot be remedied. Roman 
gold may safely be used over lustres and lustres over 
gold, provided the latter is burnished before the lustres 
are applied. A broad space of some desirable color of 
lustre, overlaid with a heavy all over design in gold, will, 
if judgment is shown in the selection of the design, prove 
very pleasing. Occasionally designs in black or other 
dark colors are outlined on gold grounds. If the metals 
are unadulterated, gold designs ma}^ be placed on silver 
or silver on gold, after the first to be applied is burnished. 
Gold ma}^ also be used on paste before firing if the latter 
is thoroughly dry through and through. To be simply surface 
dried is not sufficient. It is always best to fire the paste 
and apply two coats of gold before firing again. Gold, 
if underfired, will appear much darker than is desirable. 
Occasionally it looks dark if well fired, in which case it 
is safe to assume that the brushes or palette were not 
thoroughly clean, that oily, poor gold had been used, or 
that the paste was poor. Possibly the steel knife becom- 
ing discolored from dampness may have caused this. 
The make of china should cause no trouble with the gild- 
ing, a medium fire being ah that is necessary. If enamels 
are put on gold grounds it is customary to leave a tiny 
spot of white china for the enamel to cling to, that the 
bubbled effect which is apt to come when enamels are 
placed over gold may be avoided. 


This may be done with either Hydrofluoric acid or 
Aqua Regia. The latter is preferable as the design on 
the china does not have to be covered with wax in order 
to protect it, for Aqua Regia will not remove the glaze. 
The fumes should not be inhaled. No amount of gold 
will atone for or cover up poor work, but proper manip- 
ulation of the right materials, and practice combined 
with patience, will enable one soon to do satisfactory 
gold work. 


Third Prize — Miss Sidney Scott Lewis, Georg'etown, Ky. 

If the gold has been on hand sometime, and is very 
hard and separates into little balls, it needs just a drop 
or so of fat oil, a little heat and lavender oil, and your 
gold is as good as new. The gold will blister wher- 
ever it touches heavy color, especially unfired color, over 
a light tint the unfluxed gold can be used but the tint 
should first be fired. To put on a smooth, gold ground 
on white china, use Roman gold, perfectly clean and al- 
most "runny". Use a large, medium, or small (accord- 
ing to size of surface to be covered) flat square shader. 
Work the brush into the gold until it has gotten pretty 
well charged, keeping the touch as flat and broad as pos- 
sible. Put on the gold in flat, broad, even^'strokes, blend- 
ing the strokes into each other as you work. Do not try 
to put on the gold too thick for the first fire, but as evenly 
as you can. Then for the second fire put on a crate 
of unfluxed gold and the result wilJ be a bright even back 
ground. If you want surface, burnish for the first fire but not 
the second, if the gold is not thick enough after first fire re- 
touch with thin ^vash but do not Vjurnish. Gold can be padded 
on just like color and makes a soft pretty back ground, or it 
can be stippled with the Fitch stipplers of different sizes as 




Band. — Black, Pompadour, Carnation or Yellow Red, 
Olive or Brown Green. Sketch the design with India Ink. 
Oil the background with Grounding Oil. Dust with Glaze 
or Mat Black. Clean out design, paint the fruit with Pom- 
padour, leaves and stems a soft green. Fire. Repeat the back- 
ground if necessary. Glaze fruit with Carnation, strengthen 
leaves and fire. 

Plate Border — Same colors, except for background. 
Use Yellow Ochre moist and pad, making a background 
old Ivory. 

Fruit, Pompadour thin. Stems, Yellow Brown. Back 
ground and blossom end, Olive Green Body of stein Old 




the case requires. A very good effect is obtained by 
tracing or etching many different designs on the gold by 
using a sharp burnishing tool. Be careful and draw in 
the design just as it should be as mistakes cannot easily 
be remedied. The beginner should try and learn to do 
good outhning with gold, as it is one of the most effec- 
tive as well as one of the most general uses to which gold 
may, be put in china decoration. Have the gold so that 
it will flow readily from the point of a No. o or i sable 
liner. Hold the brush hghtly, but firmly, do not load it 
with gold but have it well filled and pointed. Lift the 
brush as seldom as possible. Long, even lines that show 
no break or patching, not thin here and heavy there, but 
even and sure in execution. If the lines need straight- 
ening and evening up, take a small flat, square quill brush, 
dip in alchol, wipe nearly dry and run along the side of 
the lines or when dry scrape into evenness with a pen 
knife. For outlining on white china use Roman gold. 
If one has a steady hand, and can leave the lines as they 
are put, then it is safe to outline on fresh tint by using 
unfluxed gold, but there is always the risk of spotting 
or scratching the fresh tint. In banding or lining china 
with gold the most accurate and rapid method is to use 
the wheel, but many have no wheel or find it difficult to 
manage, so with care and practice bands and lines may 
be put on free handed with satisfactory results. To put 
gold on the rim of a plate or cup have the gold mixed 
rather ' ' pasty ' ' , dip the tip of the middle finger in the 
gold and rub in around the edge and it will go on as smooth 
and even as one could wish, much more so than you can 
possibly put it on with a brush. 

Gold should be fired a rose color heat. When prop- 
erly fired it is a soft, unglazed yellow, and will burnish 
readily. If underfired it will rub off when you attempt 
to polish it. If fired too hard it will crack or blister and 
will not polish. The best burnisher for all around use is 
the glass brush. Be careful and not get the glass in your 
hands, and do not let any of the little bits fall into your 
paint, for it will ruin it. And always wash china that has 
been burnished with glass before repainting, as every 
particle will fire on to the china. For a very high polish 
and lines, use an agate burnisher. For large surfaces 
or places you can not reach with the glass brush use burn- 
ishing sand. 

When once on, liquid gold is hard to remove, and 
even with care is liable to come out in the fire in dark, 
purplish spots when one thinks it had been entirely removed. 
Unless put on just the right thickness, and properly fired, it 
crackles and comes out a coppery color. Do not use it 
on the Royal Worcester colors or on Belleek china. If 
much liquid gold is used and fired with other things it 
often affects the brilliancy of the other colors and many 
will not fire it except by itself. Used under the different 
lustres, very pleasing results are often obtained. 

Green gold and red gold can be used on white china 
or over color. To these golds or to the bronze colors 
you can add even Roman gold and get some charming 
combinations. Green gold is very easily prepared, 3 parts 
silver to 9 parts unfluxed gold. Fluxed gold is best used 
over paste. There is a gold essence that is often used 
in thinning gold, silver and lustres but lavender oil gen- 
erally answers all purposes. If the gold blisters, or comes 
out rough after firing, rub very lightly with the finest 
emery paper, retouch and refire. Always have china 
perfectly dry when you put on gold and thoroughly dry 
the gold before firing. Often (especially on Belleek china 

which literally seems to eat up gold) you can dry gold 
thoroughly, then give it another coat before you fire it. 
Gold is very fine under the lustres, you get very beautiful and 
unexpected results. Also by using a thin coat of gold 
over a fired lustre, padding the gold and letting the lus- 
tre show through more in some places than in others, 
you get surprisingly beautiful things. Brushes for gold 
should be clean and fluffy. Too elaborate use of gold 
often spoils and cheapens an otherwise artistic piece of 
work. The too lavish use of gold, the feeling that there 
must be a bit of gold on every piece of work is one of the 
pitfalls that beginners and amateurs must learn to avoid. 

Fourth Prize— Lucy L. Brown, Roxbury, Mass. 

[extracts only] 

To apply liquid bright gold, dip the brush directly 
into the gold fluid in the bottle and put on the china just 
as it is, if this ever grows too thick, dilute with the gold 
essence which comes with it, or a little oil of lavender, 
never under any circumstances let turpentine touch it or 
you will ruin the gold; liquid bright gold is similar to 
lustres and raised paste may be used with them in a design 
on china. 

Gold over raised paste is one of the richest meth- 
ods used in gold work. Use Hancock's paste for raised 
gold; take out suflicient powder on the ground glass slab, 
use just enough Dresden thick oil or fat oil as you pre- 
fer, to hold it together and not separate, rub well, breathe 
on it several times and turn it over with the knife, then 
dilute with lavender oil, breathe on it again, turn over and 
over with the palette knife until about as thick as cream 
and so that it does not spread. If, when using it becomes 
too thick, thin with the lavender oil, and breathe on it 
again, if it grows thin breathing on it and turning it over 
will help it. 

For modeling, as in little roses and leaves, it must 
be a little thicker than for lines and dots; a beginner had 
better have the paste fired before putting on the Roman 
gold, but it can be done before firing if the paste is thor- 
oughly dry. If the paste does not take the gold easily after 
being fired, put a little turpentine on the paste with the 
brush and it will be a great help. Paste should lose its 
shine and appear dull in about an hour after placing it 
on the china. 

In modeling use the shaders for lines and dots, the 
sable riggers; the process is similar to that for enamels, 
which was explained in the last Class Room; be careful 
in going over the raised paste with the gold to keep on 
the design. Raised gold is not serviceable for hard wear. 

Fifth Prize— Miss Ella Adams, Yellow Springs, Ohio. 

[e.ktracts onlv] 

Several kinds of gold come tightly covered and these 
seem preferable since they are not so liable to be dry and 
hard but are moist and easily transfered to the glass slab. 

Lavender oil should be used in with a miserly hand, 
however, since too much oil makes the gold run. Some 
decorators use a pen for fine lines instead of a brush. 
The gold should be of a thinner consistency for pen work. 
Practice upon undecorated china to secure the right swing 
to your brush or pen instead of rushing boldly to the 
attack of a decorated piece of china that is waiting for 
the finishing touches of gold. Hither Roman or unfluxed 
gold can be used over paste, although the unfluxed gold 
is brighter in effect. The gold should be applied with 
the medium sized pointed brush upon paste since the 




(Treatment next page) 


smaller brush works too slowty for anything but outlin- 
ing. Should the unfluxed gold be used, by mistake, upon 
the white china there will be nothing left for your trouble 
after firing, for since it is unfluxed, there is nothing to 
hold it to the china. I^iquid gold and turpentine are 
sworn enemies, the turpentine turning the gold into a 
purple, so a separate brush (washed in alcohol before and 
after using) should be kept for the liquid gold. 

I tell with fear and trembling, for without it is done 
neatly it were better never done. After the gold has 
been mixed with turpentine put the piece of china to be 
' ' edged ' ' in the left hand and dip the tip of the little 
finger of the right hand in the gold, taking up only a 
small portion. Apply to the edge with a delicate touch. 
Quite often the piece of china can be slowly turned with 
the fingers of the left hand acting as a banding wheel. 
This gives a smooth band of just the amount required 
not to blister. So often gold work comes from the kiln 
dull and the gold is branded as inferior when in nine cases 
out of ten the brush, china or oil is not clean and thus 
adulterates the gold. 

Use the burnisher with quick, light strokes, not with 
heavy muscular ones as if you were' determined to test the 
solidity of the china. 


Mention — Bertha Graves Morey, Ottumwa, III. 

[e.xtracts only] 

In using gold bronze do not grind as it grinds the 
little gold flecks out and destroys the beauty. Mix the 
same as the fluxed. 


Paint the surface over with liquid gold paint and 
dust powder gold into this. The most beautiful gold 
eftects are made in this way. 


are prepared read}^ for use. Use brush that can be 
dipped into bottle and lay on the ware as smoothly as 
possible. Be careful to use brushes that have been cleans- 
ed first in tupentine then in soap and water and lastly 
in alcohol and do not use in paint until perfectly dry. 
If damp brushes are used the paint will appear blackish. 
Metal colors as silver, bronze and platinum should be 
worked smoothly and not look more streaked than nec- 
essary. Make your brush strokes as nearly in the same 
direction as possible. I would advise three thin coats, 
each coat fired, rather than two heavy coats of paint as 
it gives much better results. Roman gold applied over 
a fired yellow brown gives a good rich color. Metals 
applied over their respective liquid paints, fired, give 
fine wearing qualities. This plan should be followed 
when painting handles and articles that will be much 
handled in using. 

O G O 

Notes by the Editor. 

A good gold is known by its warm brown color not 
more than a medium tone; if darker, it probably has bulk- 
ing of lamp-black or charcoal, or is adulterated in some 
other way. Be sure your gold rim shows from the top of 
plate or saucer. If your edge or rim is ragged, dry thorough- 
1)^ and run a pen-knife or scraper along it. Always clean 
with a rag or stick moistened with water after cleaning with 
turpentine or alcohol, especially after liquid gold. You 
will then be sure no particle remains to soil gold or plate. 

In using an old hard pad of gold, if the gold works up 
grainy" after warming, add a drop of thick oil, or if that 
does not help, try tar oil or lavender instead of turpentine 
for painting. Sometimes even that will not correct the 
trouble. Then dissolve the gold in alcohol, stir thoroughly, 
let settle in a deep cup, pour off the liquid, pour residue on 
glass slab, and when dry mix up freshly with thick oil and 
tar, half and half, to a stiff paste, and thin with turpentine 
as before. Under all circumstances put on gold last, being 
careful to dry thoroughly, color or lustre, over which you 
wish to place a gold design before firing, or close to which 
you wish to put a gold outline. 

If you wish to make a gold design on a heavily grounded 
color it will be absolutely necessary to clean out the design 
with a steel point or knife when the color is dry, then fire 
before putting on the gold, otherwise the gold will either 
disappear entirely or leave a rough dark line or bubble up 
and separate. For gold outlines in flat enamel work, it is 
safest to fire the gold outlines first and add the flat enamels 
for a second flre. If the enamels are fired first they may chip 
in second firing, and it requires skill to put gold outlines 
next to unfired enamels without touching the latter, which 
would spofl the effect. A circular motion should always 
be used in burnishing, to avoid scratching lines. Over 
light tints, well dried in oven, gold designs can be drawn 
in unfluxed gold before firing, the latter may also be put 
on raised gold before firing, if the paste is .slowly and thor- 
oughly dried first. To remove gold use aqua regia, when 
there is no color below the gold, otherwise Hydrofluoric 
acid will be necessary. 

For etched gold on china, draw your design carefully 
in India ink, heat your piece and pour melted wax over it; 
then with a steel point, pen-knife and stick remove the wax 
from the portions to be etched — either background or de- 
sign. With a pointed stick put the Hydrofluoric acid on 
the uncovered spaces, leave it there perhaps ten minutes, 
then wash off under running water. Remove a small por- 
tion of wax and see if the etching is sufficiently deep; if 
not, replace the wax and repeat the process until satis- 
factory. The greatest care must be taken not to inhale the 
fumes or allow a drop to touch the flesh, as the effect is most 
injurious. Use the acid near an open window, and if the 
acid touches the skin, hold the hands immediately under 
running water and scour with nail brush; even then you 
may be badly burned. The inhaling of the fumes is injur- 
ious to the lungs. The acid comes in a rubber bottle and 
must always be tightly corked and kept away from china or 
glass, as even the fumes will injure the glaze. It is best kept 
in the open air. A little moisture on the china is sometimes 
thought to help the acid eat the glaze of the china. 


.Sara Reid McLaughlin. 

For peaches, use Lemon Yellow, Silver Yellow, blend- 
ing into Blood Red and Dark Brown. In darker tones 
let some Yellow Green and Grey Green tones be worked 
in, keeping touches short for bloom effect, painting the 
lower peaches and leaves in lower key. Stems in YeUow 
Brown shaded with Auburn Brown in second firing. 
Leaves in Yellow Green, Apple Green, Brown Green, 
Shading Green and Dark Green. Background, Egg Yel- 
low, Yellow Brown, Brown Green, and Shading Green. In 
second and third firing, strengthen the design and back- 
ground, adding shadowy effects. 




THIS graceful little berry is quite similar in growth and 
color to some varieties in our own country. The 
trailing vine grows close to the ground. For painting the 
berries make a mixture of Banding Blue, Ruby Purple and 
Black in two shades, using less of the Ruby and Black for 
the lighter shade. A few touches of clear Ruby Purple 
could be used to advantage in some of the berries not quite 
ripe. Those at the ends of the sprays may be painted with 
a light shade of Yellow Green and shaded with Rub}^ 
Purple. The leaves are a clear pure green with touches of 

warm color (Yellow Brown may be used) on tips of a few 
of these. 

The background shades from Ivory YeUow to Greyish 
Green tones which should be very dark around the princi- 
pal cluster and towards the edge of the plate. Stewart's 
Grey is used with some of the berry color in the lighter 
greys to which Shading Green is added for the darkest 

Dusting with powder color in the last painting much 
improves the color and softens shadows. 




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heramic studio 





Anne Seymour Mundy. 

Little Grapes. — Deep B^ue Green, Banding Blue, 
Light Violet of gold or Fry's Violet No. 2 with less violet 
and more blue in lower part of bunches. (Reverse order 
in blackberries.) Grape Stems — Brown green, this, using 
turpentine instead of oil in putting them in, as also in 
woody stems, for which use Yellow Brown and Ruby thin. 
For greyer stems, Yellow Brown and Black. Leaves. — 
Apple, Moss and Brown Green, with Violet, Blue or Yel- 
low Brown in shadows. 

Blackberries. — Same colors as for grapes. 

Gooseberries. — Apple, Moss and Brown Green, with 
Pale Yellow on lighter parts; Warm Grey and Blood Red, 
to shade riper ones. Leaves, Apple, Moss, Royal, Shading 
Green, with warm Grey and Blue in shadows. Stems, 
Yellow Brown, Black, with occasional touches Blood Red. 

Strawberries. — Carnation, Capucin Red, with Blood 
Red and Ruby in darker berries; Yellow and Green in un- 
ripe ones. Stems on berries, Apple and Moss Green; trailers 
between clusters, Yellow Brown and Ruby thin. Hairy 
parts very thin and fine, with Brown Green. Leaves, Ap- 
ple, Moss, Royal Green; Shading Green used sparingly. 

Cherries. — Pompadour Red, Blood Red, Ruby; stems, 
Apple and Moss Green, shaded with Brown Green. Leaves, 
lighter green in tone than strawberry leaves, same colors. 
Woody stems. Yellow Brown, Chocolate Brown, Black; 
use thin; depend on effect of turpentine in shading. 

Huckleberries. — Deep Blue Green, Violet and Copen- 
hagen Blue, with touches of Pale Yellow, Green and some- 
times Ruby thin on greener berries. Leaves, Apple and 
Shading Green; shadows, add Copenhagen and Violet to 
greens. Stems, Brown Green, darker ones Black, Choco- 
late Brown, Violet. 

Sketch of birches, by George H. Clark. Suggestion for a stein. 




with the background. For steins, use Copenhagen Blue, 
for blue grey ligiits, strengthened in second firing with 
Auburn Brown. Use Yellow Brown for pips strengthened 
in second firing with Auburn Brown. Background, Copen- 
hagen Blue, Violet of Iron to Warm Grey, Yellow Red 
to Blood Red. For second and third firing deepen above 
colors, adding detail. 


FOR apples use Lemon Yellow, Alberts Yellow, Yellow 
Red, Carnation, Pompadour Red, blending the yel- 
low or reds into soft yellow greens, with Copenhagen Blue 
for greyish blue. Keep high lights clear and brilliant, 
the reflected lights softer in tone. Leaves, Apple Green, 
Yellow Green, Moss Green for lighter ones. Brown Green 
and Shading Green for darker ones. For shadowy leaves 
use Violet of Iron or any color which will be harmonious 


THE leaves are a dark glossy green, and the berries a 
little darker and larger than holly and of rather a 
waxy texture. 

Yellow Green and Moss Green, Brown Green and Shad- 
ing Green for the leaves, use more of the Shading Green 
than of the others. Some Chestnut and Finishing Brown 
in the stems. Pompadour Red, Carnation No. i and a 
little Yellow Red for the berries. A blueish green back- 
ground would be good. Copenhagen Grey, a little Old 
Blue and some Violet of Iron in the shadows. 




















DRAW design carefully especially the open burr. For the 
nut use Ochre or Yellow Brown, and Finishing Brown 
with a touch of German Black to give depth and leave 
apex of nut white or it may be taken out with point. The 
inner part of burr is very light yellow with a little Ochre 
near points. The prickly part is dark Brownish Green 
with some sharp marks taken out with a point. For the 
other burrs use Moss Green and Brown Green for light- 
est one, and the others may be a little darker. The leaves 
are sharply serrated, and most of them should be paint- 
ed with Autumn tones. Use Yellow Brown, Finishing 
Brown and a little Red and the others may have Moss 
Green, and some Brown Green. 


THE Mineral Art League of Boston held their annual exhi- 
bition the week of October 23rd, at the Westminstei . 
It was opened the evening of the 23rd, by a Private 
View. During the week there was a large attendance 
with good sales. The work generally was of a much 
higher standard than ever before. Miss Fairbanks showed 
a shallow bowl in reds and black which was excellent, re- 
sembling a Japanese lacquer, also a vase in a conventional 
design of Cyclamen which with other pieces was well done. 
Mrs. Swift's exhibit of gold with Lustres was very 
rich and admirably executed. Mrs. Gertrude C. Davis' 
work was of panels treated naturalisticaUy of roses and 
grapes. The technique was very good as usual. Mrs. 
Bertha Davis' display of grey blue conventional designs 
was pronounced by all as nearly perfect in color and de- 

sign. Miss Heath showed good conventional work in lus- 
tres and colors. Miss A. I. Johnson exhibited a tea pot 
in dull reds with a design of nasturtium leaves in bronzes 
which was a gem. Miss Page had a large vase in semi- 
conventional design of the Bird of Paradise flower, also 
a vase with a shell base done in green lustres, the upper 
part being green sea-weeds with water lines of gold. Sev- 
eral framed panels of landscapes and figures were also 
in her exhibit. Mrs. Ryder's punch bowl with an inside 
narrow border of tiny grapes in their natural colors and 
the outside in a conventional grape design in lustres was 
a good piece of work and much admired as were her fig- 
ure panels. Mrs. Mayhew's work showed the effect of 
diligent study of design in her most excellent exhibit. 
Mrs. Fitz's dessert set with gold etched border was good 
in design and treatment. Mrs. Bakeman's display of 
gold and white and jewel work was very dainty and well 
executed. Mrs. Bessie Cram had a good exhibit princi- 
pally conventional, a wine set in pink and gold on 
white being beautiful in design and workmanship. Also 
a tall stein done in brown green and black with a land- 
scape band at top in same colors with panel lines of black, 
was one of the most admired and well executed pieces 
in the exhibition. Mr. Callowhill's punch bowl and other 
pieces came in for a goodly share of admiration as did the 
work of the following members — Mrs Safford, Miss Prince, 
Miss Carter, Mrs. Morse, Mrs. Perrin, Miss Haskell and 
Mrs. Jarvis. The catalogue was attractive and netted 
a good sum. 

LARKSPUR (Sapplement) 

Laura B. Overly 
White Flowers. — Grey for first fire with a bit of yel- 
low in center, second fire, very thin Violet. 

Violet Flowers. — Violet No. i and 2. Leaves, Yellow 
Green, Dark Green and Violet. Background, Violet and 


Paul Putzki. 
The English gooseberries are much larger than the 
American variety and come in diff"erent shades, 
from a light yellow green to a dark red. For the lighter 
ones use Canary Yellow mixed with Dark Green, shad- 
ing with Yellow Red. Paint the darker ones flat with 
Carnation, shading in Blood Red and taking out some 
high lights with a clean brush. For the leaves take Dark 
Green, Yellow Green, Brown Green and Black Green. 
The background can be done in the same shades. 


Readers of Keramic Studio will be interested to hear 
that Mrs. Worth Osgood, once the honored president of 
the National League of Mineral Painters and for many 
years identified with Ceramic work in Brooklyn, has taken 
charge of the Department of Arts and Crafts in the new 
school under Miss Howe and Miss Marot, at Dayton, Ohio. 

Mrs. Osgood has been interested in pottery work for 
the last few years and has exhibited some nice things 
both in form and glaze. She will teach this branch of 
crafts work at Dayton as well as the classes in Design. 
We congratulate those who will have the pleasure and 
profit of working under her instructions. 




Use a thin wash of Poppy Red for hghtest parts with Blood Red to shade. Add a httle Blue in shadow 

ones and sometimes a little Ruby. For leaves use Verdigris, Olive Green and Dark Green. 

For first fire in background use Albert Yellow in lightest parts and wash 

in leaf effects in second fire with Brown Green. In darker 

parts use Yellow Brown, Olive Green 

and a little Brown. 




For middle cherries use Fry's Blood Red, with a little German Black for the dark tones, and keep the edges soft and 

greyish by using a very little blue with the red. The cherries at the side may be partly green. Use 

Moss Green, Brown Green, and Dark Green for leaves. For the background use 

browns and greens, shading into ivory with Ochre for the lighter parts. 



Under the inanaganciit of Miss Emily Peacock, Room 2j. 22 East i6ih St., Nerv York. All inquiries in regard to the various 
Crafts are to be sent to the above address, but will be ansivered i>i the magazine under this head. 

All queslions he received be/nre the lOlh day of month preceding issue and will be ansioered under ''Ansivers to Inquiries" onl;/. Please do not send stamped 

envelope for reply. The editors will answer questions only in these columns. 

After the plate has been forged out to the required 
thickness draw a centre Hne on one side, lay the brass 
pattern on this line and scribe around it with a steel point. 
With a heavy piercing saw saw along just outside the 
line, except the bowl, where about one eighth inch mar- 
gin should be left. File the edges, taking special care 
with the handle which may be smoothed with emery cloth 
after filing. 

The next step is to shape the bowl. Take a piece 
of hard wood, hickory is best, (oak or ash'will do) about 
three inches square and five or six inches long, fix it firm- 
ly in the vice and with a gouge hollow out a place as near 
the shape of the intended bowl (as shown by your wax 
model) as possible. Hold the silver blank over this block 
(See Illus. No. i.) and with a medium sized raising ham- 
mer, shape the bowl, annealing as , often as necessary. 
If the bowl curves up at the point, as it probably will 
if it is longer than it is broad, lay it on the bench, hollow 
side down and strike lightly on the edges with a rawhide 
or wood mallet, to bring it back to shape. Keep on work- 
ing with the hammer till the bowl has acquired the proper 
form and until when laid up side down on the anvil the 
edges touch all around. With a smooth file make the 
edges true, make them rather thin and rounded, not too 
sharp and remove the file marks with emery cloth. 

Now the bowl has to be planished to take out the 
'bumps" made in shaping it. Select a raising hammer 
with a face somewhat smaller than the curve of the bowl 
and fix it firmly in the vice. (See Illus. No. 2.) Hold 
the spoon by the handle, with the bowl on the hammer 
and with a small planishing hammer carefully go over the 
outside of the bowl till all the little hollows are taken out, 
and the inside is almost perfectly smooth. These ham- 
mer marks should overlap each other. 

Bend the handle to the required curve with the 


Harry S. IVkitbeck. 

In the making of a spoon the design is of course the 
first consideration. Above all things have the spoon 
practical. It should be graceful in line, easy to handle 
and made of silver thick enough to be lasting, for this 
spoon if well made will not be worn out for years to come, 
so let us leave for future generations something worthy 
to look upon and use. 

It is well to model the design in wax or plastilene 
as this gives us a definite shape to work for, not only in 
outline, but in the curves of the bowl and handle as well. 

After the design has been finished to your own satis- 
faction, make a simple outline drawing on paper exact- 
ly as the outline is to be and transfer this outline to a 
piece of thin sheet brass (about 20 gauge) making the 
centre line of the design coincide with a line drawn on 
the brass. Saw out this brass pattern and file the edges 
very true and smooth. 

Now we will begin to work with the silver. If the 
spoon is to be the size of an ordinary dessert spoon use 
silver about 13 gauge (English Standard). If larger or 
smaller use thicker or thinner silver. If the handle is 
to be very wide of course the metal need not be so thick, 
perhaps one gauge thinner. Buy a piece of rolled ster- 
ling silver the length and width of the pattern. Anneal 
the silver by heating it to a dull red and plunging it in 
cold water. With a heavy hammer beat out the ends 
of the plate on an anvil, leaving it thick in the middle 
where the handle is narrow. The bowl end may be 
about 17 gauge, the handle as thick or thin as you desire 
to make it. If there is to be any carving on the handle 
it should be left quite thick. Anneal the silver from 
time to time, for if hammered on too much at one time the 
metal becomes brittle and will crack. Use a pair of cal- 
lipers to make sure the plate is as thin in the centre as 
it is at the edges. 



mallet over a curved stake. Hammer the handle care- 
fully with the planishing hammer to harden it as the anneal- 
ing made it too soft and pliable for use. When this is 
done there may be still many little inequalities which 
must be ground out. Take a piece of ordinary pumice 
stone about half an inch square and two inches long, 
(pumice stone is easily cut with a hack saw) and grind 
the inside of the bowl perfectly smooth, using plenty of 
water. This also removes the "blue spots" caused by 
hammering. If you wish, all the hammer marks on the 
outside of the bowl and on the handle may be removed 
in this way; these, if put in carefully, add to the beauty 
of the spoon. But of course it is not proper to leave 
file marks on the metal, these may be removed with the 
pumice stone and emery cloth. After this, the whole 
spoon may be poHshed on the lathe with pumice stone 
and water and a felt wheel. 

If the spoon is to be perfectly plain it is ready to 
receive the final polish. If the handle is to be decorated 
there are several ways of doing it. It may be etched, 
pierced, carved, enamelled, or set with a stone. 

Etching is much the simplest (See lUus. No. 3.) 
and we will treat of it first. Draw the design on the silver 
with a dull steel point (a sharp point might cut too deep), 
carefully clean the metal with a solution of potash and 
water. A simple way to teU whether metal is clean enough 

for etching is to dip it in water. If the water lies on the 
metal in a thin film, it is clean, but if the water runs off 
it shows presence of grease on the surface. With a small 
brush and some thin asphaltum varnish, paint every part 
of the handle except the design that is to be etched. Dry 
the asphaltum for an hour or two, in a warm, not hot 
place, when thoroughly dry immerse in a solution com- 
posed of one part commercial nitric acid and three parts 
water. It is best to dilute the acid a day or two before 
using. After the acid has etched sufficiently rinse the 
spoon with clean water, and remove the asphaltum with 
a cloth saturated with benzine or turpentine. 

If the decoration is to be carved, (See Illus. No. 4) 
draw the design as for etching and embed the work 
in pitch. With scorpers and chisels cut out the 
low parts of the design using riffles to smooth up the work. 
The relief may be modeled slightly with chasing tools 
and the whole finished up with a scotch stone and water. 
Illus. No. 5 is a good illustration of carving and piercing. 

If a stone is to be set (See Illus. No. 6.), simply done, 
choose a stone with a fiat back, make a thin band of silver 
the exact shape of the stone and through which it will 
slip easily. Solder this setting on the handle, put in the 
stone and work the setting over it with a chasing tool 
and light hammer. Finish by polishing with tripoli and 

Pierced and carved. Designed and executed by 
Mary E. Peckham. 

Etched. Designed and made by 
Emily F. Peacock. 


Designed and executed by 

Harry S. Whitbeck. 



Designed and executed by Harry S. Whitbeck. 


Diamond may cut diamond, but oxygen cuts metals, 
at least at Liege. There there is a daily exhibition of the 
Jottrand process for cutting metals by a jet of oxygen. 
The apparatus consists essentially of a tube, with two 
brandels terminating in blowpipes, moved along a guide 
in front of the metal plates or part to be cut at the rate 
of about six inches per minute. 

One of the blowpipes delivers an oxyhydrogen flame 
which raises the metal where it is to be cut to a tempera- 
ture corresponding with dark red. The following blow- 
pipe delivers a jet of pure oxygen, which enters into com- 
bustion with the hot metal, thus producing a clear channel 
like a saw cut about one-eighth inch thick, the remainder 
of the metal being unaffected by the operation. 


The work in wood in the above illustrations was 
done by students at Teachers ; College, New York City 
under the direction of Haswell Clarke Jeffery. Both 
illustrations give helpful suggestions for table book racks, 
mirror backs, blotters, trays etc. 
•f -^ 

M. A. Jones — Vegetable stains for leather can be made. Blue ,from 
sky blue to blue black, from Indigo; yellow from fustic and black from 
logwood. Aniline dyes are used, these must be mixed with a mordant; 
water color to which a little glycerine has been added, is also used. These 
stains and colors are not permanent ; they seemto become absorbed into the 
leather and lose any transparency they may have. To make the color per- 
manent shellac must be put on first. 

Mrs. Wilkie— Write to Zinsser Bro., 197 WiUiam St., N. Y. about 
lacquers and sphinx pa.ste. There was an article on etched metal in the 
last issue, the December number. We hope to have an article on braided 
palm leaf baskets very soon. 

W. C. P. — There are several formulas for. oxidizing silver, the following 
are reliable. 1. Dissolve a .small piece of ammonium sulphate in boiling 
water and use while hot. 2. Go over the entire surface of the metal with 
Chloride of Antimony, using this on a small swab of cotton and working 
as rapidly as possible. If this does not make your silver dark enough in the 
deep places, apply a gentle heat, when the Antimony will turn black. Art- 
icles to be oxidized must be thoroughly clean or the oxidization will not take 

Pryo. — The pearl effect in the flowers on the wood can be got by us- 
ing imitation half pearls. Groove a very shallow setting in the wood the 
same size as the pearl, and set it in with Major's cement. 

E.|^0. — Glass can be drilled with a watch maker's drill or better still 
a broach drill. It is always best to drill from both sides, this prevents the 
glass from breaking. Drill lightly and keep the drill moist with spirits of 
turpentine, and a little camphor. The drilled hole should be started first 
with a sharply pointed graver so as to form some hold for the drill, and 
also to prevent it from slipping over the glass. 

■f -f 


Recent advices from England say that Sherard 
Cowper-Coles has invented a new process by which, it 
is claimed, metals can be burned into one another at a 
temperature hundreds of degrees below the melting point 
of any one of the metals, thus enabling new effects to be 
obtained and also the blending of various metals, which 
hitherto has been impossible. Inlaid metal work can 
be produced similar in effect to the finest damascening, 
or, ion the other hand, the process readily lends itself 
to larger work requiring greater boldness, such as panels. 


By a variation of temperature the depth of the inlay 
can be regulated, and at the same time one metal can be 
considerably raised above the other, at the will of the oper- 
ator. Very pleasing effects can be obtained by the process. 
— Jewelers Circular. 


In the particular trades in which our readers are 
interested the path of the artistic forger is beset with many 
pitfalls. It is extremely dangerous, for example, to 
tamper with hall marks, as some have found to their cost. 
Yet even that has been done. Ancient jewelry, especially 
Greek and Etruscan, is a favorite field for the skilful 
goldsmith. Italy is a fruitful producer of Etruscan gold 
jewelry and spurious Renaissance jewels, the latter, at 
any rate, of a sufficiently high artistic character to have 
found their way into some well-known collections. There 
is said to be a regular factory of antique goldwork in 
Roumania, where the jewelry is pretended to have been 
found at Olbia. It is carefully stage-managed with frag- 
ments of glass and a little soil to give character to its 
pretensions. Syria is also said to produce a great quan- 
tity of forged goldwork. The best known center in Europe 
at the present day is Odessa. The Russian goldsmiths 
are the modern representatives of the old Byzantine 
craftsmen, and still produce the bulk of their work on the 
ancient lines. It is apparently natural that from time to 
time discoveries of antique goldwork should be made on 
the shores of the Black Sea, where many, Greek towns 
formerly existed. Doubtless there is occasionally a gen- 
uine find. The modern artistic forger does not wait on 
circumstances. It is for the Russian goldsmith hardly 
a departure from his everyday work to produce antique 
Greek or Egyptian jewelry, and he does it with remark- 
able success. It is not so long ago that the artistic world 
was hotly divided on the question of the authenticity of 
the Tiara of Saitapharnes, which was acquired for the 
Musee du Louvre for ;!^4,ooo. It is now admitted to 
have been produced by M. Koukhomorski, of Odessa, 
but portions are stated to be genuine. That may or may 
not be correct, but what an object lesson it is for the col- 
lector! The experts of a great national museum com- 
pletely gulled in this way, and presumably only the assur- 
ance of the perpetrator of the fraud that any portion of 
the piece is genuine. 

Some of these imitations are copied from genuine 
antique pieces, stamped up from dies and tooled over 
to give the appearance of being really repousse. Where 
reproductions of this sort are offered other than singly, 
sa}^, for example, as a brooch and pair of earrings, it is 
often possible with a magnifying glass to detect similari- 
ties or defects common to each, thus proving them 
to have been mechanically reproduced. 

Particularly clever are the imitations of the old 
Renaissance jewels — those grotesquely quaint pieces in 
which gold, enamel, and gems are massed together to pro- 
duce the most curious effects. Many are only good 
enough to deceive the ordinary collector. The expert has 
nothing to go by except the remaining Avork of other 
ancient craftsmen. Even the deficiencies of the piece 
he has to report on decide nothing as to its age. They 
can only prove that a particular workman was not possessed, 
say, of the average skill of his age or did not show it in 
that particular piece. If a modern workman of good 
ability carries out a well-designed piece of Renaissance 

jewelry I maintain that he will do it so successfully that 
it cannot be proved to be a modern piece. Some of the 
German houses are producing silver jewelry, cast and 
enameled, in designs which immediately remind one of 
Renaissance ornaments. A very little development on 
these lines would produce "antiques" in no way differ- 
ing from genuine ones, and the authenticity of which 
could not be disproved. 

Sometimes portions of genuine antiques arc worked 
into these reproductions, and naturally complicate the 
question, and add considerably to the difficulty of ex- 
pressing an opinion. — Jeweler, Silversmith ojid Optician, 

■^ -f 

The report that a Swedish company has leased the 
old quarries in lona Island, and that their famous white 
and serpentine marble will soon be placed on the market, 
calls to mind that the quarries were wrought ages ago. 
Their output, however, says the Westminster Gazette, has 
long been limited to a few occasional stones for the pur- 
poses of charm and local jewelr}' manufacture. 

The altar in the old cathedral was made entirely of 
white marble, quarried and cut in the island, and, although 
there is no record of the material being exported,, it is 
surmised that a similiar use had been found for the stone 
in ecclesiastical buildings elsewhere, both in this country 
and on the continent. 

The marble of which the lona charms and jewelry 
are mostly manufactured is of a fine pale greenish hue. 


Mrs. K. E. Cherry sailed, on the 19th of December, 
for a year's study in Europe. 


Mrs. D. — We arc not acquainted with any relialile lustrt! colors for 
cliiiia which come in powder. Powder lustre.^ are usually applied without 
tiring to various objects and a liquid is used similar to that for gold paint. 
Albert Yellow is used frequently in pink roses with good effect. 

Mrs. F. N. R. — The first Class Room on "A color palette" should help 
you in laying color. We do not know of any other printed instructions in 
laying flat color but you might write to the person you mention. 

M. M. L. — Lustres take an ordinary hard fire (see next class Room.) 
The iron pot is said to affect pinks, better try broken hits for samples Yel- 
low lustre applied over other lustres affects the color somewhat but usually 
in an agreeable way. We do not know anything that will remove fired color 
except Hydro-fluoric Acid. For line work in conventional work, we prefer 
to use the powder color mixed with a thin syrup of sugar and water, it does 
not then run into color or lustre, touching it, and the latter may be re- 
moved with turpentine if necessary without injury to the outlines, other- 
wise mix powder black with medium only to a thick paste, thin with spirits 
of turpentine. The last Class Room subject was Enamels, that will give 
you the desired information. The Class Room in this issue will inform 
you about raised paste; both enamels and paste will stand a good hard fire. 
Any good Roman gold may be used under lustre with a bronze effect. 

Anthony — Nothing that is applied to the outside of a kiln, can affect 
the interior; if your kiln shows signs of rusting it must be in a damp place. 
Kerosene would be quite as valuable as olive oil to remove the rust, and 
less expensive. The inside should be whitewashed with ordinary white 
wash as often as necessary. The next subject in the Keramic Studio Class 
Room will be "Lustres," we trust you will find there all necessary instruc- 
tions. You will find the desired information in regard to "Raised Paste" 
in the present number under the head of "Gold Work." 

G. W. M. — Roman gold is used over lustre, it can be put on before 
firing if care is taken not to have it so thin that it will spread. It is safer 
however, to wait till a second firing. Colors may be used over lustre also 
Isefore firing, but more safely in a second fire. For pink roses shading to yel- 
low, use Pompadour and Albert Yellow for first fire, rose in second fire. 






MR^aCTERMEER ^ j» > j» j» 

MRS. WORTH OSGOOD J^ \^ j^ j^ 



MRS, a B. PAIST ^ ^ j» ^ \^ > 

MR. F. A. RHEAD j» j> j» j> j> j» 










FEB. MCMVI Price 35c. Yearly Subscription $3.50 

[ The entire contents of this Magazine are cafbered by the general copyright, and the articles musi not be reprinted Ivithoui special permission. ] 



League Notes 

The Class Room — Lustres 


Prize Designs — Punch Bowl 

Punch Bowl — Third Prize 

Tiger Lily 

Prize Designs for Punch Bowl — Mention 

An Easily Constructed Banding Wheel 

Treatment by 
Prize Designs — Punch Bowl 
Pottery — Mat Glazes 
Prize Designs — Punch Cups 
Pottery Notes 

Detail of Inside Punch BowWSupplement) 
Jack in the Pulpit Border 
The Crafts— 

Modeled Carving— Finishing 

A Woven RafRa Basket 

Answers to Inquiries 
Answers to Correspondents 
Jtudio Note— Treatment of Tiger Lily 

Mrs. Belle Barnett Vesey 

F. A. Rhead 

Marie Crilley Wilson, Mary Overbeck, and 
Ophelia Foley 

Ahce Witte Sloan 

Sarah Reid McLaughlin 

Sabella Randolph, Hannah Overbeck, Beatrice 
Witte Ravenal 

H. C. ter Meer 

Frederick G. Wilson 

Jeanne M. Stewart 

Ophelia Foley, Russell Goodwin 

Mrs. Worth Osgood 

Marie Crilley Wilson 
H. B. Paist 
Mariam L. Candler 
F. A. Rhead 

Some Leading Agencies of Keramic Studio 

We take pleasure in mentioning a few of the leading agencies for the sale 
( the Keramic Studio, where, also, subscriptions may be placed: 

Boston, Mass. — Miss E. E. Page, 286 Boyslton St.; Smith & McCance, 

Old Comer Book Store. 
Brooklyn— A. D. Mathew's Sons, Fulton Street. 
Buffalo— Mrs. Filkins, 609 Main Street. 
Chicago- A. H. Abbott & Co.; A. C. McClurg & Co.; Brentano's; Burley 

Cincinnati— Miss M. Owen, 245 Elm Street; A. B. Closson, 110 W. 4th St. 

Traxel & Maas, 4th Street, near Elm. 
Cleveland, Ohio— Vinson & Korner, 150 Euclid Ave. 
Columbus, Ohio— Lee Roessier, 116 So. High Street. 
Denver, Colo.— H. R. Meininger, 409 16th Street. 
Detroit, Mich.— L. B. King & Co.; Art China Co. 
Hartford, Ct.— E. M. SUl. 
Grand Rapids, Mich — Miller, Wolfe Co. 
Indianapolis, Ind— Keramic Supply Co., Lemcke Building. 
Kansas City. Mo —Emery, Bird, Thayer Co.; Geo. B. Peck Co. 









Mrs. Olaf Saugstad 
Madge E. Weinland 



Minneapolis, Minn. — Minn. Art China Co., 607 1st Ave. So.; IClizabelh 

Hood, IS W. 6th St., St. Paul, Minn. 
New York City — Brentano's, Union Square; M. T. Wynne's, HE. 20th 

St.; The Fry Art Co., 11 E. 22d St.; Wanamaker's; American News Co.; 

J. B. Ketcham, 107 W. 25th Street. 
Newark, N. J. — Keramic Novelty Co. 
Oakland, Cal.— Smith Bros. 
Omaha, Neb — Megeath Stationery Co. 
Philadelphia — Wanamaker's. 
Pittsburgh, Pa. — Otto Schaffer & Bros.; Kurtz, Langbein & Schwartz, 

R. S. Davis & Co., 346 Fifth Ave.; John G. Yergan, 420 Penn Ave. 
San Francisco— Mrs. M. E. Perley, 207 Post Street. 
St. Louis— F. Weber & Co.; A. S. Aloe & Co., Erker Bros Optical Co. 
Syracuse — Wolcott Book Shop: Welch & Hollingsworth; W. Y. Foote; 

A. L. Varney & Co , 336 S. Salina Street. 
Toronto — The Art Metropole. 
Washington, D. C— Wood & Lothrop. 

The Magazine may also be ordered from any news dealer or book store 
in this countrj', who can procure it through the American News Company 
New York, its branches, or at the office of 

Keramic Studio Pub. Co., 108 Pearl St., Syracuse, N. Y. 

Vol.VIL No. 10 


February, 1906 

ITR color supplement for this issue 
is the prize bowl design by Mrs. 
Marie Crilley Wilson. The short 
time allowed by the postponement 
of the competition prevented our 
giving a perfect reproduction of 
the color scheme, but the coloring 
given is pleasing and suggestive. 
An outline of black or red brown 
much improves the silver design. 
Apropos of the punch bowl and cup problem we must 
admit that although many interesting designs were sub- 
mitted and a few good shapes, in no case was a good and 
appropriate punch bowl design placed upon an appro- 
priate punch bowl shape. While the prize winning bowls 
are all interesting designs and good shapes, the latter are 
rather suited to salad. 

The prizes in the punch bowl competition were 
awarded as follows: 

First prize — Marie Crilley Wilson. 
Second prize — Ophelia Foley. 
Third prize — Alice Witte Sloan. 
Mention — Russell Goodwin, Sabella Randolph, Mar}' 
Overbeck, Hannah Overbeck, Beatrice Witte Ravenal. 
Punch cup competition. 

■ First prize — Russell Goodwin. 
Second prize — Sabella Randolph. 
Third prize — Alice Witte Sloan. 

Mention — Beatrice Witte Ravenal, Mary Overbeck, 
Ophelia Foley. 

In many cases the color schemes were the best part 
of the design, unfortunately a black and white reproduc- 
tion will not give a fair idea of the beauty of the general 

The March competition is sure to be an interesting 
one, we have already seen many good studies on this order 
from such workers as Marie Crilley Wilson, Russell Goodwin, 
Margaret and Hannah Overbeck, etc., etc., we hope that 
not only our old contributors will come to the front but that 
we may see some good new work. So many have been 
studying along this line of late. The first prize and perhaps 
some of the others will be given in color, a little later, in 
order to give time for a really good reproduction. 

We are pleased to be able to show in this number 
two illustrations of the late work of Mrs. Worth Osgood, 
former President of the N. L. M. P. who has now taken 
charge of the Arts and Crafts department in the school 
under Miss Howe and Miss Marot at Dayton, Ohio. The 
pottery is comparatively low fire with soft and pleasing 
matt glazes and some craquele effects, very artistic and 


At last the travelling exhibition has completed its 
rounds and is on its way from Newark, N. J. to Chicago. 
It will be reboxed and sent to owners as speedily as pos- 
sible by our faithful and devoted chairman of transporta- 

tion. It was on the road longer than previously, because 
the requested dates from clubs came thick and fast for 
spring and fall, but none for the mid-sunmier months. 
The exhibit was therefore idle from July 14th to September 
1 1 th. League members will all agree that there are some 
splendid pieces in the exhibit. The thought and care 
we lavish upon our own pieces, prevent us from seeing 
them with anything but affection, and blind us to faults. 
When we view them again, after so long an absence, let 
us look with disinterested eyes and criticise as if they were 
the work of a competitor or rival. Let us be courageous 
in seeking and rectifying our weaknesses. Problem III 
is now before us. An ink well, thrown or modeled in clay. 
Again we ask for a simple outline drawing. It can be 
with or without a cover, with or without a tray. This 
problem is more interesting and more complex. Clay 
workers have different methods. Some believe it the 
better plan to think in the clay itself, that when once 
taken in hand the creative thought will soon arise and 
develop as it grows. Others believe in creating an ideal 
in the mind, lining it on paper and following with the hands 
in clay. If the materialization does not equal the ideal 
the outline can be more beautifully curved, or more severe 
until the highest self expression has been accomplished. 
For this lesson please send the drawing on or before Feb- 
ruary 17th., to 6228 Wabash Ave., Chicago. 

We are pleased to announce a new Individual member, 
Mrs. Chas. L. Wilhams, Glens Falls, N. Y. 

Belle Barnett Vesey. 



Mr. S. Linderoth of Chicago, architect and potter, has 
been selected by the National League of Mineral Painters 
to criticise the shapes and designs which will be submitted 
by members in the regular course of study. We have 
received from Mr. Linderoth the following letter which 
will be found of interest and expresses not only his views 
but those of many true art lovers about the present con- 
dition of x\merican art pottery: 

"Since there is now a society with sufficient discern- 
ment to undertake the problem of the reformation of the 
present chaos in pottery designs, it might be permissible 
to add something in the same direction. For more than 
15 years have I expected some one with enough audacity 
to come forward and point out the sins committed against 
the laws of true art. I have not felt equal to the task 
myself, conscious as I have been of my own imperfections. 
It was also to be supposed that such remonstrance would 
not at first succeed except to make the originator 
thoroughly disliked. Thus we have perhaps all waited 
for each other and no one has dared to call a "Halt." In 
the meantime some sinners have grossly imposed upon the 
public, feeding the awakening hunger for Art with mon- 
strosities in designs of pottery which are hideous in the 
extreme. Lumps of clay, such as the Indian gave to the 
papoose to play with, have been covered with a good glaze, 
sold to civilized beings and passed off for American Art 
in pottery. Could a greater sin be committed? Beauty 
has had to stand aside while ugliness has succeeded in 



taking its place. Much splendid material has been wasted 
without any other tangible result than adding to our 
vocabulary some more Indian names, which are perhaps 
characteristic when the shapes are considered as abori- 
ginal. If we are at the point where the roads are cross- 
ing, let us decide which path we shall follow, progression 
or retrogression. Let those with crude, primitive, or 
perverted ideas choose for themselves and let them|stand 
the consequences, but let those who can rightfully lay 
claim to good taste, refinement and artistic skill shun the 
way of evil doers and proceed on the road which has made 
other nations great. We need not necessarily copy from 
other nations. Indeed if we could develop a style of our 
own, it would be desirable and laudable but such develop- 
ment should be along the lines of beauty and true Art, 
which is never ugly. Art is satisfying to a cultured taste, 
not sickening and repulsive. It is particularly sad to find 
decidedly bad productions emanating from Art potteries 
from which we have a right to expect only good work and 
which a few years ago would not allow a single piece to go 
out unless it had real merit. Have these now been spoiled 
by the perverted taste of would-be potters? Or are they 
influenced by the all absorbing commercialism as to what 
will sell, rather than what is beautiful? It is not enough 
to rely on the beautiful glazes and truly artistic decoration 
of which many of us are capable, both over and under 
the glaze. In this we are not much, if any, behind the 
Europeans. It is even possible that in some of these lines 
we actually excel. Shall it be said that we do not dare 
to undertake a reformation of the shapes, the bringing 
out of new beautiful designs which are truly artistic, or 
shall we allow the foreigner to sneer at us though he has not 
the inclination to tell us wherein we are at fault. Whether 
we succeed in producing anything in the way of original 
American Art or a refined Renaissance matters very little, 
but let us have something better than we have now. It 
has been said: "Read in pottery the progress of the race." 
Should this not mean that we should at least try to create 
out of our plastic material the most noble creations of 
which we are capable, as the first Divine Potter molded 
out of the same material His most noble work." 



o o o 

In a letter to Mrs. Belle Vesey, the President of the 
League, Mr. S. Linderoth made the following remarks 
in regard to criticism of designs submitted to him: 

"Ask your members to draw in outline, not in per- 
spective, so that I can clearly understand their meaning. 
Something good will surely come out of your endeavor. I 
need not say that my humble opinion shall be perfectly 
fair and impartial, especially as I do not know the members 
nor even by their initials as marked on designs submitted. 
All I shall look for is good, practical and artistic designs 
with some meaning in them. If there is an idea of orig- 
inaHty I shall try to make such suggestions as will lead to a 
development of such conception. 

"While I can not invite correspondence in general, 
as my time is very limited and my correspondence al- 
ready large, I shall be glad indeed if I can answer inquiries 
regarding particularly knotty problems in the line of 
pottery, as far as I am able." 

Very truly, 

S. Linderoth. 



The articles on Lustres will be continued in the March 
number, as there is too much matter for one number. 



First Prize— Mrs. G. B. Straight, Cazenovia, N. Y. 

EXPERIENCE is a great educator. There is nothing 
intricate in the manner of painting with lustres, 
but success largely depends upon the skill and deftness 
with which they are appHed, judgment as to the appro- 
priateness of the decorations attempted, familiarity with 
the necessar}^ tools, and excessive neatness. To be "pain- 
fully neat" is a virtue in lustre painting. 

Lustres are sold in small vials, mixed with a medium 
ready for use. These vials should be kept tightly corked, 
as lustres evaporate rapidly, and if exposed to the air soon 
grow thick and unmanageable and adhere to the glass. 
Lustres when in good condition for use are as thin as 
liquid bright gold. If too thick and sticky they may 
be thinned by adding oil of lavender or the essence that 
comes specially for the purpose. A good substitute 
for the latter is a medium made of turpentine, fat oil, and 

Whether a thinning medium has been used or not, 
the vial should be thoroughly shaken before the lustre is 
used, as the heavier portion always settles at the bottom. 

Lustres are not brilliant and glistening before being 
fired, and when unfired look so distractingly near alike, 
usually presenting a dingy, yellowish gray appearance 
resembling an unpleasing color tint, that when one is 
decorating several articles in different lustres at the same 
time it is well to mark them in some way to avoid confu- 
sion, if color is to be used to harmonize with the lustres. 

A large number of satisfactory lustres are on the 
market, ranging in color from white and delicate opals 
through intermediate tints and shades of reds, blues, greens 
and browns, to black. These colors vary in different 
makes, especially the greens and opals, concerning Avhich 
further mention will be made. 

If one is unfamiliar with the different colors of lustres 
it is well to make tests on a trial piece of china before 
applying to an important article, though experience proves 
them to be about equally reliable. 

Occasionally lustres are freaky when subjected to 
kiln heat and produce most unexpected effects. A violet 
holder painted with opal, where the entire piece was del- 
icately lustrous, and on which, beginning at the bottom 
and extending nearly to the top, were smoke shaped wreaths 
of beautiful clear pinks and greens blended in an in- 
describably charming manner, is an example. 

The best china for lustre decoration is that presenting 
a deeply fluted surface, preferably one with many indent- 
tations or raised querls, though any curved or crinkly 
surface is good. As the chief beauty in lustre lies in its 
high glaze, it may readily be seen that this property is 
heightened by the tiny reflections from curved surfaces, 
even when as large as is found on the low Napoleon jug. 


Lustres are especially well adapted to borders and 
linings and are suitable for any decorative work, es- 
peciall)^ where conventional or semi-conventional de- 
signs are used. 

Belleek or some other piece of fine china will invaria- 








bly prove highly satisfactory, though some claim success 
through the use of a low grade of ware. 

Lustres do not unite with the glazes of the china, 
but, like gold, remain on the surface. Consequently they 
are liable to wear off and so may not be suitable for a 
complete dinner service, though they may be safely re- 
commended for fish or fruit sets. 


Having selected the china, and being supplied with 
some large flat sables and square shaders, some soft 
cotton and old silk for dabbers, pieces of lintless old mus- 
lin cut into convenient size, lavender oil or essence, al- 
cohol, and such lustres as are suitable for the design to 
be attempted, one is ready for work. 

Every thing should be placed on a table in front of 
the worker in the most convenient way possible. The 
dabber must be made and placed where it can be quickly 
taken up, and the china placed where it will be most con- 
venient and will allow plenty of room for work. Be sure 
that the lustres are in a box or some other receptacle where 
they will not be easily upset. In no other line of painting 
is swiftness so essential as in lustre work. Make every 
movement count. 

Be sure the china is absolutel}^ clean. Any finger 
marks, dust, lint or moisture will bring a lustre painter 
to repentance swiftly and surely. Wipe off the piece care- 
fully with a cloth dampened in alcohol, then rub over it 
a piece of silk to remove any possible particles of lint. 

See that the brushes are in proper condition. Failure 
or success in the manipulation of lustres depends much 
upon the brushes, consequently they are always to receive 
proper care. Any brushes may be used, new or old, pro- 
vided all trace of gold or color has been removed. If 
the faintest trace remains it will certainly ruin the next 
color used. 

Neither is it necessary to keep a separate brush for 
each color of lustre. Wash thoroughly in alcohol till 
absolutely clean, and dry by brushing lightly back and 
forth upon a cloth. This will take but a few moments 
and will insure dry, clean brushes, which are an absolute 

By cleaning in this way they may be used with impu- 
nity first in one color, then in another. If lustres are un- 
satisfactory, the colors being changed on account of having 
used a damp brush, a second coat may cover the defect, 
but of course the tone will be considerably darker. At 
the close of a day's work the brushes may be cleaned with 
the alcohol, then washed carefully with soap and water 
which will leave them in as pliable a condition as when 
new, after which they may be flattened into shape, and 
placed away from dust. Alcohol if allowed to remain in 
the brushes, will cause them to grow brittle and break. 


Lustres may be put on in two ways. First, with the 
brush, with or without padding, and second, by the use 
of the dabber alone. 

Lustres are usually applied to any ordinary surface 
with a brush, and are only padded when an even tone is 
desired. In covering handles and similar surfaces, use a 
brush of a size suited to the space to be covered; that is, 
as large as can be conveniently used. Make no uncertain 
strokes. A prominent teacher once said, "spend three- 
fourths of your time studying what you want to do, and 
the remainder in doing it." The experimenter in lustres 
will not need to have the application made for him. 

In making a plate rim, begin by filling the brush, 
and with great freedom of movement put on stroke after 
stroke, carefully overlapping them so that an even tint 
is produced, and so rapidly that the place where the tint- 
ing begins is not dry before the end is reached. If it dries 
a hard heavy line is formed, which it is not possible to re- 
move by picking into it. It is better to take it off and 
begin again if this occurs. If it becomes necessary to re- 
move lustre, either a surface of some extent, or some small 
unevenness along an edge, do so with a cloth dampened 
with alcohol, not turpentine, as the latter will cause the 
lustre to crawl and will create a blemish which cannot 
often be remedied. Turpentine is the worst enemy of 
lustre, next to dust. When lustre is removed, see that 
not the slightest trace remains on the china, as the least 
particle will surely show when the piece is fired. 

It is sometimes easier to begin a plate rim, and after 
painting a short distance in one direction, to go back to 
where it began and paint the opposite way, repeating un- 
til the rim is covered. If a padded finish is desired the 
dabber may be used as the color is applied. In applying 
lustres do not allow bubbles to form but use the brush 
with positive, steady strokes, and be sure, before put- 
ting the work to dry, that no dust or hairs are adhering 
to it. These can sometimes be removed by dragging a 
clean brush into it. 

The brush may be used on all small surfaces and bor- 
ders without padding, unless a very delicate tint is desired, 
in which case a dabber may be used. 

Sometimes the brush work will look clouded before 
firing, but this uneven tone is no particular objection, 
especially in some dark color, as the kiln heat wiU proba- 
bly give it a smooth appearance. 

For a cup lining, pour six or eight drops of lustre 
into the cup bottom, and rapidly cover by aid of a brush. 
If a light tint is desired, and the cup bottom is small, a 
little dabber fastened to a stick may be used until an even 
tint is secured. This prevents the hand from injuring 
the lustre. 

For the lining of an orange or nut bowl, or any sim- 
ilar surface, pour in a sufficient amount of lustre to cover 
the part to be decorated, and with a large rather loosely 
made dabber dip into the lustre, and beginning at the cen- 
ter, rapidly cover the entire surface with a rotary motion, 
then with light padding go over the whole until the tint is 
perfectly even. Sometimes it is necessary to use a second 
dapper if the surface to be covered is large. The cotton 
used for the dabber should be covered with two thick- 
nesses of silk free from wrinkle or crease. If the silk is 
not thick the cotton is liable to be drawn through into the 
lustre and mar it. 

Repeated applications of lustre, thin, with firings be- 
tween, are much better than one heavy coat. 

As lustres dry so rapidly it is often advisable to add 
lavender oil or essence before applying to large surfaces, 
even when the lustre is moderately thin, so they will keep 
moist and open while the padding is being done. If not 
padded the additional medium will do no harm, but will 
enable the brush marks to melt together. 

Padding will lighten the tint, but a second, or even a 
third or fourth coat will be no objection, as each additional 
application, if thin, only serves to enhance its beauty by 
producing superb color effects, and a remarkable richness 
and depth of tone, especially where two or more colors are 
judiciously combined. 

A color may be applied over itself in a soUd tone, or a 




Design in silver lustre with strong black outline. Background of border a flesh tint, the lower parts 

and openings in soft warm grey. Same color scheme for inside 

design but more delicate tints. 



Color scheme: Bowl in Olive Greens, with background of border a deep Greyish Ochre; berries in dull Pink; 
leaves and stems, Olive Green; inside of bowl, dull Ivor\ with gold rim. 



desirable mottled effect may be obtained by firing a thin 
coat of lustre, preferably of a dark color, and for a second 
fire put splashes or wriggly marks here and there over the 
piece in an irregular manner, or perhaps only near the top 
and base. Or, make a thin flat tone for the first fire, then 
use the same lustre in the form of nasturtiums or other floral 
decorations, or conventionalized fruit, outlining the whole 
design, stems and aU, in colors or gold. Landscapes are 
efi"ective handled in the same way, but are even more desirable 
when treated in colors of lustre that will, by suggestion, 
appear more nearly the tones seen in nature. For skies 
and water a thin wash of blue gray will make a good color, 
or for any place where a neutral tone is needed. Yellow 
brown, yeUow brown over green, yellow green and green, 
may be used in these decorative landscapes, treating the 
whole in a flat manner, and outlining with black, or black 
and red. 

Decorative figures treated in a similar way are very 
attractive, also marines, and though the latter are difficult 
to handle they are usually interesting. 


Two or more lustres may be mixed together before 
applying, and new combinations are readily secured in this 
way. For instance, one drop of iridescent rose to six drops 
iridescent will make a pleasing change, fine for a combina- 
tion with pink roses, and similar mixtures may be produced 
at will. A gorgeous flame color metalhc elTect may be pro- 
duced by firing a good coat of liquid bright gold, and cover- 
ing with two moderately thick coats of ruby No i . If used 
as a lining where the china is somewhat crinkled, the effect 
will be greatly enhanced. Dehghtfully dainty effects may 
be produced by covering liquid bright gold with Fry's 
mother-of- pearl. When lustres are used over gold, either 
Roman or bright, the firing must be extremely light, or the 
gold will apparently absorb much of the lustre. 

Green is often used over gold to produce a metallic 
effect, and liquid bright gold may be mixed with the lustres 
if desired, before firing. Bright gold is a sort of lustre and 
may be treated as such. When of the right consistency for 
use it is thick enough to look rather dark when applied. 
If very light, wait a moment until it becomes a little thick- 
ened, then use. Dampness affects liquid gold in the same 
way as it does the genuine lustres. 

Lustre may be used over color or color over lustre, pro- 
vided the first to be applied is fired. It is usually more 
satisfactory to carry out a design in lustres with gold 
rather than with color. If used over color, the color must 
not be strong. Neither can lustres be used over dusted 
grounds, but only over delicate tints. When placed on 
heavy colors lustres do not glaze well. The eft'ect of lustre 
is always dulled by being placed over color, though a beau- 
tiful pearly pink lining may be produced by using mother-of- 
pearl over a fired coat of wild rose pink or pink 26. 

The general plan for putting on color of lustre over 
another is to put the light ones over the dark, not heavily, 
but with a sort of thin wash. A thick coat is liable to pro- 
duce a semi-opaque film, the opposite of the radiant bril- 
liancy desired, or it may come oft" in the form of a powdery 
white substance. 

Light colors over dark intensify and give greater irides- 
cence to the darker ones used first. Some of the pleasing 
color combinations, produced by putting one lustre over a 
previously fired one, are green over purple, light green over 
iridescent rose, green over ruby, light green over orange, 
and yellow over rose. These combinations may be success- 

fully combined with some plain lustre, using them in de- 
signs so they will contrast. An extremely fine effect is 
produced in four fires, by using alternate coats of light green 
and iridescent rose. 


Lustres may be used both over and under Roman 
gold, silver or platinum, but if used over them the metals 
must first be burnished. It is possible to put these over 
the unfired lustres if they are used rather thick so they will 
not spread, but this is not advisable. Gold is often used 
to cover defects in lustre, but an all-over design of gold on 
a broad lustre surface, similar to those shown as coming 
from German potteries, is very effective, and may be more 
so if enamels, particularly flat ones, are used with the gold. 
A decorative bit may be made by covering a small jug 
with a scraggly all-over design running from top to bottom, 
fining in with gold so that it will alternate with platinum or 
silver. After these are burnished cover the gold with ruby 
and the platinum with fight green, and for a finish cover 
the whole with one or two coats of opal, or with blue gray 
or yellow brown. 


When paste is to be used, put on the lustre, dry, then 
put on the paste before the piece is fired, being very care- 
ful that the paste does not quite touch the lustre, lest the 
turpentine used in the paste injure it. 

After firing the lustre may be retouched, but must 
not be allowed to get on the paste, as lustres discolor gold 
even if the paste is fired before the gold is put on, but 
lustres, gold and color may all be on a piece for one fire, if 
if they do not lap. 


Many designs are made in lustres and gold with color 
outlines. Draw such a design carefully with India ink, 
put in the lustre, and dry, carefully removing all traces 
of lustre from where it does not belong. Then put in the 
gold, dry again, and paint in the outhne. A syrup of sugar 
and water may be used with black in powder form for the 
outlines, which are to be painted twice before firing. Near- 
ly every design is improved by the addition of outlines of 
color or gold. 

Be careful that the inked design is carefully covered 
by the colors or gold, as otherwise the ink may eat out the 
lustre when fired and leave a blemish. 

It is often safer to paint in the outlines and fire, before 
attempting to use the lustres. 

Lustre to be at its best should touch the cliina. 

To those who are beginning the use of lustres, the 
following practical hints concerning common colors may 
be helpful. 

Rose is a good pink but is inclined to fire with a slight- 
ly lavender tone. Green, or yellow over rose produces 
mother-of-pearl effect. It is much used on Belleek wares 
but unless very thin will lose its delicacy. It combines 
well with peach, but is more pleasing when used with 
gold alone. 

Purple is a strong color, vers^ iridescent when two or 
more coats are used. 

Yellow Green is best described by its name. It har- 
monizes well with Apple Green, or Brown Green and Silver 

Gold used with "covering", produces a rich deep 
violet or ruby, according to the make, and is very effective 
with green. 





Ground Ivory with deeper band at top and base. Peacocks, pine needles, and back ground of border at base 

a delicate Peacock Green. Bands and outline Black or Gold. Dull Ochre with a touch 

of Red on heads, feet, eyes of tail and cones in lower border. 

HlFramic studio 

Iridescent Rose is a deep green blue, is improved bv 
using Light Green over it. 

Orange, thinly applied and well fired, is very satisfac- 
tory. Repeated coats will produce a deep tone. If used 
over iridescent rose it makes a fine bronze, while it pro- 
duces scarlet over ruby, and makes a green appear yellower. 

Yellow Brown is a pretty, soft color, harmonizing 
with Yellow Ochre and such contrasting colors as Green 
or Rose. Gold overlay designs are especially effective 
on this color. 

Platinum has an effect like a thin coat of gray, and 
combines with nearly every color. 

Black is particularly attractive with raised paste and 
jewels, as it has a golden gleam. It usually requires two 
or three coats. 

Yellow may be made dark or light as desired. With 
more than one coat it becomes iridescent and resembles a 
silver yellow. Many colors are improved by having a 
thin coat of yellow. To produce an oxidized silver effect 
use yellow over steel blue. 

Silver is a cold, heavy color, but is effective with a 
coat of ruby or orange over it. 

Bhie Gray is a fine blue if several coats are used, 
thinly applied is an excellent neutral color. 

Iridescent, Mother of Pearl and Opal are all attractive 
if successfully used, not always reliable as to uniformity 
of color, but possessing fine wearing qualities. Opals 
vary according to the make, from a delicate pearly shell 
like appearance, .to a grayish yellow satiny tone admirably 
suited for combination with greens. 


As soon as a piece is painted it should be immediately 
dried by a moderate fire, but not over dried as a fierce 
heat might injure it. It is advisable to put a painted 
piece on a plate or asbestos mat before putting into the 
oven or over an oil stove to dry, then it can be lifted from 
the fire without injury to it. As long as it is warm it will 
be sticky, but when cool will be hard and dry. 

Moisture on the china either before or after paint- 
ing, dust, lint or finger marks will appear -after firing irt 
the form of spots and blemishes, genuine "thorns in the 
side" to the lustre painter. 

Poor ventilation of the kiln may also cause spotting 
through dampness, and occasional spotting comes from 
a too liberal use of turpentine in the outlining, where the 
outline is not fired before the lustre is applied. Smoke 
in the kiln will ruin the brilliancy of colors. 

It is well to handle any unfired lustres with a silk cloth 
even if hard dried, and the piece should be wiped carefully 
before firing, with the same, lest a trace of dust may have 
adhered to it. 

Lustres usually require an ordinary hard fire, though 
some of them, noticeably orange and ruby, need to be 
fired extra hard. If a color shows mdications of rubbing 
off after firing, put on another coat of the same, and fire 
again. When orange, which must not be heavily applied 
rubs off, a thin coat of yellow will correct the mischief. 

Most lustres when too heavily painted, come oft' in 
the form of a flour or dust, or, in the case of orange, cause 
it to crackle. 

A soft fire will develop the color of most lustres, but 
a hard fire is necessary to secure good wearing qualities, 
so lustres should be placed near the bottom of rhe kiln 
except when on Belleek. If underfired, lustres will lack the 
pure clear tones sought for, and be cloudy in appearance. 

Lustres can be fired with other colors, but it is not 
advisable to fire them with a large quantity of liquid 
bright gold on account of the moisture arising from the 


If accidents occur which necessitate the removal 
of fired lustre. Aqua Regia may be used without taking 
into the lungs any of the fumes, which are injurious, or 
the common "eraser." 

The worker in lustres must learn to honestly crit- 
icise his own work, studying not only the manner in which 
lustres are applied, but whether the design used is suited 
to the article to be decorated, and the colors harmonious. 

The individuality of the artist may be developed, 
and inspiration gained, by a thorough study of lustres. 


Second Prize — Miss Sydney Scott Lewis, Georgetown, Ky. 

Lustre colors come put up in vials like liquid bright 
gold. They are nearly all before firing a yellow brown 
color, a few are grey. It is best to use them direct from 
the bottle unless they are too thick, in that case take 
out a little and thin it with lavender oil or the essence, 
the former preferred, never use turpentine. 

One of the most essential things for good use of china 
painting materials is cleanliness, especially is this so in 
the use of lustres, every speck of dust will show, and is fatal 
to a perfect result. One should wear when using them, 
a cotton gown. Brushes should be perfectly clean and 
fluffy. It is not necessary to keep a separate brush for 
every color. But it is well to have brushes to be used for 
lustres only and separate ones for yellow and rose. Vials 
should be tightly corked when not using,?as the liquid 
evaporates quickly and it insures from dust. Never 
change a cork from one vial to another as the slightest 
contact of one unfired color with another is liable to spoil 
the whole vial. Have the piece of china perfectly clean, 
just before putting on the lustre wipe off with alcohol 
and be sure the china is not damp. 

If a smooth even light tint is desired the color is put 
on with a large square shader, as rapidly as possible, then 
padded with a silk pad until smooth. If a large surface 
is to be covered one must work very rapidly as the liquid 
dries very fast. Heating the china before beginning will 
help to keep the color open, also thinning the lustre with 
lavender oil and some times breathing on it will help, 
if it begins to get sticky and dry before it is even. If it 
looks splotchy or pulls up from the china take it off and 
do it over, you can not patch unfired, dry lustre. And 
never depend on the firing to remedy a badly put on lustre 

Lustre is especially good on china that is fluted, or 
has broken surfaces and indentations. Do not try to pad 
the lustre in the indentations but let it stay as it goes on, 
it adds to the interest and brilliancy. 

Lustre is very effective put in with a large square 
shader and let to run as it will, thick here, thin there, 
especiall}^ so when the surface is not a large plain one, 
and when a dark metallic vibrating color is desired. 
Lustre can be put over color and color over lustre, but 
it is best to have the lustre, or color first fired. Lustre 
should never be put over a heav}^ tint or a dusted on color. 
If put on over a heavy outline of paint the paint will chip 
off. So in outlining in color on lustre, it is best to put 
in a thin outline of color mixed with sugar and water. 

i^ a 

^ ^ 









(Treatment page 235) 



then put on the lustre and when it is deep enough in color 
go over the outline for the last fire again and it will be all 
right. The outline if put on first with sugar and water 
will not be disturbed by the lustre as it or the medium 
will' not hurt the fresh outline. 

lyustre put on too heavy will rub off or crackle, espe- 
cially ruby and orange. Lustre can be removed with 
aqua regia or hydro-fluoric acid on a stick, the former is 
the better as it does not remove the glaze. 

Lustre over fired color has a mat effect. Lustre 
should be used only in conventional designs never in nat- 
uralistic. Bands of lustre with conventional designs in 
flat gold are very effective also bands of lustre with the 
design wiped out and the white china showing and an 
outline of gold. Or a gold band and a conventional 
design outlined on the gold in black and filled in by using 
the various lustres on the gold. 

To get dark metallic effects use two or three coats of 
the lustre and two or three fires. Dark Green, Light Green, 
or Yellow over Purple, Black or Ruby will give the most 
iridescent colors. Lustre over scoured gold will give a 
bronze effect. Used in connection with enamel or raised gold 
the lustre should first be fired. Gold and silver should 
always be burnished before using lustre over them. 
Lustre should be dried as quickly as possible to pre- 
vent the gathering of dust, in drying it artificially be 
careful not to dry it too hard, else it will turn dark and 
rub off. Color and lustre can be on the same piece at 
the same time provided the lustre does not run onto the 
. color. If unfired lustre is thoroughly dried, paste can be 
put on over it. 

A few words as to the firing of lustres. They stand 
any amount of fire. They should be put in the back of 
the kiln. Place flat pieces on edge and tall pieces head 
down to prevent dust settling. Have kiln perfectly dry. 
French china is more satisfactory than Belleek, Belleek 
will not stand hard enough fire and a strong heat causes 
the lustres to sink into the glaze and lose their brilliancy. 

Underfired lustres are dull but can be refired without 
retouching. Lustres do not enter into the glaze but stay 
on the surface like gold, hence a strong heat is ne<:essary 
to make them stay on. If che lustres come out spotted 
it is due to dust, finger marks or dampness of hands or 
kiln. Always handle lustres with an old silk handerchief 
and just before firing wipe off with one. And above all 
avoid finger prints. Some think lustres fired in the same 
kiln with painted colors affect the paint but my experience 
is that they do not. It is well to leave the little flap in the 
front of the kiln open for a time, if you have much lustre 
in. A kiln with fire clay muffle is best but a well white 
washed iron kiln gives good results. 

Dark green lustre put on and let to run as it will, then 
a design in raised paste covered with silver and fired in a 
kiln with an iron pot that is not well whitewashed produces 
the most beautiful effects I have ever seen in lustres. The 
light and dark greens and the ruby lights and the oxidized 
silver effect are truly beautiful. I have tried it again and 
again in a kiln with a clay muffle but with no beautiful 

Most of the lustres are transparent. The opaque 
lustres are: steel, black, silver, platinum, copper, and 
gold used heavily. 

Gold lustre alone is gaudy, fire first and then cover 
with covering for gold and the result is a rich ruby 
effect. It is also good combined with green or ruby 
used as a foundation coat, it saves gold. 

Silver lustre over fired color has a pretty frosted 
effect. It is useful to cover up defective tinted borders. 
A silver lustre background with a design in raised paste 
covered with gold is beautiful. Lnamels in combination 
with silver lustre are very attractive in conventional 
designs. Over silver, greens, ruby and violet it is very 
fine. Used on plain white china the effect is of old fash- 
ioned silver lustre. 

Dojk green lustre can be lightened before using by 
putting some yellow into it. 

Opal lustre and mother of pearl are not verv reliable 
and sometimes fire out entirely. 

Rose, if put on and fired just right makes a good 
pink, but it is very apt to come out a pinkish lavender. 
Yellow or white lustre over rose keeps it from rubbing 
off and the results are lovely. Rose fired too hard turns 

Light green put on too thin or fired too hard is yel- 
lowish. Green gold, bronze or silver used on it gives it 
a pink flush. It is good under violet, ruby, rose, purple, 
silver, in fact almost any color. Purple, put on heavy 
has a gold lustre. It spots easily. Is very good under 
dark green. Orange is a hard color to manage, if too thick 
it crackles and rubs off, yellow over it will fix it. Over 
ruby orange makes a beautiful scarlet, over greens and 
blues, olive tones. 

Brown is good in conventional work and for flesh 
tones. Copper is very expensive, best used under "cover- 
ing for gold" and over gold lustre. Ruby will crackle 
and rub oft' if too thick, a light coat of yellow will fix it, 
put on very thin it makes the most reliable pink. A 
thin coat of gold padded over fired ruby is lovely. There 
is no turquoise blue lustre, the nearest is Blue gray 
wyhich is good for decorative landscapes, figures, or flowers, 
fired too hard has a violet tone. Steel Blue painted on with 
a square shader and allowed to run thick and thin gives 
a most beautiful iridescent effect, peacock, blue green and 
ruby. Padded it is a grayish blue with pink lights, is 
very good for a back ground with light or dark green over 
it for second fire. An oxidized silver effect is obtained 
by using yellow over steel blue for second fire. Yellow 
when padded is a deUcatetint, several coats will give a 
pearly effect. Over orange it prevents rubbing off, is 
pretty over ruby and purple. Blended into rose you will 
get a blue effect. Iridescent Rose padded is pink and 
blue, changeable, with several coats it is greenish blue 
with rose lights. It spots very easily. Black lustre is 
verv useful, is best in several coats, has a golden brown 
sheen. These combinations are the ones that you will 
find given in most books on the subject of lustres, but 
then there are many and very beautiful combinations that 
one may make for oneself. There is always an element 
of chance in using lustres, you never know just what to 
expect and some of the results are very unexpected and 
charming. It is very interesting to experiment with the 
lustres and the golds and silvers with them. You rarely 
ever get any thing that is not lovely. Lustres are very 
effectively used on the unglazed ware. 

Keep yourself in the habit of drawing from memory. 
The value of memory-drawing lies in the fact that so much 
is forgoitenl In time we must learn to leave out in our 
finished pictures these things which we now leave out 
through ignorance or forgetfulness. We must learn what 
to sacrifice. — William Hunt. 









H. C. ter Meer. 
The banding wheel is one of the greatest time and 
labor saving devices used by the china decorator. But 
on account of the relatively high cost, very few amateurs 
possess one. This article is intended to show how a good 
wheel can be constructed easily and at a very low cost. 
The cost of the materials should not in any case exceed 
seventy-five cents, in most cases it will proJaably be con- 
siderablv less. 

BINDING Wheel.' 

The following materials are required — about six pounds 
of lead; this quantity is sufficient for a disk 7 inches in 
diameter and f" thick, (scrap lead from old lead pipe will 
do.) One strip of wood, preferably hard, f"xi^"xi8" 
long. One shallow tin cake or pie plate, having the same 
diameter as the desired disk. One 38 calibre short central 
fire cartridge shell with primer removed. Six inches of 
I" doweling. 

The disk is cast from lead in the following manner. 
Having obtained a tin plate about f " deep and of the desired 
diameter (seven inches is convenient size) paint the inside 
with a thick coat of whiting mixed with water and allow it 
to dry thoroughly. The whiting prevents the lead from 
adhering to the dish. When thorough^ dry, place the 
plate on a short piece of flat board placed on a level surface 
Be sure that the board on which the plate rests is level, 
as this will save time and labor later. Test with a level 
or another plate nearly full of water. If the board is not 
level, level it carefully by placing small wedges under it. 
Now proceed to melt the lead. This can be accomplished 
in a tin can without soldered joints or in any other suitable 
vessel. Skim the lead thoroughly and carefully pour it 
into the dry prepared plate. (If there is any water on the 
plate, when the lead is poured into it, an explosion will 
result, scattering the hot lead in all directions.) After 
the lead has solidified remove the disk from the plate, 
clean it thoroughly and also smooth the edges with fine 
sand paper. Now locate the center of the disk as exactly 
as possible and also select one surface for the top. Then 
drill a f" hole through the center of the disk just formed. 
If a metal drill is not at hand, an ordinary carpenter's 
bit may be used without damage to it. The disk is now 

ready to [be balanced. For this purpose a short round 
rod, say a piece of a piece of f inch doweling 3 inches long 
is thrust through the hole, so that an equal length of the 
rod projects on each side of the disk. The disk is now 
placed on parallel level edges about i^ inclies apart (for 
instance two books of the same height stood up on their 
ends,) in such a manner that the rod through the disk rests 
on the level edges as shown in Fig. 3. The disk will probably 
roll a little and then come to rest. If it does not roll, turn the 
disk slightly and see if it will remain in any position in 
which it is placed. When this is the case the disk is balanced 
If it does not remain in the position in which it is placed, 
mark the lowest point on the edge of the disk when it comes 
to rest. The disk is now scraped, filed or cut at this point 
on under surface. During this process the disk should 
be placed on the edges frequently, to test the balance. 
When the disk is balanced carefully force the cartridge 
shell into the hole in the disk from the top. This forms 
the bearing on which the wheel revolves. 

The base may be a piece of flat board 8 inches square 
and^l inches thick, or if a more pretentious base is desired, 
it can be constructed as shown in the drawing. It can be 
improved by fastening three round rubber knobs under 
it to serve as feet. The wood can be painted or stained 
and varnished as fancy may dictate. 

The disk revolves on a short piece doweling about 
i^ inches long glued in to the hole in the base. The pro- 
jecting end is sand papered smooth until it fits the cartridge 
shell easily. The rod may be lubricated with oil or vaseline. 
An improved bearing is shown in Fig. 2. 

51tt\. SVClCVt S 


Finally a series of concentric circles may be painted 

on the disk as an aid in centering the china. When using 

the wheel care should be observed that it does not revolve 

too rapidly, or the china will be thrown off. 

^ -f 



Jeanne M. Stewart. 
After sketching design, laj?^ in the background, .shading 
from Ivory Yellow to Blue Green and Shading Green. While 
the color is still open, wipe out design with clean brush, 
blending edges in shadow. Lights should be kept clear and 
white. Wash flowers in simply a mixture of Turquoise Green 
and light Violet of Gold; leaves of Yellow Green and Blue 
Green (light) with Olive, Shading and Brown Green in 
shadows, taking out high lights verj^ sharp and clear; Seed 
pods in Lemon Yellow, Yellow Ochre and Chestnut Brown ; 
shadow leaves in Grej^ for flower and Yellow Green. In sec- 
ond fire, work up design bj^ accenting shadows with same 
colors as in first painting, adding detail. For third fire, 
deepen background with Shading Green or Black Green, 
bringing color well over edges of design in shadow, blending 
softly into light tones with silk pad. When "color is almost 
dry and will not rub ofl', a fight dusting of powder color, with 
pad of cotton, will give depth and glaze. A few finishing 
accents may be added to leaves and flowers. 













Ground, a deep cafe au lait. Grapes and other black 
parts a rich greenish blue. Pomegranate and leaves in 
shades of olive, also part of seeds. Flowers and seed of 
pomegranate in shades of pink. Outline black. 







Mariam L. Candler. 

THIS gorgeous red flower should be treated in a decora- 
tive manner. 
First firing— Paint the whirl of red leaves with Blood 
Red, those in the foreground being a little lighter in color, 
for the httle green cup shapes in the center use Apple Green, 
modeling with Moss Green. The stamens are Albert Yel- 
low and Orange Red. For the leaves use Royal Green, 
Shading Green and touch of Black; shadow leaves Violet of 
Iron with a little Blue; for the stems use light wash of Moss 
Green, shade with Violet of Iron. Medium fire. 

Second firing — Powder on the back ground, using Ivory 
Glaze on the upper part gradually growing darker toward 
the bottom, using Yellow Ochre, Royal Green, and Shading 
Green. Clean out the flower and prominent leaves. 

Third firing — Retouch with same colors used in first 
firing, accenting when necessary. 

CRILLEY WILSON. (See Supplement.) 


THE United States Potters Association has made arrange- 
ments with the United States National Museum, 
Washington, D. C, for a permanent exhibit in the 
Ceramic Gallery, of representative wares from every pottery 
in the United States. From year to year the United 
States Potters Association will be allowed to deposit in 
this department samples of such wares as may be turned 
out by the American potters, in order to keep the exhibit 
up to date. 

A temporary exhibit will be made in the Lecture Hall 
of the Museum until February ist, 1906, and potters all 
over the country are invited to send representative ex- 
amples of their products to Dr. Richard Rathbun, As- 
sistant Secretary, United States National Museum, Wash- 
ington, D. C, charges collect, not more than half a dozen 
pieces, unless they are very small specimens, and no very 
large pieces. 

From this temporary exhibit specimens will be se- 
lected by competent judges and will form the nucleus of 
the permanent exhibition. All wares thus selected will 
become the property of the United States Government. 

For further information apply to Frank R. Haynes, 
Chairman Art and Design Committee, 1108 Decatur Street, 
Baltimore, Md. 


This border is pleasing in three tones'of green. Paint the flower and pistil in apple or moss green. The leaves in 

olive green (or a mixture of moss green and brown green.) Use dark or shading 

green for^the background. Outline carefully with outlining black. 














Under the vianagement of Miss Emily Peacock, Room 2j, 22 East i6tJt St., Neiv York, All inqtiiries in regard to the various 
Crafts are to be sent to the above address, but will be answered in the magazine under this head. 

All questions 7)iusi be received before the lOth day of month preceding issue and will be answered under ^'Answers to Inquiries" only. Please do nob send stampep 

envelope for reply. The editors will answer questions only in these columns. 


Mrs. Olaf Saugstad. 

EVEN a beginner without particular training, artistic 
or technical, may produce very pleasing and creditable 
work in flat carving if he will be content with broad 
and simple designs and treatment; but the moment the 
least modeling of the forms is attempted the problem is 
greatly complicated, and is quite another matter, requiring 
special training and genuine artistic feeling for the produc- 
tion of really good work. 

I am constantly impressed in the study of old carvings 
how often the earlier, more primitive work is so right 
and satisfying, all the limitations helping to that sim- 
plicity and directness that are so essential to good carving ; 
and how often they are not, as technical skill increased 
and the craftsman forced his material beyond its proper 
use in the delight of his prowess, with which his artistic 
development had not kept pace. 

It has been my experience, almost without exception, 
that the modern, adult beginner, being more sophisticated 
than the primitive one, wants to start where the skilled 
technician left off, and his usual ambition is to make a lit- 
eral representation of natural forms in the highest relief 

Now, though the Japanese, for instance, constantly 
use natural forms in carving they are never literal, and 
every bud and twig on the most simple and artless looking 
branch is there because it helps in spacing, balancing of 
masses, contrast of forms and harmony of lines. It is the 
subtlest and most difficult form of design, requiring con- 
summate art and skill, though to the untrained eyes it has 
the appearance of such ease and freedom. Neither is the 
execution ever literal, but is impressionistic in the best 
sense. Nature is used for ornament — not for botanical 
or zoological details. 

In modeled carving the eye should be able to seize at 
once the broad harmonies — the big plan of the design — 
and then should be held and charmed by the beauty of de- 
tail and appropriateness of finish; but detail must ever be 
secondary, and can in no wise compensate for lack of the 

The design should have continuity, rhythm, one sur- 
face playing into another as the theme is carried in music, 
the play of light and shade on the varying planes giving 
accent and depth, and all should be considered and planned 
for from the beginning. 

So, while it is not difficult — unfortunately — to make 
something showy and "effective," it can readily be seen 
that it takes adequate training and practice to design for 
and carve wood as it should be treated, and no sincere crafts- 
man could be satisfied with less, once he realized the ideal. 

People have a great love for carved wood and every 
piece, good, bad and indifferent, is cherished from genera- 
tion to generation — a thought that might make" the super- 
ficial hesitate and be a great incentive to the sincereVorker. 

As the stepsTtowards'modeled vcarving"^can 'not be 
taught by writing, I can only point the way and the quali- 
fications that seem to me necessary for the production of 
work of real quality. A course in design in connection 

with some simple clay modehng to give the realization of 
solid form that is so essential, with a natural love of wood 
and respect for its limitations; constant practice, and sharp, 
oh, very sharp tools! Simplicity, Directness, Restraint, 
are words that a carver might well cut deep in the face of 
his bench. 

Illustration No. 1. 

The carver should work with method. The tools in 
perfect condition, should be laid in front of him in regular 
order so that he can, without fumbling or distraction, pick- 
up mechanically the one he wants. The first steps are ex- 
actly as outlined in the chapter on flat carving — the design 
traced on and then outlined with the V tool and the back- 
ground taken out to the desired depth. Then the forms 
are blocked out in a large way with no attempt whatever 
at detail until the effect of the masses is obtained. This 
can be done with the rather flat gauges (always using the 
largest tools possible). The concave side is used for con- 
vex forms and the convex for hollowing" out. The work 
should be finished all over, step by step, to preserve the 
harmony of the whole, and it should be frequently exam- 
ined from a little distance to get the effect of light and 

There should be a definite idea to work towards, else 
the result may be confused and over-worked, losing all 
crispness and freshness. Some teachers recommend the 
use of a carefully finished clay model, and others object to 

Illustration No. 2. 



it on the ground that the processes and materials are so 
different — one plastic, flexible, the other soHd and tough; 
one being built up, the other cut down. I think perhaps 
a happy medium is a " sketch ' ' in the clay, giving the re- 
lation of surfaces and general effect. Used in this way 
there is no danger of elaborating the model in the facile 
clay beyond the point it should go in the wood; and it will 
be of great help to those who have not sufficient experience 
to enable them to know what the effect will be of a finished 

Illustration No. 3. 

It is helpful, and usually a saving of time in the end, 
to try a portion of the design on a piece of pine or waste 
wood till the exact treatment desired is obtained. 

Tool marks should help explain the form by their 
character and direction, just as the strokes of a brush do 
in painting; they then have beauty and significance. The 
degree of finish with the tools is of course dependent on the 
size of the piece, the texture of the wood, the position it 
is to occupy and the delicacy of the detail. I hardly need 
say that the use of sandpaper on carving is counted by 
good craftsmen as little less than a crime. 

I would like to again refer the student to the list of 
helpful books which was published in the May number, 
all of which contain suggestions of real value. Illus. i 
and 2 show the steps in modcHng. Illus. 3 is from the 
course in wood carving of the Tokio University, as pub- 
lished by Chas. Hohne. The careful grouping, the simpli- 
fication of the forms, and the concave background giving 
greatest relief where most needed, are all suggestive. Illus. 
4 is from an old English Gothic carving and shows well how 

the main fines should dominate, and the structural unity, 
yet it is very simple both in design and execution. 

Illustration No. 4. 


Some extremists do not believe in putting any sort 
of finish on carved wood, save the poHsh left by the clean 
cut of the tools, and well sharpened tools do leave a beau- 
tiful satiny gloss. But this is not practicable in our cH- 
mate, and our generally overheated houses. Wood is a 
porous material, pecuharly susceptible to changes in the 
atmosphere, and it wifi shrink in dry weather and expand 
in moist, and unless the shrinkage and expansion are very 
slow and even there is danger of splitting, cracking and 
warping no matter how well seasoned it was to begin 
with. Consequently, the problem is to find such a finish 
as will close the pores to these outside influences, enrich 
the color and still preserve the beauty of fine tool work. 
To begin with color, there are very few woods that 
are not greatly improved by a deepening and enriching of 
the natural tone. Even holly and white mahogany are, 
I think, improved by a mellower tint. 

Water stains are, of course, out of the question, as they 
raise the grain and roughen the surface. Oil stains are 
not very satisfactory because the color is more freely ab- 
sorbed in the end grain, which gives a patchy eft'ect, imless 
the whole is made very dark. 

Oak may best be darkened by fuming and oiling. 
The finished piece is shut in an air tight box or closet — 
strips of paper may be pasted over cracks — with two or 
three shallow dishes of concentrated ammonia, as strong 
as can be gotten. It can be left one, two, or three days 
according to the depth desired. It will not appear much 
darkened until it is oiled. The oil — three parts boiled 
linseed and one of turpentine — should be well rubbed in 
and carefully wiped off, so that it will not settle on the sur- 
face. When perfectly dry, it can be waxed with thin 
wax, also well rubbed in and gently polished, when dry, 
with a fine brush. 

The wax is made by melting beeswax in an earthen- 
ware vessel on the back of the stove. When licjuid 
it should be taken away from the fire, and an equal quan- 
tity, or a little more of turpentine stirred in. When cold 
it should be of the consistency of soft butter. It is ap- 
plied to the carving, which should be the temperature 
of a warm room, with a short fine brush, a little bit at a 
time, and well rubbed in. 

Mahogany, unless very light to begin with, grows 
gradually darker and darker with just the oil and 
wax finish. Walnut is best finished with oil and wax 
and so is cherry. With this finish they all grow darker 
and mellower. The natural color can be retained by us- 
ing a thin coat of white shellac rubbed down very care- 
fully with a fine short brush dipped in oil and very fine 
powdered pumice. A coat of wax can then be applied 
and polished. 

Pine takes oil stains pretty well. Burnt Umber, 
ground in oil, and mixed in the oil and turpentine will 
make a good brown of any degree. It can be made more 
reddish by adding burnt sienna. 

A mixture of burnt umber and medium chrome green 
makes a good bronze tone,, and the green merely modified 
with the brown is very agreeable on some pieces. 

The Japanese frankly paint nlucli of their carving in 
many colors, a practice I would not like to recommend 
to anv but an artist of infallible taste. 




Once a year there is a pilgrimage of lovers of beautiful 
handiAvork to Deerfield, Mass., to worship at the shrine of 
the Deerfield Arts and Crafts Society. Every Summer the 
bus}^ workers of the town put their handicraft on view, and 
then stand back out of sight while visitors admire and praise. 
The remarkable feature of the Deerfield industries is that 
the handiwork is taken up in leisure moments, and is not 
the principal business of the workers. Everybody in the 
village, from the farmer's wife to the village physician, has 
a hand in it, but no one ' 'makes a business' ' of this handi- 
work. Each does what he or she can do best or most con- 
veniently, gathering together occasionally for a discussion of 
the best methods or to work more sociably. Membership 
in the society merely pledges one to put forth the best work 
of which she or he is capable, and the results have been so 
praiseworthy that Deerfield has now become famous for its 
industries and its work has gone all over the country. 

It is a sleepy little town, with handsome old elms and a 
tragic history of Indian massacres which give the name of 
Bloody Brook to the stream which runs through it. Its life 
is simple, and because of this it has been very easy to guide 
its people back to the handiwork of their forbears. The 
good wives took quickly to reproducing the old blue and 
white embroideries of the Colonial days and the men were 
easily inspired to copy the old-fashioned carved bride chests. 

There is some sort of industry for every one. The elderlv 
women engage in rag carpet making, and it is mainly through 
their efforts that the rag rugs have been held in such high 
esteem once more. They show a great deal of skill in arrang- 
ing the colors and the utmost nicety in the weaving. There 
are about a dozen women engaged in this, and they dye the 
rags themselves and weave with a hand loom. 


The vihage blacksmith plays his part, for he has been 
inspired to do some superior forge work, and now turns out 
most artistic andirons. One woman has made tufted bed- 
spreads which are so dainty and substantial as to be much in 
demand. The village physician proudly exhibits a cherry 
high-boy, handsomely carved, which has been the work of 
his off moments during the Winter. Another set of workers 
is busy on palm leaf baskets. The women who are making 
these baskets are the young women who braided hats before 
the civil war. There are others who find work in raffia and 
grasses more to their Hking, mostly young women, the 

daughters of the farmers. Netting for coverlids is the 
specialty of a very few, and some engage in making 
bayberry dips. 

Every one does what he or she likes best and at a time that 
suits best. The workers are not employed by a company, 
and, while their work is generally sold eventually, no big 
effort is made to dispose of it, and the profit of the sale 
comes directly to the worker. 

Mrs. M. y. Wynne of Chicago, who lives in Deerfield in 


the Summer, claims membership in the Deerfield society, 
and makes and exhibits there, curious and beautiful metal 
work. There are settings of precious stones, pebbles, and 
shells in metals of curious and individual design, beaten or 
fused or minutel}^ wrought, with copper, silver, and gold 
chains for necklaces and pendants; rings, brooches, and 
charms. Original and artistic book bindings are exhibited 
by a Deerfield daughter. 

The Deerfield industries all had their origin in the Blue 
and White Society, which was started eight years ago bv 
Miss Margaret Whiting and Miss^EHen Miller. They became 
interested in the many Colonial embroideries to be found 
in the town, and began to copy them for their own pleasure. 
In a short time they interested other women of the village 
and outlying farms in the work, and the society was founded. 
The old embroideries were found mostly in the shape of 
bed curtains, bedspreads, and window curtains, but the 
society added table squares and doilies. This Blue and 
White Society uses imported white linen thread, which is 
dyed, skein by skein, in the old-fashioned way, by an old 
woman who has learned the recipe of the old-time dyeing. 
Any extra time she employs in the old-fashioned netting. 
The designs for this blue and white work are drawn by Miss 
Miller and Miss Whiting, and then handed over to the memb- 
ers of the society to embroider. 

Soon it was decided that there was other Colonial handi- 
craft which could be copied, until, little by little, the Deerfield 
Arts and Crafts Society grew up, with all its industries. 
There is an unwritten law that these crafts shall be only fire- 
side industries, and the aesthetic benefit which comes to 
the workers is said to be quite as valuable as the commercial 
benefits. — New York Times. 



Illustration No. 1. 


Madge E. Weinland. 

THE accompanying illustrations No. i and 2 show the 
top view and side view of a fine-roll basket woven in 
the brown and natural raffia. The stitch is the same as 
was explained in the Keramic Studio, September, 1904, 
but the roll is very much finer, or in other words, smaller. 
To make the design, carefully study the following brief in- 
structions, referring to the photographs as necessary. 

After the bottom is woven in brown, and of the desired 
size, weave the lower half of the side (eleven rolls) of brown 
and at the twelfth roll start the Grecian border (see photo- 
graph) . The size of the border will depend on the circum- 
ference of the basket, at this point, but whatever the size 
of the basket, it must be so divided that the designs and 
spaces between are equal. In Illus. No. i. the design 
is clearly shown and by careful study, and having read 
the above mentioned number of the Keramic Studio, 
the work may be accomplished with ease. There should 
be twenty-one rolls of brown raffia before weaving the 
upper half of white with brown design, the twenty- 
first roll being brown all the way around. 

The work should again be so divided as to weave in 
three designs, as shown in the illustrations. The three 
vertical lines are in the center of each design. The first 
roll of natural raffia is broken only at the three vertical 
lines in the design. Continuing, the order and number 
of the rolls in the white or upper half will be as follows: 

Roll two — Brown and white. 

Rolls three and four — White except where crossed by 
brown lines as shown. 

Roll five — White with short brown lines. 

Illustration No. 2. 

Rolls six and seven — Similar to three and four. 

Roll eight— Similar to five. 

Rolls nine and ten — Nearly full white. 

Roll eleven— Brown with some white, similar to two. 

Rolls eleven to seventeen inclusive— Similar to rolls 
two to eight. 

Rolls eighteen and nineteen — Full white, crossed by 
vertical brown lines. 

(At this point the rolls have been turned toward the 

^i? center.) 

Rolls twenty to twenty-five inclusive — Similar to 
two to eight. 

Roll twenty-six — White crossed by five vertical brown 
lines at three points. 

Rolls twenty-seven and twenty-eight — Full rolls of 

Roll twenty-nine — Marginal roll, full brown. 

As the size of the basket has not been fixed, the dimen- 
sions of the design can not be given. The size of the basket 
illustrated, however, is six and one-fourth inches in diam- 
eter at the bottom, eight and one-fourth inches in diam- 
eter at the starting point of the border. The extreme 
outside diameter is eleven inches, being at a point three 
and three-fourths inches above the bottom. The diam- 
eter of the opening in the top is seven inches, and the 
total height is four and one-half inches. 


C. W. p. — You do not say what kind of glazes you wish to use, bright 
or mat. If you wish ordinary bright glaze for your pottery you might try 
the lead glazes, ready prepared, sold by P. F. Drakenfeld & Co., Park Place, 
New York, and if they suit you, you can mix a lead glaze yourself according 
to formulas given in any book on pottery, modifying these to fit your body. 
If you want mat glazes, try some of the mat glazes for low temperature given 
by Prof. Binns, in the article we have published in Keramic Studio, Nov- 
ember 1904. Impossible to give you a formula for glaze, not knowing what 
your body is, you must do some experimenting yourself. 
'^ «^ 


J. M. — We have heard that gas kilns have been run satisfactorily with 
a gasoline attachment but do not know of any kiln built for gasoline, write 
to the manufacturers of gas kilns, both Fitch and Wilkie, they will probably 
be able to give the desired information. 

G. M. A — There are a number of good books on design, we would rec- 
ommend "Composition" by Arthur Dow. Another good book is Batchelder's 
Principles of Design which we can order for you if you wish. 

Mrs. E. S. — Pompadour and all the iron reds are very liable to rub off 
if underfired. If other things painted with the same colors in the same kiln 
came out glazed we would be inclined to think that the unsatisfactory pieces 
were in the coolest part of the kiln and were not sufficiently fired. Moisture 
in the kiln might have the same effect of leaving colors with a dull unglazed 
appearance but the top pieces would show the effect most. 
K- G. R. — If you have La Croix colors you certainly should use them and 
replace the colors with corresponding powder colors only as the tubes be- 
come exhausted, if the colors are hard they may be rubbed down on a ground 
glass palette by adding first a little spirits of turpentine to dissolve them, 
tlien add a little medium (six drops oil of copaiba to one of oil of clove.s) or 
if you wish to tint, add fat oil of turpentine till the color is of the original 
consistency of tube colors, then thin with oil of lavender. Back numbers of 
Keramic Studio can be obtained with the exception of about a dozen of 
the earlier numbers which are out of print. The numbers containing the 
Class Room instructions would be very valuable to a beginner. This depart- 
ment opened in the October number and will continue until every line of 
overglaze decoration has been touched upon. The powder colors may be 
mixed and used with tube colors; any colors which may be called for in a 
design you may wish to duplicate can be purchased from time to time and 
added to your palette. You will find all necessary instructions in regard 
to colors in the October Class Room, "A Color palette and its use." "Dusting" 
means brushing powder colors over half dry painted color to give depth and 
brilliancy For strawberries in La Croix colors, use Pompadour (not Rose 
P.) or if you haven't it use Carnation I, Warm Grey (for shadow berries,) 
Mixing Yellow, Apple Green, Grass Green, Brown Green, Deep Blue Green, 
(for high lights) ; for stronger touches, if necessary, add Ruby Purple. 




Sarah Reid McLaughlin. 

China. Paint lilies injGrey for White Roses. Use 
Rosa for red spots strengthened in second firing with Amer- 
ican Beauty. Leaves in usual greens with some Yellow 
Brown washes strengthened with Sepia on tips of some leaves. 

Paint in background leaves while ground is wet, 
keeping them in soft tones. Paint the background in 
soft grey greens running into grey blue. Anthers Yel- 
low Brown strengthened with Auburn Brown. In second 
firing strengthen color, adding details. 

Water Color. Shade the lilies with a delicate 
grey made of Rose Madder and Emerald Green, leaving 
paper for high lights. 

As the lilies deepen in color towards the centre use 
Rose Madder, for shadow color use Rose Madder and 
Cobalt. In centre of each petal will be found a pale yel- 
low green vein or dividing line. 

For spots use dashes of Rose Madder and Burnt 
Carmine. Background a soft green running into a deli- 
icate grey blue. 

Greens, use Lemon Yellow, Emerald Green, Hooker's 
Greens, Prussian Blue, Payne's Grey. 

Paint background leaves with colors used in back- 
ground strenghtened with additional greens. Make washes 
of Indian Yellow and Sepia on tips of some leaves. Paint 
anthers in Indian Yellow, Sepia and Van Dyke Brown. 
Let stems fade into background color. 

Mrs. T. McLennan will teach in Chicago during the 
three weeks beginning February 3rd. Apply to A. H. 
Abbott & Co., 151 Wabash Ave. 

Lar^e Variety of New Designs 


In Choicest Selection of White Ware for Decorating 

i^ First in design 

t Finest in quality- 

Factory founded 1797 

Limoges China 







Table Ware and Fancy Pieces 






The thousands of these Kilns in use testify to 
their Good Qualities. 



No. 2 Size 14 X 12 in.. 


No. 3 Size 16x19 in 40.00 

Write for Discounts. 

The only fuels which give perfect results in 

Glaze and Color Tone. ^^^^^- - ^^>-°^^'^' 

I ^,., . /No. 1 Size 10x12 in $15.00 

> Gas Kiln 2 sizes \ i, t o e- -ta 1 o • o/-. nn 

) Charcoal Kiln 4 sizes No. 2 Size 16 x 12 m 20.00 

JNo. 3 Size 16x15 in 25.00 

\No. 4 Size 18x26 in 50.00 



Springfield, Ohio 






White China 
I for Decorating 





If you want the best Quality^ Shapes, Results 
in Firing 



♦ New Catalogue just issued, will be sent on application. Goods must ♦ 

4 be ordered through nearest local dealer. ^ 


I Endemann ^ Cburchill 

t 50 Murray St. 

New York ♦ 



For Firing Decorated China, Glass Etc. 

"More easily and eco- 
nomically fired than 
any China Kiln 






















I Marschin^ 

Roman Gold i 



Gold for China Painting 






Other Golds have come and gone, but Marsch- ♦ 

ing's Gold still holds its place as the ♦ 

best Gold on the market. i 

I ...AJ L^^rA^S UNIFORM... I 
. ^=— — ^— = I 


X If you want your Gold work to last, use Marsch- ^ 

♦ ing's. Have no other. 

♦ ♦ 


&C0. ' 



♦ K^ VJ\J» 108 Lake Slreel. ♦ 


♦ « 



Colors, Enamels 
and Gold for China 



Tl Mr. Bischoff will teach in Seattle, Wash., 

beginning February 12th, at Mrs. A. 

Shepard's Studio, 418 Boston Block, 

Second Avenue. 
][ Summer Classes at Dearborn Studio from 

June ist, until August ist. 






[ The entire contents of this Magazine are colfered by the general copyright, and the articles must not be reprinted '\t>Hhoai special permission. ] 



League Notes 

The Class Room — Lustres continued 
' Decorative Study of "Wistaria 

Study of Shells and Sea Weeds 

Bowl, Wistaria Motif 

Designs for Jar, etc.. Wistaria Motif 

Toilet Set in Violets • 

Bonboniere, Vase and Borders 

Hollyhock—Fifth Prize 

Study of Shells 

Flaming Bush 

Conventionalized Florentine Design 

Fall Anemone 

Basque Flowers 

Stork Border for Stein 

Western Anemones 

Acorn Borders 

Porridge Set 

Wild Carrot Border 

Beech Nuts 

Blue Bell Cup and Saucer 

Tea Tile 

Childrens' Bowls in Blue and White 

The Crafts- 
Working in Leather 
Suggestions for Leaded Glass 
Answers to Inquiries 

Treatment for Phlox Study (Supplement) 

Answers to Correspondents 

Belle Barnett Vesey 

Marie Crilley Wilson 
Henrietta B. Paist 
M. C. Wilson 
M. C. Wilson 
Fdith Alma Ross 
Minna Meinke 
Minna Meinke 
Henrietta B. Paist 
Henrietta B. Paist 
D. M. Campana 
Russell^ Goodwin 
Maud E. Hulbert 
Henrietta B. Paist 
Emma A. Ervin 
Hannah Overbeck 
Nancy Beyer 
Alice Witte Sloan 
Alta Morris 
F. A. Rhead 
Florence E. Segs worth 
Alice Witte Sloan 

Winifred Wilson 

Paul Putzki 













255 to 257 


Some Leading Agencies of Keramic Studio 

We take pleasure in mentioning a few of the leading agencies for the sale 
of the Keramic Studio, where, also, subscriptions may be placed: 

Boston, Mass.— Miss E. E. Page, 286 Boyslton St.; Smith & MeCance, 

Old Comer Book Store. 
Brooklyn — A. D. Mathew's Sons, Fulton Street. 
Buffalo— Mrs. Filkins, 609 Main Street. 
Chicago — A. H. Abbott & Co.; A. C. McClurg & Co.; Brentano's; Burley 

Cincinnati— Miss M. Owen, 245 Elm Street; A. B. Closson, 110 W. 4th St. 

Traxel & Maas, 4th Street, near Elm. 
Cleveland, Ohio — Vinson & Korner, 150 Euclid Ave. 
Columbus, Ohio— Lee Roessler, 116 So. High Street. 
Denver, Colo.— H. R. Meminger, 409 16th Street. 
Detroit, Mich.— L. B. King & Co.; Art China Co. 
Hartford, Ct.— E. M. SUl. 
Grand Rapids, Mich— Miller, Wolfe Co. 
Indianapolis, Ind. — Keramic Supply Co., Lemcke Building. 
Kansas City. Mo. — Emery, Bird, Thayer Co.; Geo. B. Peck Co. 

Minneapolis, Minn.— Minn. Art China Co., 607 1st Ave. So.; Elizabeth 

Hood, 18 W. 6th St., St. Paul, Minn. 
New York City — Brentano's, Union Square; M. T. Wynne's, 11 E. 20th 

St.; The Fry Ait Co., 11 E. 22d St.; Wanamaker's; American News Co.; 

J. B. Ketcham, 107 W. 25th Street. 
Newark, N. J. — Keramic Novelty Co. 
Oakland, Cal. — Smith Bros. 
Omaha, Neb. — Megeath Stationery Co. 
Philadelphia — Wanamaker's. 
Pittsburgh, Pa.— Otto Schaffer & Bros.; Kurtz, Langbein & Schwartz, 

R. S. Davis & Co., 346 Fifth Ave.; John G. Yergan, 420 Penn Ave. 
San Francisco— Mrs. M. E. Perley, 207 Post Street. 
St. Louis— F. Weber & Co.; A. S. Aloe & Co., Erker Bros Optical Co. 
Syracuse— Wolcott Book Shop; Welch & HoUingsworth; W. Y. Foote: 

A. L. Vaxney & Co., 336 S. Salina Street. 
Toronto — ^The Art Metropole. 
Washington, D. C. — Wood & Lothrop. 

The Magazine may also be ordered from any news dealer or book store 
in this country, who can procure it through the American News Company. 
New York, its branches, or at the office of 

Keramic Studio Pub. Co., 108 Pearl St., Syracuse, N. Y. 

Vol. VII, No. n 



HE March competition has been ,a 
most gratifying one. The decor- 
orative studies were of such ex- 
cellence and the conventionaliza- 
tions so interesting that the de- 
cision in regard to prizes was most 
difficult. An extra prize was found 
necessary as five of the competitors 
were so much above the average, 
the awards were as follows : 
First prize, S20.00 — -Mary Overbeck, Cambridge City, 

Second prize, $15.00 — Marie Crilley Wilson, South 

Orange, N. J. 
Third prize, $10.00 — Hannah Overbeck, Cambridge 

City, Indiana. 
Fourth prize, $7.00 — Ophelia Foley, Louisville, Ken- 
Fifth prize. $5.oc)^Minna Meinke, Rockville Center, 

The first Prize study of zinnias would do credit to 
any professional. In composition it was good and the 
execution and color scheme was not only interesting as 
being quite different in method from any work heretofore 
submitted, but was most satisfying as a color harmony 
and a poetic rendering of the subject which in nature would 
seem to the ordinary observer as a rather stiff and harsh 
subject to arrange. The conventionalizations were ex- 
cellent and appropriately arranged on good ceramic forms. 
This study will be given later as a color supplement accom- 
panied by the applications to ceramic shapes. 

The second prize, study of wistaria by Marie Crilley 
Wilson, was perhaps the finest in greys of any of the work 
submitted, especially fine were the applications to ceramic 
forms. The color drawing while good in composition and 
pleasing in color, had not the strength nor character of 
the first prize but will make an attractive color study later. 
The third prize, study of hydrangea by Hannah 
Overbeck, was good in composition and excellent in color 
and will also be reproduced as a color study. The conven- 
tionalizations were unusually good and well applied 

The fourth prize, study of Calla lily, by Ophelia Foley, 
was perhaps a little finer in composition than the third 
prize and the color was simple and pleasing. This will also 
be given as a color study. The conventionalizations 
were, however, not given sufficient thought. 

The fifth prize, study of hollyhocks, was pleasing 
in color but crudely drawn; the conventionalizations were 
better than those of the fourth prize. 

It will be seen fromfthis recapitulation, that there 
was much balancing for and against before the decision 
could be made. But we think that they were most 
justly settled. 

While we are gratified to see our old and faithful 
workers take|the prizes^we would be glad to see more new 
workers enter the field, but designers are not made in a 
day and we are thankful to see even one new and promis- 
ing recruit in a competition. 


The color study for June will be the single yellow 
wild rose b}^ Ida M. Ferris. It is proposed to fih the June 
number with roses, naturalistic studies, decorative and 
conventionalized applications. For furtherance of this 
plan the competition has been arranged as follows : 

Naturalistic study of Roses, wild or cultivated, arranged 
in panel 8 x 10 inches, black and white wash drawing. 
This must be accompanied by explicit directions for exe- 
cution in mineral colors. First prize $8.00. Second-prize. 
$5- 00 

Decorative study of Roses, wild or cultivated, arranged 
in panel 8 xio inches, black and white wash drawing. 
This must be accompanied by color scheme and applica- 
tion to some tall ceramic form. First prize $12.00 Sec- 
ond prize $8.00. 

Salad set, bowl and plate, motif conventionalized. 
Rose, wild or cultivated, black and white wash drawing 
to be accompanied by a section in color and careful di- 
rections for execution in mineral colors. First prize $10.00 
Second prize $6.00 


Problem 4. Conventional border for a dinner plate 
with rim. 

In last vear's problems, a ten inch plate with rim 
was specified. It was almost impossible to procure this 
exact size, as in the different factories the so called ten 
inch plate varies from nine and three quarters to ten and 
one quarter inches. What we wanted then, and what we 
want now, is the largest sized dinner plate, the decoration 
of which will be the unit of design for an entire dinner service. 

Do not make an all-over design, as only a border is 
called for; and do not use a coupe plate. An}^ natural forrii 
can be used as a motif. 

Problem 5. A panel, 7x9 inches, with natural decor- 
ation. That, we will leave for pupils to solve alone, only 
insisting upon original treatment. 

Problem 6. Wihetts' Belleek bowl number 11. Decor- 
ation to fit the form. Choose any subject, make a repeated 
adaptation; or a design to fit the shape, either border or all 
over. These two problems must be submitted in March, 
as the month of April will be needed to finish and send to 
the exhibition in May. If preferable the Plate border can 
be sent on or before the 17th, and the Bowl between the 
1 7th and 3Tst of March, or both can be mailed together. We 
promise careful criticisms, any time before the first of April. 
Letters giving explicit directions about the exhibition will 
be mailed to members ; and all inquiries relative to League 
work promptly answered. 

Miss Ophelia Foley, Owensboro, Ky., was gladly re- 
ceived into the League at the last Advisory Board meeting 
Belle BarnETT Vesey, Pres. 
6228 Wabash Ave., Chicago, Iff. 




Subject for April, "Firing." Contributions must be 
received by the eighth of the preceding month. Prizes as 


LUSTRES— (Continued) 

Third Prize— Ella F. Adams, Yellow Springs, Ohio. 

[extracts only] 

ONE rule should always be borne in mind in using 
lustres : never use turpentine with them since it turns 
all lustres a purplish hue. 

For a piece where color effects alone are desired, try 
painting from greens into yellows, then into rose, blend- 
ing with a dabber if absolutely necessary, and working 
rapidly. Over this, after firing, some delicate yellow or 
blue grey or green can be painted to blend into a har- 
monious whole. 

Try a marine on some small flat china surface. I 
would advise a separate brush for every color here, as well 
as in the color effect just mentioned, for this is work 
that should be done directly from the vials, if possible, 
without the addition of lavender oil, unless an extremely 
delicate tint is desired. Clean the china with alcohol and 
start in with broad sweeps of grey blue for the sky, shad- 
ing into delicate yellow at the horizon, with light green 
lustre for the sea. Do not go over lustre after it is ap- 
plied and work rapidly. In these effects it is a case of 
"he who hesitates is lost." 

Often a silk dabber can be used to lighten the effect at 
the horizon line and blend the colors, but use it sparingly, 
learning to vary the depth of color with different brush 
strokes. For these effects use as large a shader as is prac- 
tical to expedite the work. 

A moonlight marine is very effective with a crescent 
moon. The light upon the water is secured by filling in 
with india ink the places needed for the reflected light, be- 
fore painting in lustre. India ink does not take lustre, 
so in a second firing the piece can be painted with a coat of 
light yellow or some delicate green, which gives the moon- 
light effect on the water, a delicate shimmer. 

This is only a dim suggestion for the many land and 
water effects that can be secured by a judicious use of lus- 

Beautiful effects are obtained in conventional work by 
filling in the design with lustres and outlining with gold or 
black. Since lustre is liable to creep a little and smce its 
cream color makes it hard to detect this, cover well with 
india ink places where lustre is not wanted. This will 
secure an even edge in designs. 

Unique effects are produced by using white enamel 
upon the unfired lustre. The white enamel in firing turns 
a delicate pink, with the thinnest parts of the enamel the 
deepest pink. So model the design with this in view. 
Small flowers (hawthorne, fruit blossoms, lace flower, &c.) 
or a flight of birds as a motive for the enamels, make very 
decorative pieces in this effect. The enamel should be 
modeled with one stroke if possible, since it must never be 
worried. After firing the enamel can be colored should it 
prove too glaring a white in places. 

In applying enamel always bear in mind that the lus- 
tre, whether fired hard or unfired, tends to give it a pinkish 

Dull metal effects are produced by using lustre over 
some mat color, gold added to the mat color adding to its 

Minton Green, Mat Ivory, Mat Purple, in fact any of 
the unglazed colors give a good ground for a dull eft'ect in 
lustres. Minton Green dusted, one part Minton Green 
and one part powder gold, produces a dull greenish gold. 
Upon this apply some design in green or red lustre, and 
outline in black or gold. This gives an artistic combination 
of dull green and red (red, where the lustre is applied) . 

Mat Ivory is good ground for a raised gold design filled 
in with rose lustre, which gives a rich metallic red when 
fired. In fact most of the lustres are red in effect whenfired 
over mat colors, hence a combination of lustre colors over 
a mat surface is almost always sure to harmonize, the 
various lustres giving different depths of this rich red 

Since the lustres come in small vials that easily tip 
over, perforate the top of a shallow box with holes the size 
of the vials, and put in the lustres. This prevents the pos- 
sibility of upsetting. 

It is a good plan to wrap the china in tissue paper im- 
mediately after decorating, since this protects it from the 

Lustre can be used over fired gold or vice versa, neither 
affecting the brilliancy of the other and often adding to it. 

The lighter colors, yellows, greens, &c. are the least 
liable to show dust spots. 


Orange over ruby — ^bright red. 
Orange over rose — rich brown red. 
Orange over iridescent rose — bronze. 
Orange or green over iridescent rose — brilliant irides- 
cent effect. 
Yellow over black or purple — dark iridescent effect. 
Yellow over rose — opalescent effect. 
Yellow over blue grey — -a shimmery tone. 
Yellow over steel blue — dull silver. 
Yellow blended into rose — blue. 
Brown over orange — rich red brown. 
Iridescent rose over brown — dark iridescent tone. 
Purple over brown or green — dark iridescent tone. 
Green over rose — greenish opalescent effect. 
Special green over steel blue — greenish blue. 
Steel blue over steel blue — peacock color. 
Blue grey over blue grey — beautiful blue. 
Green over black — dark iridescent tone. 
Rose over liquid gold— bright metallic effect. 
Any lustre over Roman gold — a bronze tone. 


Yellow over mat Black and gold — bronze. 
Green over mat Purple and gold — rich lustrous purple 
suitable as a frame or setting for grapes or other rich 
green or purple decoration. 
Green or red over Minton Green — metallic red. 
Special green over Cerulean Blue and gold — rich dark 

Lustres at one time were put up in powder colors, 
and in looking over an old stock of bargains I found a 
variety of powder lustres, which when well ground with 
lavender oil, gave some very satisfactory results. How- 
ever I much prefer the liquid lustres since the tedious pro- 
cess of grinding is done away with. 
Fourth Prize — Anne Seymour Mundy, Coudersport, Pa. 
[extk,\cts o.nlv] 
Wash china in warm water, dry with cloth and then 
pass the palm of the hand quickly and carefully over the 






surface to collect any possible lint from the | towel. See 
that every bit of moisture is dried out, because, if you don't 
it will settle in spots on the lustre in the drying oven. The 
oven must be cleaned and well dried out before putting in 
a piece of lustre. This is more important with lustre than 
with any other kind of paint. Remember also that finger 
marks will show on lustre even after it has been dried, if 
handled before firing. Do not wrap in cotton, a hair 
might stick. 


Warm the china, dip the brush in the lustre bottle, 
shake it off inside the neck of the bottle so that it will not 
"run", and go over a portion of the surface to be covered. 
If it be a smooth surface, have your silk in one or two 
thicknesses over the cotton, according to its texture, and 
pad the lustre almost up to the edge to be joined on; then 
join with another brush full, working carefully and rapidly 
until the band or surface is covered. By keeping edges 
all soft, and padding only, in the middle of each section, the 
edges can be joined easily and padded down. 

Very often the lustre needs shaking, and it should 
always be kept corked tightly and in a cool dark place. It 
is like liquid bright gold in this respect, the metal is heavier 
and settles at the bottom, leaving more medium on top. 

If a small vase is to be done all in lustre for color effect, 
it is sometimes nice to actually pour on, or dip the piece in 
lustre, letting it run off, without padding. Also it may be 
"dropped on" carefully, to avoid air bubbles, and allowed 
to run down. This process gives a peculiarly beautiful 

Not long ago a stein was done in class. There were 
bands of gold, dark blue and black, then a wider band of 
orange lustre with gold dragon flies conventionalised, the 
wings resting on the orange lustre band, with the long, 
slender body separating medallions of mat black. In 
putting on the lustre it was padded in sections, as described, 
but in some way ran over the proscribed lines and on to 
one of the dragon flies' wings. It might have spoiled 
the whole band to wipe off the edges, so an inspiration to 
streak the other wings resulted in the most exquisite iri- 
descent effect, quite like the wings of a real fly. The stein 
had been fired two or three times, the gold on the flies was 
perfect and had been burnished. The result after a hard 
firing was delightful. However it was found that the 
iridescent effect over gold was dulled by another firing and 
could be almost entirely burnished off with an agate; so it 
is best to put the lustre on for the very last firing. 

In tinting a large surface like the inside of a bowl, 
shake the lustre, pour a little into the middle of the bowl, 
dip the pad in the lustre and, without lifting it, go round 
and round the bowl rapidly, each time taking it nearer and 
nearer the extreme edge. Then pounce it with the pad 
until all is even. It requires a little practice to do this 
successfully, but it can be done much more easily than 
with a brush. 

Be careful of your color schemes with lustre, as with 
other painting. Never combine a pink lustre with black 
outlines or bands. Orange red or warm browns and reddish 
browns are beautiful and harmonious with black 

It is well to try your lustres first on broken bits of 
china. The names differ almost as the names of the peo- 
ple who make or bottle the lustres. The gold lustre of 
one make may be the yellow brown lustre of another. So 
if you must match a certain shade, do not be guided entirely 
by the name unless you know what you are using. Do 
not let this deter you from experimenting with lustres, 

for it is like recreation after heavy music. It is lighter, 
more playful, ornamental and sometimes resliul. 

There are many cheap imitations to be found in the 
ten cent stores and sometimes the colors are beautiful, but 
do not spend much time in doing china in these colors. 
Try for rich and unusual effects, and having planned some 
color schemes in water color, see if you can match them up 
by combinations of lustres. 

If any lustre rubs off, a thin wash of yellow lustre will 
hold it. 

For fining a salad bowl, do not use pink or ruby first 
with yellow over. The shade of pink is not pretty for salad . 
Use opal or mother of pearl, or yellow alone, or green. 

For bouillon cups try nasturtium or yellow brown, 
with gold lining and black monogram, and see how hand- 
some they are. 

Fifth Prize— Mrs. Katherine B. Focke, Massillon, Ohio. 
[extracts only] 
Keep brushes in a covered box, and free from dust. 
It is well to have a number of brushes, then one need 
not stop to wash and clean the brush before using it in an- 
other color. 

A few good combinations are : 
Dark green first fire, light green second fire. 
Rose with very strong first fire, yellow pearl second 

fire, rosina third fire. 
Chatoyant rouge first fire, rosina second fire. 
Peacock green first fire, repeat for second fire, rosina 

third fire. 
Purple or violet first fire, rosina second fire. 
Yellow brown first fire, brown second fire. 
Dark green first fire, ruby second fire. 
Rouge first fire, ruby second fire. 
Steel blue first fire, yellow second fire. 
Steel blue and also rose can be made to give delicate 
tones by thinning with white lustre. 

A few drops of liquid gold in white lustre gives a beau- 
tiful golden glow when used as a final finish over dark green. 
Black requires at least three coats to obtain a good 

Fine metallic effects are obtained by using dark sr<^en 
over burnished gold. vSteel blue over gold gives a copper 

Mention — E. Louise Brittain, Dayton, Ohio. 
[extracts only] 
Bright gold as a first wash, light green as a secontl 
wash, iridescent rose as third wash, makes one of the beau- 
tiful effects which it is possible to obtain in the dark col- 

Often when taken from the kiln, the piece will be dis- 
appointing but after being exposed to the air a while, it 
will assume the brilliancy desired. 

Using lustres as background for flower or conventional 
borders is very pleasing. After the flowers have received 
their final fire, the lustre may be washed over the whole 
border and the piece fired again. 
Mention^Mtss Bertha Graves Morey, Ottumwa, Iowa. 
[extracts only] 
If the bottles are allow'ed to lay on their sides the 
paint \vill absorb particles of cork which make the 
lustre fire "specky." 

Damp brushes make the paint fire streaky and blackish. 



Much better results will be obtained by applying 
three or four thin'coats than one heavy coat. 

When firing lustres have heat quite rose color. 

If firing lustres in same kiln with other mineral paints, 
the fumes of lustres will sometimes cause the reds and 
pinks to come out spotty. To avoid this, wrap the lustre 
piece in a thin asbestos paper. 

Mother of pearl is a most valuable lustre in covering 
defects in other lustres which have come out unsatisfac- 
torily, one or two coats giving a beautiful iridescence. 


Henrietta Barclay Paist. 

The inside of shells with the exception of one to the 
extreme left, pale flesh (use Deep Red Brown), the other 
one pale yellow, (use Lemon Yellow.) The long shell in 
center is pink inside and the outside painted with Yellow 
Ochre and modeled with Sepia and Dark Brown. 

Shell in the foreground with spots, cream white with 
deep orange spots, use Carnation or Capucine or any sim- 
ilar color. The little round shell in the foreground is green. 
Moss Green and Dark or Shading Green. The snail shaped 
shell just behind is yellow, Ochre shaded with Copenhagen 
and Black. Shell to the extreme right. Yellow Ochre 
shaded with Sepia and a touch of Red inside. 

The seaweed is painted with Moss Green and Violet of 
Iron. Ground, Sepia, Dark Green and Yellow Ochre. Water, 

x\pple Green and Moss Green. It is best to glaze with the 
water color after|firing. In this way we avoid mixing or 
smearing the design. 

The underside of shells is painted with Yellow Ochre 
or Yellow Brown, and shaded with Sepia and DarklBrown. 

Let me give you a few simple rules for learning to draw : 

First, see of what shape the ivhole thing is ! 

Next, put in the line that marks the movement of the 
whole. Don't have more than one movement in a figure! 
You cannot patch parts together. 

Simple lines! Then, simple values! 

Establish the fact of the whole. Is it square, oblong, 
cube, or what is it? Keep in mind to look at the map of 
the thing ! Put in all that is of greatest importance at first. 
It will never be the same again. 

Keep things in their right places. 

When values are so nearly alike that it is difficult to 
distinguish them, make them alike, and thus learn to simplify 
your masses. 


You can develop a child's faculties by drawing better 
than by books; and no other study will so quicken his 
perceptions. Pin-holes through a paper give a child a 
better idea of the stars than all the study of astronomy. 

Inspiration is nothing without work. — Wm. Huni. 


First Firing. Outline design. Fill in black portion 
of design with Copenhagen Blue. Dry thorougly in oven, 
apply thinly a second time, using turpentine to thin color. 
For dark grey portion of design, use two-thirds Shading 
Green, one-third Grey for flesh. 

Second Firing. Take as much Pearl Grey as the end 
of your palette knife will hold, and rub in it as much of Fry's 
special tinting oil as is required to cover surface of bowl. 
Pad very evenly. Lay it aside where it will not be exposed 
to dust, and in 20 hours dust with Grey for Flesh. 

Third Firing. Repeat as in first firing, and in opening 
of petal lay a very thin wash of Ruby. 

Additional color scheme : 

Body of bowl. Soft Grey. Light grey part. Blue Green. 
Dark grey part, Dark Blue. Opening in petal, thin wash 
of Ruby. — Or body of bowl. Black. Light grey part, 
Light Green Lustre. Dark grey part. Orange Lustre. 
Black opening in design, Gold. Outline, Black. Inside of 
bowl. Fry's Opal Lustre. 




Marie Crilley Wilson. 

Background of border, two-thirds Capucine Red, one- 
third Deep Red Brown. It will require three firings to get 
a deep, rich red. 

Use the same color to tint base of bowl. Outline de- 
sign with Deep Red Brown, using crow quill pen and mix- 
ing powder with one-seventh sugar and 'six-sevenths water. 
Fill in design and bands with gold. 


Marie Crilley Wilson. 
Background, Empire Green. Dark grey portion of de- 
sign, Dull Silver. Light grey part. Silver Lustre. Outline, 
Empire Green. 


Marie Crilley Wilson. 
Large panels, Yellow Brown Lustre. Design in Gold. 
Background of design, Old Ivory Lustre. Outline, Black. 



Marie Crilley Wilson. 

First Firing. Outline design; paint in background 
with equal parts Copenhagen Blue, Pearl Grey, onc-fiflh 
Banding Blue. 

Second Firing. Use same color as in first firing. In 
addition to painting in background, tint dark leaves and 
stems, leaving flowers white. 

Third Firing. Cover entire design with tinting 
colored with Deep Blue Green, pad weU and in twelve or fif- 
teen hours dust with Pearl Grey. 

This design would look well repeated in panels on tall 
vase. Background of Dark Blue with flowers of Silver 
Lustre. Leaves and stems of dull silver might be preferred. 






Outline design with Meissen Brown, tint background 
with Meissen Brown and when quite dry dust with Grey 
for Flesh, paint flowers in Yellow Red, leaves in equal 
parts Fry's New Green and Apple Green. Second fire, 
strengthen painting and when dry dust with Pearl Grey, 
make balance of bonboniere and band of Yellow Brown 
lustre with Meissen Brown outlines. 


Outline design with Black, using powder color and 
sugar and water, dust background and bands in border 
with Fry's New Green. Paint Hollyhocks and buds in 
Dark Blue also bands in border, leaves New Green with a 
touch of Dark Blue, Yellow Brown in centers of flowers and 
leaves in borders. Second flre, strengthen any desired 
color and tint the entire surface with Pearl Grey. 


HlEramic studio 


HOLLYHOCK— Fifth Prize. 

Minna Meinke 
First Firing. Background dusted with Fry's Grey 

for flesh. 

Second Firing. Tinted with Fry's tinting oil and a 

touch of Meissen Brown. When quite dry dust Pearl Grey. 
Third Firing. Paint stems and leaves with equal 

parts Fry's New Green and Apple Green. Outline with 

Yellow Red. 


(Seepage 241.) 





M - 



1 JtT 








tinct! Your work may be called monotonous; but one 
tone is better than many which do not harmonize. 
* - 
There is force and vitality in a first sketch from lite 
which the after- work rarely has. You want a picture to 
seize you as forcibly as if a man had seized you by the 
shoulder! It should impress you like reality! Velasquez 
and Tintoretto could do this like no one else — not Titian 
even, whose work was beautifully modeled and colored, 
but had not this quality of instantly seizing and holding 
the attention. I saw a man walk by. I have an impression 
in my brain of that man. I did not scrutinize him. I 
am not sure that he took steps exactly two feet and a half 
long. That had nothing to do with the impressionl In 
your sketches keep the first vivid impressionl Add no 
details that shall weaken it! Look first for the big things! 
— VVm.. Hunt. 


This conventionalized figure design was awarded the 
gold medal at the Lewis and Clark Portland exhibition. 
Eight figures, some dressed in white and some in darkest 
green, alternatively arranged, form the decorative motive. 
The background is of pale yellow green, with all-over con- 
ventionalized small daisies. 


Henrietta Barclay Paist 

THIS is a most beautiful plant in color, and the finish is the 
texture of wax. The foliage at this stage has turned to 
the autumn tints and has almost the brilliancy of sumach — for 
painting in mineral colors use Yellow Ochre Yellow Brown, 
Albert Yellow, Pompadour or Deep Red Brown with touches 
of Blood Red and Sepia with the exception of the bunch to 
the extreme left, the leaf at the top and one in the right hand 
group, which are still green, put in the olive shades touched 
with Sepia. Stems same tones as leaves. 

The berries and fruit are painted with Blood Red, Deep 
Red Brown and Carmine 53, Dresden (or any good) Pink, 
with a touch of Copenhagen. The seed pods are very dark 
bright red. Blood Red glazed with Pompadour to Carnation; 
the calyx or shell a mixture of Deep Red Brown and Carmine, 
modeled with Copenhagen on the shadow side. Keep the 
background in tones of Yellow Brown, Sepia or Meissen, 
Blood Red and tones of green, to harmonize with the colors 
in the plant, painting strongly behind the fruit. 

Strive for simphcity! Not complexity! If you are 
going to Africa with a large cargo of merchandise, and you 
learn that, by reaching there on a certain day, you can 
double the price you were to get, throw half your cargo 
overboard, and arrive there in season to get- your double 
price. Don't put needless expense into painting a head! 
Don't try to match tints! Rose and pearly colors blend 
into each other so that no one can unite them if painted 
separately. Keep the impression of your subject as one 
thingl ^gBon't have the face a checkerboard of tints! Use 
such colors as nature uses, but do not try to keep them dis- 







These are the earhest of the Colorado flowers, and are 
found on the northwest slopes of the foot-hills, growing out 
of the rocky red soil among the dried grasses. They have all 
the dehcate shades of purple, from almost blue to lilac, the 
inside of the|petals is nearly white, reflecting the brilliant 
yellow of the center. The buds are enclosed in a grey furry 
coat, and as the blossom grows older it grows out of its fur, 
showing a smooth green stem. 

For China. Use Deep Violet of Gold and Deep Blue 
Green and Copenhagen Grey, Lemon and Orange Yellows, 
Brown Green and Yellow Ochre for the flowers, and for the 
stems use Copenhagen Grey, Brown Green and Deep Blue 
Green and Moss Green, also a little Violet of Iron. 

For Water Color. Nero Blue and Crimson Lake, 
Brown Pink, Lemon Yellow and Cadmium Orange, Sap 
Green, Olive Green and Brown Madder. 


1 „ If 

2 (11 

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>- uj ID 


(0 Ot 

hekamic studio 














To be executed in Opal lustre and Pink with Gold outlines on 
an Ivory ground. 















Flowers light blue; stems and leaves in two shades of olive. 




Four shades of any desired color with outline in black on gold. 




Under flic management of Miss Emily Peacock, Room 2j, 22 East i6th St., New York. All inquiries in regard to the various 
Crafts are to be sent to the above address, but will be ansivered in the magazine itnder this head. 

All questions must he received before the \Oth day of month preceding issue and will be anstvered under "Answers to Inqiiiries" only. Please do not send 
stamped envelope for reply. The editors will answer questions only in Ihese'coliimns. 

sumach calf skin, dip the leather into a weak solution of oxalic 
acid , then wash quickly with lukewarm water. This brings to 
light all sulphur marks left from the bleaching, and all badly 
tanned places. Calf skin is generally the most satisfac- 
tory leather for small articles such as purses, bags, card cases, 
book covers and so forth. Modeling is the easiest method 
of decoration. 

For a beginner the following equipment is necessary : 
1 modeling tool, i piece of marble, slate or heavy glass, 
a one-foot rule with metal edge, i metal square or triangle, 
I sharp cutting knife, i agate stylus or sharp orange wood 
stick, I sponge. 

With material and equipment at hand, the question of 
what to make arises. Begin with something easy, such as 
the belt, dllus. No. 3) Draw a simple design upon thick 
manila paper. Avoid intricate patterns and many curved 
lines until the handling of the tools is mastered. With the 
cutting knife (Illus. No. i) cut a piece of leather the required 
length and shape, allowing a working margin. Wash the 
entire surface evenly with the sponge dipped in lukewarm 
water, this prevents water rings and spotting. While the 
leather is damp, pin the design in place, being careful to 
stick the pins outside the lines of the design. Lay it on the 


Winifred Wilson. 

EVERY Craftsman has his favorite medium, and whether 
it is wood, metal, leather or textile, he is ready to 
justify his preference by his skill in manipulating it. Just 
as a block of wood is full of possibilities to the wood-carver, 
a bar of metal and a few interesting stones to the metal 
worker, so a well-tanned skin is to a leather craftsman. It 
appeals to him through its durability, its richness in texture 
and color, its responsiveness to his handling. 

Leather has been a good reward to man, furnishing him 
with body covering and rude shelter in his primitive state, 
rising to the dignity of his needs with civilization, until to- 
day it has a multiplicity of uses too great to specif )^ 

Many of these uses are, of course, not open to the crafts- 
man, but with those which lend themselves to decorative 
purposes alone he has more than enough to keep him busy. 
There are various methods of decorating leather: 
modeling or embossing, incising, carving, tooling, tinting, 
applique and burning. And as different leathers are adapt- 
ed to different decorative treatment, the selection of material 
is important. Texture, color and weight are the qualities 
considered in selecting a hide. A fine close-grained leather 
such as Russia calf skin, is best suited to modeling, carving 
and tooling ; thick, heavy cow skin to carving, split cow skin 
and calf skin to incising, ooze calf skin and the better grades 
of sheep skin to burning. All leather responds to tinting, 
the difference being only in degree. 

Skins may be had in the natural color and dyed. Na- 
tive calf skin comes to us in a yellowish brown color, due to a 
process in tanning called ' ' buffing. ' ' Russia calf skin may 
be had in shades from deep brown to pale olive green. Both 
native and Russia calf skin, when bleached to a delicate 
cream, are called ' ' sumach. ' ' Before using either ' ' buff ' ' or 



Illus. No. 1. 

marble and trace the design through the paper with the 
stylus. Remove the paper and outline every part of 
the design with the modeling tool (Illus. No. i.) held 
firmly in the right hand and guided by the index finger 
of the left. Hold the tool as nearly vertical as possible 
(Illus. No. 2) except in the "laying down" of the back- 
ground when it is dropped to a slant of 45° or so that the 
ball and tip of the spoon work upon the surface at the same 
time. Always work toward that part of the design which 
is to be thrown in relief. Keep the leather damp but not 
spongy. If it wrinkles under the modeling tool, change the 
direction of the stroke. When nearing a corner raise the 
tool to an almost vertical position and finish with a firm 
quick pressure. Continued pressing and smoothing will 
leave the background glossy and of deeper shade than the 
original color of the skin. In finishing the small places and 
sharp corners use the end of the tool which best fits them. 
Make the eyelets with a leather punch and finish with a har- 
ness buckle. 

To make a card case, cut a strip of leather 5x1 if in. 
On a piece of manila paper draw a rectangle 4^x1 of in., 
then lay out the panels ^ of an inch within this boundary, 
as suggested in Illus No. 4. Use the square in making 
all corners, remembering that good proportion and accuracy 
are the hallmarks of good craftsmanship. Wash the sur- 
face of the leather, dampen, pin the paper rectangle in place, 
trace and model as in the belt. When this is done the case 
is ready for lining. A suitable lining is of skiver, thin goat 
skin or silk. Skiver is the easiest handled. Cut with the 
knife a piece of skiver the size of the leather cover, rub 
paste well into the cover, apply the skiver and smooth until 

Illus, No. 2. 

every part is firmly pasted. Fold each end toward the 
middle to a depth of if inches and press under a smooth 
weight. When dry, stitch on the machine with silk thread. 
Tie the loose ends and slip under the flaps with a needle. 
Cut away the surplus leather | of an inch outside the stitch- 
ing. The completed card case, change purse (Illus. No. 6 & 
7) are made of sumach calf skin, modeled, carved and tinted. 

Of all methods of decorating leather, carving requires 
the nicest skill. It may be used to develop the whole decora- 
tive scheme, or combined with tooling, modeling or tinting to 
secure a certain effect. An example of the latter use is 
found in the sumach card case where a deeper shadow was 
needed on the leaf than the modeling and tinting indicated, 
so a cut was made along the required line, one edge pressed 
into a slight ridge and the other laid down with the modeling 

To carve, apply the design as for modeling. Dampen 
the leather. Hold the knife upright. Guide with index 
finger of the left hand, using the thumb as a pivot. Cut 
half way through the leather. Spread the edges apart with 
the sharp end of the modeling tool and work down the back- 
ground with the spoon end. A suitable background for 
carved relief may be either modeled or stamped. Tools for 
stamping may be purchased or filed out by hand from a 
piece of tool bar. 

'' $ln decorating an object its identity must be retained. 
It is not art to make pottery look like metal, nor wood like 
iron, nor leather like a painted canvas. Leather properly 
decorated with color will be leather still with its flexibility, 
texture and finish unspoiled. 

For this reason leather tinting is a problem. Oil 



Illus. No. 6. 

paints stiffen it, besides giving a glaring" effect most objec- 
tionable, and water colors spot. After much experimenting 
the six color combination of dyes for tapestry and leather 
made by Devoe and Raynolds has proved most satisfactory. 
No preparation of the leather is necessary before laying on 
the dye, except that it must always be kept wet and worked 
very quickly. The dull ivory of the sumach is good back- 
ground for pastel shades, while darker leathers require 
richer color. 

The magazine cover (Illus. No. 5) is of split cow skin, 
with incised design. Incising consists of two lines modeled 
close together so that a small ridge of leather rises between. 
To make a magazine cover, cut a piece of leather 20x11^ 
in., a piece of skiver the same size, two strips of leather 
ii|xi in., 42 in. of thong ^ of an inch wide. Use the knife 
and metal rule in cutting the thong. It will be necessary 
to splice it in places which may be done by pasting two ends 
together which have first been slightly pared. Trace the 
design, incise and tint the ridge of leather thus raised dark 
brown. The decoration finished, paste the skiver to the 

Illus. No. 7. 

COW skin. When dry, crease evenly through the middle, 
then fold a flap two inches deep from each end toward the 
crease and press. Correct any unevenness with the knife and 
rule. With a leather punch make holes |- of an inch apart 
and I' of an inch from the edge along the top and bottom 
edges of the cover. Punch these holes in the top and bot- 
tom of each i-inch strip. Beginning at a corner thread the 
thong over and over through the flap and until about the 
15th hole, then include a one-inch strip. Place the corres- 
ponding strip by counting the holes from the opposite end, 
and finish by drawing the thong through the last hole twice 
and out of sight under the flap. 

In so brief an article it is not possible to more than intro- 
duce the possibilities of leather, but to the interested worker 
the information given is capable of development into many 
useful and artistic objects. 

Illus. No. 4 





By courtesy of International Studio. 


Rugs. — One and a half pound of cotton rags will make one yard of weav- 
ing. Large rugs for centres of rooms can be made of woolen raps by weav- 
ing a separate narrow border for the two sides. If the first piece is three feet 
wide by eight in length and a foot wide border is added at the sides, it will 
make a rug five feet wide by eight feet long or if two eight foot lengths are 
sewed together with a foot wide border, it will make an eight by eight centre 
rug. The border should be made of a darker colored filling. The same plan 
can be carried out in larger rugs by sewing breadths together and adding a 
border only on two ends, but they are not easily shaken, and are apt to pull 
apart by their own weight. 

A. R. — For soldering small pieces of steel and iron, mix eight parts of 
granulated brass with one part of zinc. Put borax with this, and spread on 
the articles to be joined. 

Metal copper rivets can be bought in several sizes. The round headed 
rivet is the best for most purposes. If too long for your box, cut off a piece 
of the rivet with a metal saw, use a rivet set for riveting. 


Paul Putzki. 
For the white flowers use Grey, laying them in masses 
around the center, Ruby or Violet. The purple variety is 
painted with Light Violet shading into Dark Violet around 
the center. For pink flowers use Light and Dark Carmine. 
Leaves Dark Green, Yellow Green, Brown Green and Black 
Green. Background is best in cool tones, using grey and 
green effects with a touch of violet. 


p. — Coin gold contains an alloj^ of copper and silver, this is held in solu- 
tion after the gold is precipitated. It can be precipitated l)y adding another 
acid. Formula will be given in the next issue. If you add much silver to . 
the pure gold you will have green gold. Alloys for gold can be bought but the 
best only should be used, and that obtained from a first class house. 

Mrs G. E. B. — It is impossible as well as unnecessary to conceal the join- 
ing line in putting tiles together, even if figures are cut in two. Part of the 
beauty of a tile picture is this division which cuts through everything. 

Mrs. K. M. — Mineral transfers are supposed to be fired but once. How- 
ever they could be retouched with mineral colors and fired again. Write to 
the houses that advertise mineral transfers and they will tell you what they 
use as a transfering medium. We would suggest using grounding oil, a 

quick drying one like the Osgood oil, blending with a dabber until tacky, then 
apply the transfer and when the oilis hard hold in water to float off the paper. 

L. G. — It is not possible for us to say at just what temperature gold is 
properly developed. The only way to know is to fife to a good rose heat, a 
heat that will develop pinks and carmines is just right for gold. The inside 
kiln should look a bright orange and somewhat hazy. A glass burnisher always 
turns dark in burnishing, but more so if the gold is underfired for then tlie 
gold rubs off on to it. It is always best to fire paste before tlie gold is applied 
although not absolutely necessary. See article on gold work in Class Room. 

Mrs. T. C. L.— For a dinner plate the rim plate is best. The coupe or 
rimless plate is used more for desert or fruit. 

M. M. — You will find ev^ery branch of china decoration fully exiilained 
in the Class Room. The next subject will be "Firing", Any (;|uestions you 
do not find answered there you may send to this department. 

Mrs. E. H. M. — It would be impracticable to publish tlie personal methods 
of each inquirer, but any desired information or criticisms can always be 
secured through these columns. In regard to your custom of using clove 
oil as a medium, if you find it satisfactory there is no reason to make a change 
even if others do not care to use it so freely. The general experience is thai 
it keeps colors too open and catches dust if too much is used. The general 
rule is to mi.x oil of cloves and oil of copaiba as a medium in the proportion 
of one drop cloves to six drops copaiba. Then use sprits of turpentine for 

C. G. M. — When gold comes from the fire thick in some spots and thin in 
others, if it is a reliable make, it is because it has been put on unevenly. The 
only remedy is to go over the gold and refire. If you put it on in two good 
coats, being careful to make the brush strokes up and down in one instance 
and horizontally in the other, you will be pretty sure to have the surface well 
covered. However if fired too hard on Belleek gold is very liable to disappear; 
fire lighter next time. 

E. H. McC. — The sketch of birches, Jan. 1906, can be utilized as a band 
at top of tankard with grounded color below but we would prefer not to use 
too naturalistic a treatment, also by enlarging the study it could be extended 
from top to bottom of the tankard or stein. A good color scheme would be 
as follows — Paint the birches in grey greens, with touches of warm brown, 
dust the base a rich brown. Metssen would l)e effective. Outline design and 
bands with the same brown. For the second fire tint the decorated band with 
Pearl Grey and a touch of brown, which will give a uniform glaze. Strengthen 
outlines if necessary. We expect to publish a stein in poplars very soon. 

Mrs. J. McC. — We have not had any good design of Snowballs submitted 
to us, if we do, we will pubhsh it. We have no book on miniature work but 
have several articles on miniature and figure work in back numbers of KfjR- 
AMic Studio. We have already published six rose studies in color, one by 
Marshal Fry, one by F. B. Aulich, one by Teana McLennan Hinman, two by 
Rhoda Holmes Nichols and one of little roses by Mrs. SalTord. You will 
find them in the Rose book We will probably publish more later but not in 
the next six months, except in black and white. 


By courtesy of International Studio. 

K-EL-EL.T=> T^M 

F"| F^E- /Vu^uiv^e:-. 


MR. F. a AULICH ^ ^ j» ^ , 
MRS. H. B. PAIST .?» ^ ^ ^ , 

APRIL MCMVI Price 40c. Yearly Subscription $4-00 

fl noriTttLY n/iGfiziriE for the potter amd decorator- 

The entire contents of this Magazine are cdbered by the general copyright, and the articles must not be reprinted ')»ithoui special permission. J 



League Notes 

The Class Room — Firing— First Prize 

Second Prize 

Fleur de lis Jar 

Dandelion, White and Yellow Moccasin 
Flower Box Tile 
Tea Tile 

Jonquil Design for Vase or Stein 
Tin- enameled Ware 
Colorado Shooting Star 
Iris (Supplement) 
Poplar Design for Vase 
Fleur de lis (Bowl and Inside of bowl) 
Tin Glazed Ware 
Mariposa Lilies 
The Crafts— 

"The Making of a Candlestick" 
Exhibition of Arts and Crafts, Chicago 
Answers to Correspondents 

Belle Barnett Vesey 
Anne Seymour Mundy 
Sydney Scott Lewis 
F. B. AuHch 
Russell Goodwin 
H. B. Paist 
Edith Alma Ross 
Alfred, Rhead 
H. B;^ Paist 
Charles F. Binns 
Emma A. Ervin 
Laura Overly 
Sabella Randolph 
Helen V. Patterson 

M. E. Hulbert 

Frank G. Sanford 






















Some Leading Agencies of Keramic Studio 

We take pleasure in mentioning a few of the leading agencies for the sale 
of the Keramic Studio, where, also, subscriptions may be placed; 

Boston, Mass.— Miss E. E. Page, 286 Boyslton St.; Smith & McCance, 

Old Comer Book Store. 
Brooklyn — A. D. Mathew's Sons, Fulton Street. 
Buffalo— Mrs. Filkins, 609 Main Street. 
Chicago — A. H. Abbott & Co.; A. C, McClurg & Co.; Brentano's; Burley 

& Co. 
Cincinnati— Miss M. Owen, 245 Elm Street; A. B. Closson, 110 W. 4th St. 

Tra.xel & Maas, 4th Street, near Elm. 
Cleveland, Ohio — Vinson & Komer, 150 Euclid Ave. 
Columbus, Ohio — Lee Roessler, 116 So. High Street. 
Denver, Colo.— H. R. Meininger, 409 16th Street. 
Detroit, Mich. — L. B. King & Co.; Art China Co. 
Hartford, Ct.— E. M. SUl. 
Grand Rapids, Mich —Miller, Wolfe Co. 
Indianapolis, Ind. — Keramic Supply Co., Lemcke Building. 
Kansas City, Mo— Emery, Bird, Thayer Co.; Geo. B. Peck Co. 

Minneapolis, Minn.— Minn. Art China Co., 607 1st Ave. So.; Elizabeth 

Hood. 18 W. 6th St., St. Paul, Minn. 
New York City — Brentano's, Union Square; M. T. Wynne's, HE. 20th 

St.; The Fry Art Co., 11 E. 22d St.; Wanamaker's; American News Co.; 

J. B. Ketcham, 107 W. 25th Street. 
Newark, N. J. — Keramic Novelty Co. 
Oakland, Cat— Smith Bros. 
Omaha, Neb. — Megeath Stationery Co^ 
Philadelphia — Wanamaker's. 
Pittsburgh, Pa.— Otto Schaffer & Bros.; Kurtz, Langbein & Schwartz, 

R. S. Davis & Co., 346 Fifth Ave. ; John G. Yergan, 420 Penn Ave. 
San Francisco— Mrs. M. E. Perley. 207 Post Street. 
St. Louis— F. Weber & Co.; A, S. Aloe & Co., Erker Bros Optical Co. 
Syracuse — Wolcott Book Shop; W. Y. Foote: O. W. Conger; A. L. 

Vaniey & Co., 336 S. Salina Street. 
Toronto — The Art Metropole. 
Washington, D. C— Wood & Lotbrop. 

The Magazine may also be ordered from any news dealer or book store 
in this country, who can procure it through the American News Company 
New York, it<a branches, or at the ofBce of 

Keramic Studio Pub. Co., 108 Pearl St., Syracuse, N. Y. 




Editor — Mrs. Adelaide Alsop-Robineau. 

Publishers — Samdel Edouard Robineau, Georgr H. Clark. 


One year, ........ $4.00 

One year, to all foreign countries within the Postal-Union, . 4.00 subscriptions, three months, ..... 1.00 

Five subscriptions. 
Ten subscriptions 

Page 11x8 

One-half page 5i x 8 
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One-eighth page 2i x 4 
Ten per cent. dis< 


General Advertisements. 

Each, $3.65 
Each, 3.50 

$45 . 00 

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yearly contracts. 

Space i x 4 
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Teachers' Special Rates. 

Directory. 85 cents per is.sue; $9 yer year; -payable in advance. 

Card 1x3 and Directory S2.50 per issue: $24 per year, payable quarterly in adv 

Magazines sent free to all advertisers. 

All communications and remittances should be sent to 


Copyrighted, 1905, by the Keramic Studio Publishing Co., Syracuse, N. Y. 
Entered at the Post Office at Syracuse,N. Y,, as Second Class Matter, Auaust 2, 1S99. 

" ROCHESTER" Fob and SKirt Lifter 

Of 37,000 China Decorators in the United States, 


-Are numbered among our regular customers. 

AVhy ? 

Our Ne-w "CHina BooK" 

Just issued, answers this conclusively. Mailed free, postage 5 cents. 

Geo. W. Davis &l Co. •^^..H'^^-.^y'L.u:.. 

2356 State St., Rochester, N. Y. 


F. W. Devoe & C. T. Raynolds Co. 



Manufacturers of the completest hne of 


Our manufactures of these goods exceed those of all other dealers in the 
United States combined. 

Direct importers of Lacrolx and Royal Dresden China Colors. 

Jobbers of Fry's China Colors and Specialties. 


Hasburg's Roman Gold 

The only gold put up in improved package that re- 
tains all the necessary oils without drying up 
and without attracting dirt and dust. 

Everything for the China Painter 

Fine Brushes, Water Colors, Studies 

Write for Catalogue. 



White China for Decorating 

iJE are pleasing others and we can please you if you 

I will give us the opportunity. We have had 
many letters of late complimenting us on 
our prompt shipments of White China. We, 
' are able to make prompt shipments only by 
carrying a very large and complete stock, Our lar^e 
Illustrated Catalogue of White China and Materials free for the 
a skin^, end to-day. 

The A. T. Osborn Co. 


224-226 Seneca Street 

Cleveland O. 


White China, Bischoff's Colors 

and other supplies for 

China Decorators 

Catalogue sent on request. 

Hamilton, Canada 

Superior Working Gold 


On our patent 
Tile the Gold 
never hardens 

Contains a 

liigher percent- 
^ age of GOLD 
\ than any other 










Will remove May ist to 

39 West 21st Street 

New YorK City 

Between Fifth and Sixth Avenues. 

In the meantime we are closing out 
several lines of desirable shapes in 

White China for Decorating 


Drawing Inks, Blacks and 


Eternal Writing Ink 

Engrossing Ink 

Taurine Mucilage 

Photo Mounter 

j Drawing Board and Library 

/ Mucilage 

I Office Paste 

\ Liquid Paste 

\ Vegetable Glue, etc., etc. 

and learn what's what in inks and adhesives for tracing designs 
on china, photograph mounting, and general office and Irome 
use. Emancipate yourself from ill-smelling and dirty pastes 
and mucilages, and corrosive and weak-colored inks, and adoijt 
the HIGGINS' INKS AND ADHESIVES. Their high qualities 
will be a revelation to you. At Dealers Generally. 

ors and Manufacturers 
InKs and AdKesives. 
tory, BrooKlyn, N. Y., U. S. A. 

limllOl rlUlli IJIlllinlllll 

1 Office and Fac 


wniTE mm 




J 1 20 Fulton Street, - - - Brooklyn, N. Y. 


Open throughout the vear. 
Number of lessons optional. 


nter at any time. 

In Oil. Water Colors, China Painting, Landscapes, Figures, and 
Naturalistic and Conventional Designs from original studies. 


Is always reliable? There i.s no difficulty in firing Standard Pink 
as it will develop with the ordinary firing given other colors, 
which is a great advantage. Per vial, 40 cents. 


You can always depend upon obtaining the rich, dark velvet 
tones so much admired in ■'.Tacqueminot Roses." Per vial, 75c. 


Of the best self-instructive book upon China Painting ever pub 
lished, entitled "How to apply riatt, Bronze, La Croix, Dresden 
Colors and Gold to China." Endorsed by professional china 
decorators, and in constant use by art schools and private teach- 
ers throughout the country. Illustrated. 200 pages. Sent post- 
paid on receipt of price, 75 cents. Stamps not accepted. 

We carry a complete line of 


Summer ScKool bes'ins June 1st 

For particula 

md catalogue, 

Miss A. H. Osgood, Principal, Osgood Art Scbool, 

46 West 21st Street, New York 



In Quantity and Quality. 

Handled by all First-class Dealei 

e ask is a trial for this Gold. 
Lessons in China Painting. 

6o8 13th Street, N. W. Washington, D. C. 

Agent for Revelation China Kiln. 

ineral Transfer* 

Tor China Decoration in a\\ \fs Branches 


80 firrn ave., 




A|j|)ly to Your Su|j|jly House for Sam|jles and Information. 




Overglaze Colors 
in Powder 

The most complete and carefully 
selected palette, including Colored 
Glazes, Enamels, Lustres, Mediums, 
Roman Gold, Matt Gold, Green 
Gold, Gold Bronzes. : : ; : : 
Especially Imported Brushes. 


For Porcelain 

The Original and Improved 
Covered Palette, used by 
all decorators. Invented by 
Miss M. M. Mason. : : : 

New Illustrated Catalogue with suggestions for the use of Colors. Glazes, Enamels, Lustres, Etc., on request 

Classes by Miss Mason and Miss Elizabeth Mason : : 48 East 26th St., New York City 



Can always be found here. Our facilities are so 
unmistakably superior and are so thoroughly appreciated 
by our thousands of satisfied customers that we may 
claim the distinction of being AMERICA'S FORE- 

If you haven't our catalogue a postal request will bring 
it absolutely free. 

L. B. KING &L CO. 

103 Woodward Avenue, DETROIT MICH. 

Dep't "K" 


J. P. 


Is stamped as above. 


AVrite for BooKlet and Catalogvie. 

Paroutaxid &l Watson 

37-39 Murray St,. New YorK 

I White China | 

g China Decorating Materials. ^ 

*— Send for Oar SNs'Vj Thirty-Page Catalogue — Free -^ 


^ 1212 Chestnut St. PHILADELPHIA ^ 


Manufacturer of 



Enaiiiir'l Oolor for overglaze in Powder and prepared in Tiibes. Oils, Brushes, China, 

Medallions and Buttons in great variety. 
CKina Fired Daily. 
Ser.d for C talogues. 

116 N. I5th SU Philadelphia, Pa, 









for China and Glass Painting. 

China Colors in vials and tubes. 

China Colors by the pound or ounce. 
Vials and Corks for dealers ad teachers 
bottling colors. 
First quality gold only. 

Vitro Water Paste for gold. 

Finest French Camel hair Pencils. 

Pure Oils and Mediums. 

All other Materials for China and Glass painting. ^ 

Pyrographic Outfits and Platinum Points. m 

Write for Illustrated Catalogue containing instructions ^ 
ho'w to mix and apply China Colors. (jlS 

^ 45 Murray Street, NEW YORK. | 




The fry art co. 


Fry's Celebrated Vitrifiable Colors 











Send for Catalogue mentioning " Keramic Studio." 

New York. 

1 1 East 22nd St., 




STUDIO New York Studio, 36 W. 24th St. 








The only ROMAN GOLD in the WORLD that is STANDARD 

properly fired it comes from the kiln with a genuine Roman 
Gold finish. 

The only Ceramic Gold ever grant- 
ed a patent in the United States and 

It is the most satisfactory gold ever 
put on the market. Don't buy any 
other kind if you want the best. 





F. W. DEVOE & C. T. RAYNOLD COS. Distributing Agents 


.>^. > . > . > ■ > ■ > >-^^>...^. > . > >>■ > . > 4.^. 





Plates; Cake Plates; Teacups; Celery Trays; many Novelties and \'ases 
galore.'^ It will pay you to "Stock Up" NOW for your Fall trade. The 
line of._"Racine" pattern (see page 28 of the catalogue), will be closed 
out at cost. 

Sample of some of the Bargain Prices. 

Plates No. 8.58, Bav. (plain coupe), were 14c, 16c, 18c; now 10c, lie, 13c. 

(Sold by one-half dozen only.) 
Teacup No. 495, French, was 30c; now 18c. 
Calie Plate, Marcel French, was 55c; now 35c. 
Salt and Pepper, No. 507-8, was 50c pair; now 25c. 
Jam Jar, plain French, was 95c; now 55c. 
New "Boudoir" Set, seven pieces, only $3.00, (brush and coinl>, 

pin and ring trays; candlestick, two boxes, cologne). 

Best Gold (because purest and most durable) is 

FilKins' Burnish Gold 

Send for sample box, 25c. Large Stock just in of Hat Pins, "Tulip" bar 
and "Baby" pins. Write for REDUCED LIST. 


609 Main Street, - Buffalo, New York 


Write for 
Catalogue No, 15 
and Supplement 

Importing directly to Chicago and 
combining the products selected <with 
care from the great China cManufac- 
turers of Limoges, <we are confined 
to no single factory. 

We are enabled to place before 
the buyers of WHITE CHINA to 
T>ECORATE an assemblage of 
forms the most desirable and exten- 
silje, including a variety of original 
shapes made only for us, that find 
purchasers throughout this entire 
country. ^Decorators enabled to 
visit our White China Shoiv Room 
ivill always find attractive special- 
ties at lyery loiv prices, purchased 
in quantity to secure attractive 
articles at reductions. 

Prompt shipments; safe delivery 


Vol. VII. No. t2 


April, 1906 

VIANUFACTURKR of studio pot- 
tery kilns told us recently that the 
demand for these kilns from in- 
dividual workers was remarkably 
large, and as we receive many let- 
ters from china decorators who 
intend to begin pottery work, or 
have alread}^ begun, and ask us for 
advice, it is evident that the inter- 
est in this fascinating craft is 
rapidly spreading. We foresaw this Avhen we published in 
Keramic Studio the excellent articles of "Clay in the Studio" 
by Prof. Chas. F. Binns and the thorough treatise of Taxile 
Doat on "Grand Feu Ceramics." 

. It is noteworthy that women are leading in this move- 
ment, as they are in overglaze china decoration. In Eu- 
rope the opposite is the rule, women potters are very few 
and most individual potters who have made a name for 
themselves are men. In this country men who do artis- 
tic work, outside of factories, number only two or three, 
while women who have already acquired quite a reputa- 
tion in this craft are many. We will mention among them 
Mrs. Frackelton, Miss McLaughlin, Miss Perry, Mrs. Alsop- 
Robineau, Mrs. Worth Osgood, Mrs. Irelan, Mrs. and Miss 
Perkins, Miss Jane Hoagland. And with the present fac- 
ilities for firing pottery in the studio there is no reason 
why the work should not appeal to women as well as men, 
nor why they should not make a success'of it, as'they have 
done with overglaze china decoration. 

It is very difficult to answer correspondents who ask 
us what kind of pottery work we would advise them to do. 
The field is so broad that no positive answer can be made 
to such a question. One should follow his or her own in- 
dividual taste. But in a general way we would say to 
students: Keep away from factory work or from imita- 
tion of factory work. You cannot compete with factories 
in regard to price. If you must do all the work yourself, 
or practically all the work, in your little pottery, you will 
find that this work costs you considerably more than the 
same work would cost in a factory with its many cheapening 
processes. You must do better than factories can do. 
You must carry your body and glazes to a point of perfec- 
tion which industrial methods seldom reach, decorate your 
ware with real artistic taste and skill, give the closest at- 
tention to your shapes, in a word work alwa3''s for technical 
as well as artistic perfection. You will not reach the goal 
at first, but you will, after a while, if you go at it in the 
right way, and if you have the persistency and enthusiasm 
of the true artist. Then, and then only, can you expect to 
get renumerative prices for your work. The object of 
factories is to produce much and as cheaply as possible. 
Your object must be to produce little, but to make a dur- 
able, beautiful and original ware, and to force the public to 
pay your price for it. Artistic work is not often done in 
factories, but it can be done, artistic work, not works of 
art. Real works of art 'can only be the expression of in- 
dividual skill and taste, and works of art will always bring 
the price. 

The question remains: What are in pottery the best 

fields for individual work? Some time ago a letter came 
asking us if we advised the correspondent to try'porcelain 
at high temperatures. This is certainly to be encouraged, 
not only because fine porcelains have always been and will 
always be the most beautiful ware which the potter can 
make, but because the development of colored glazes at 
high temperatures cannot, in our opinion, be successfully 
undertaken on the factory plan. It is essentially a field 
for the artist. The work requires his touch from begin- 
ning to end, and it is fascinating work. But it is the most 
difficult work and the most costly in the potter's field. It 
requires not only a stout heart and unshakable persever- 
ance, but a little capital to start with. The experimental 
period is long and costly. The best kilns go to pieces in 
a short time and have to be constantly repaired, the loss 
in firing is heavy, failures many, and financial results 
doubtful. If you have the courage to face the many dis- 
appointments of the porcelain maker and the determina- 
tion to succeed, try porcelain by all means. If you have 
not, try something else. 

Faience, either decorated with mat glazes or slip paint- 
ing under the glaze, has great artistic possibilities, and the 
work is comparatively easy, but for this reason perhaps 
the field has already been well covered in this country. 
The charming Grueby faiences have started a craze for mat 
glazed faiences, and they have to-day altogether too many 
imitators. The market has been flooded with mat green 
wares, the work of factories as well as of individuals. The 
Rookwood slip paintings have also found many imitators. 
Do not enter this field unless you are satisfied that you can 
develop something new and truly original. A poor imita- 
tion of something which has already been well done would 
be the greatest mistake you could make. 

Stoneware has also great possibilities. The decorat- 
tion with fine carving of stoneware fired at a moderately 
high temperature and salt glazed, is one of the old crafts 
which attained its perfection in the 15th and i6th Cen- 
turies, and it can undoubtedly be successfully revived to- 
day. Or vitrified stoneware (the gres of the French), 
fired at a high temperature, can be decorated with the 
varied palette of grand feu colors, but here again, the 
artist will meet with the difficulties of grand feu work, 
although not to the same extent as with porcelain. 

There is a field which has not been touched by in- 
dividual potters of the present day, at least not in this 
country, and which we think should tempt students and 
artists. It is the field of maiolica or tin glazed ware. Next 
to Chinese porcelains, the highest prices paid to day by 
collectors for fine old wares, are for the tin glazed wares of 
Italy, France and Holland of the i6th and 17th Centuries. 
And these high prices are not only due to the old age of 
the ware but to its technical and artistic excellence. It is 
not for the bulk of the tin glazed production that these 
high prices are paid, not for the commercial work Avhich 
was in the 19th Century dethroned by the cheaper English 
white ware, but in most cases for the beautiful work of in- 
dividual craftsmen. And, if it is hopeless to try to make 
cheap tin glazed maiolica in competition with other com- 
mercial wares at low prices, there is no reason why beau- 



tiful works of art which will command good prices should 
not be attempted. It will be easy to find a suitable body. 
The main point will be to develop a glaze, which will com- 
pare with the fine glaze of the past, and this glaze once 
found, it can be decorated at a comparatively low fire 
with underglaze colors applied over the glaze, before firing. 
For a china decorator used to overglaze work, the transi- 
tion will be easy, the same rules of design and decoration 
which have been used in the old work will apply to the^jUew, 
with this difference that colors will sink into the glaze 
and have the appearance of underglaze decoration which 
it is impossible to obtain with overglaze colors applied over 
the surface of porcelain. The decoration will then be 
durable and one will have the satisfaction of making one's 
own shapes. The palette of colors developed on tin glaze 
is exceedingly varied and brilliant, and this field should 
certainly be tempting to true artists. 

We have asked Prof. Chas. F. Binns to write for Ker- 
amic Studio a series of technical articles on the making of 
tin glazed ware, and students VhoVish to try their hand at 
the making of fine majolica, will undoubtedly find these 
articles very helpful. The first article appears in this 

In our March number we have published under the 
name of Nancy Beyer a design for porridge set which was 
by Miss Fmma T. Baker, instructor at the James Millikin 
University of Decatur, 111. The design by Miss Baker 
was not signed and a confusion was made with a design 
by Miss Beyer somewhat in the same style of conventionali- 
zation. If designers would always sign their designs or put 
their name and address on back (except designs for com- 
petition which bear special marks) , such mistakes would 
be easily avoided. 


The Fruit Book, the printing of which was somewhat 
delayed, is now ready, and is for sale at the same price as 
the Rose Book, $3. It contains eight color studies of fruit, 
seven studies in monochrome, and a number of the best 
black and white studies of fruit published in Keramic 
Studio. One of the most important contributors is Miss 
Jeanne M. Stewart, whose work has been so much appre- 
ciated by our subscribers. We have no doubt that the 
Fruit Book will be as successful as the Rose Book. 


The thirteenth Annual Meeting and Exhibition of the 
National League of Mineral Painters, will be opened at 
The Art Institute of Chicago May 3rd, 1906. The exhi- 
bition is to continue until the 27th, and to be composed 
of those pieces which pass the Art Institute jury. 

On Monday the 28th of May, all pieces conforming 
strictly to the study course for the year, will be taken to 
Burley and Go's, exhibition room, where they may be 
viewed from a comparative standpoint. Mr. Howard V. 
Shaw will criticise the work. Particular attention is called 
to the instructions and entry blanks, which will be mailed 
to all members. 

Again we take pleasure in announcing a new member, 
Mrs. Margaret Daniels, Valley City, North Dakota. 

Belle Barnett Vesey, Pres. 
March 6, 1906. 


The balance of articles on firing will be given in the 
May Keramic Studio. We would be glad to have articles 
sent in on the firing of a charcoal kiln, also on the gasoline 
kiln and will pay for them if they can be used. 

First Prize — Anne Seymour Mundy, Coudersport, Pa. 

TO the embryo decorator firing seems the most diffi- 
cult and wonderful branch of the art; and often, 
at first, there is a mistaken idea that firing will remedy or 
at least cover up all deficiencies. Such is not the case 
however, and when a lint spotted tint, particularly so if 
dusted, comes from the kiln with its defects more glaringly 
apparent, the delusion is dispehed forever. 

No matter how beautiful, how masterful the work- 
manship, if the colors are under, or over fired, or if the 
china has lost its glaze in spots, one is apt to feel the time 
has been wasted and only vexation and disappointment 
is the result. 

But to the careful student, be he (or she) amateur or 
professional, keeping in mind a few simple rules, there is 
fascination and even keen delight in making each color ex- 
press its true value besides the satisfaction of a good work 
well finished. 

A firm hand, watchfulness, with care for each shade or 
degree of heat, and the firing becomes the breathing soul 
of art. What could be more beautiful than the privilege 
of making perfect and perpetual good designs, well executed. 


For many reasons nothing so far equals the Revelation 
kiln with its fire clay fire-pot; and for economy, get one with 
corrugated tubes as this construction takes the heat more 
evenly and quickly and lasts longer 

It costs little if any more to fire a No. 6 (the largest 
studio size) than the No. 4, or even a smaher kiln, so it is 
economy in every way to choose a large kiln rather than 
a smaller one. 


Select a room with a brick chimney, good draft, and as 
near as possible, if not right in the studio, to save extra steps 
and precious time. Unless short in stature, be wise and 
have kiln set on platform at least fifteen inches high, to save 
stooping over in stacking. Cover this platform with asbes- 
tos paper, top and sides, tack down neatly. On top of this, 
and under the kiln set a galvanized or sheet iron pan as 
large as will fit in between the legs. This greatly lessens 
danger in case oil runs over, and is protection from sparks, 
when drafts are open and the wind blows down the chimney 
in gusts, causing the flame to splutter out from the sides of 
the burner. The same effect sometimes comes from water 
in the oil. Asbestos paper should be tacked on the walls 
by the kiln from the floor up as high as the top of the oil 
tank and the stove pipe and its joinings should be wrapped 
in asbestos paper wired on. Danger is thus reduced to a 
minimum, so do not be nervous. 


Now and always see that the oil tank is filled some hours 
before it is needed so that oil may not suddenly stop and often 
turn back of itself. This is caused by air bubbles flowing 
into the tank with the oil. As these break, the vacuum 
produces suction enough to stop the flow of oil. Take the 




(Treatment next month) 



cap off the top of the oil can when firing to permit a free cir- 
culation of air or this also may stop the oil. 

Get five cents worth of whiting at the grocery, mix 
with water to smooth paste and with a large coarse brush 
paint it all over the iron shelves and shelf supports and 
place these in oven to dry, then in the kiln, with the stilts, 
asbestos cord, and sheets of platten if you have them. Fire 
these all, this first time, when you are drying and burning' 
out the fire-pot. 

Choose a clear day, for the first firing particularly. Re- 
member that the kiln works on the principle of a kerosene 
oil lamp in respect to draft. If the wind blows down the 
chimney or in gusts, or the air is muggy, soot will gather in 
the burner and on bottom of muflfle. On a clear day this will 
burn off and be carried up the chimney. 

Use pinch of asbestos cotton for wick. Do not replace 
each time. It will last indefinitely. Saturate wick by 
turning on oil, then let oil drop slowly. Apply match to 
wick. After one hour drop faster and after four or five 
hours, a tiny stream. Never at any time let oil extend be- 
yond the wick more than two or three inches. Get the kiln 
to red, then white heat. Turn the faucet off. Let kiln 
cool gradually and the dampness and vapors will have 
gone off and out the chimney and can not settle back on 
the china and destroy the glaze. 

Remember after each firing to immediately refill the 
tank. Protect the top of the funnel leading to the flow 
pipe with a bit of wire sieve (the newest kilns have some) 
and also with a small square of cheese cloth over that to 
prevent any foreign substance from getting into the pipe 
to clog them and retard firing. This will doubtless save a 
plumber's bill later. ' ' An ounce of prevention, etc. ' ' Fir- 
ing all day or so slowly the first time takes more oil than 
ordinarily, but it ' ' seasons ' ' the muffle or fire-pot and 
keeps it from cracking seriously, and insures a safe, sure 
firing of china next time. 


Look over the china and see if you need to use the 
shelves. With many small pieces they are indispensable. 
Saturate the asbestos wick as before, light, and let oil drop 
very slowly. It may take an hour to stack the kiln at first, 
until you become familiar with the colors and know just 
what colors should occupy certain places in the kiln. It 
saves time to allow the kiln to be heating slowly while you 
stack it. The hottest part of the kiln is in the back, on the 
bottom, and on the side next to the oil tank, and here should 
be fired carmines, rose pink, ruby, lustre and the purest 
Roman gold, particularly if for first firing. 

For medium heat, place Roman Purple, Marsching's 
Peach, most of the golds of commerce and any other colors 
except violets and reds,which require the lightest fire. With 
too much firing, violet shades turn "milky", Yellow 
Brown, Yellow Red, Capucine Red, Orange Red, fade per- 
ceptibly. Deep Red Brown and Blood Red turn brownish, 
so does Ruby, although too much oil in case of Ruby will 
have same effect. Apple Green turns yellowish; Moss and 
Royal Green get ugly, although Apple Green added to them 
will keep them from turning brown; Pink turns purple. 
Some reds rub off if under-fired and fade if over-fired; Pink 
under-fired looks ' 'bricky;" Yellow becomes more brilliant 
with hard firing. 

The colors which need the lightest fire should be put 
high up in the kiln and near the door. Do not fire gold 
within five inches of the door, unless it be liquid bright 
gold which takes lightest fire. Dusted color must be fired 

harder than an ordinary tint. A tint heavily fluxed will 
take a lighter fire. Pinks must not be put on too thick or 
they will chip in firing. If there seems to be a doubt as to 
whether a color is going to chip, give it an extra slow firing, 
particularly at first; this ^vill often prevent trouble. Also 
place the china high up in the kiln for same reason. 

Hard French china will take hardest firing, also Bel- 
leek, which has a thin, brittle, hard glaze; but Belleek which 
has a ' ' palette ' ' as trade mark on the bottom must be fired 
very lightly and near the door, nothing will ever blister or 
chip on Belleek but on a palette Belleek colors wih fade 
out dreadfully. 

The soft tiles which are used for framing must also be 
fired very lightly. They are thick and must be supported 
at the back by a plate, laying the back of tile directly on to 
edge of plate to prevent cracking. Tiles may also be fired 
on the shelf at front, though not always as successfully. 
Never allow anything, even a stilt, to touch Belleek or a 
dusted tint if you can avoid it. Don't stack on top of Bel- 
leek. It is not really safe to set a flat bottomed piece of 
china directly on bottom of kiln unless there is free circula- 
tion of air at bottom. Turn cider or lemonade pitchers 
upside down in firing to prevent cracking in bottom unless 
Belleek, then fire high up on a piece of platten or on shelf. 
It is better to fire plates, trays and saucers on edge, 
they take heat more evenly. Examine lower rim of plates 
or trays. If it be glazed, put tiny stilts between, hanging 
from top edge of plate to prevent sticking together; but if 
the edge is rough or unglazed it can be stacked next to a 
glazed and painted surface, unless it should come next to 
paste or enamel. 

Never allow a piece of china to fit tightly or wedge into 
any place in the kiln, as it will crack or break. Never stack 
more than six plates in the same row continuously, as the 
middle one will be apt to break from the weight. Crackles 
or a craze in the glaze of BeUeek will fire together perfectly. 
A wash of enamel will almost always save a cracked piece 
from cracking more. A little enamel mixed with paint 
and used to paint flower or leaf will prevent also a crack 
from spreading. Enamel should have hard firing. The 
less" flux is used, the harder the firing. 

It is better to dry everything, gold and all, well before 
putting in the kiln; there are not so many gases to settle 
and vapors to spoil glaze. Leave front door or spy hole 
open at first to assist in carrying off gases. Transfers 
should be dried slowly before firing and then be fired always 
as high up as possible in the kiln. Do not put middle of 
a tray or plaque on a stilt or piece of platten and then stack 
cups or any small articles at either end which being unsup- 
ported will warp. 

In firing punch bowls, pile stilts up high enough to 
support base and let bowl rest lightly on edge. The base 
to a punch bowd if unsupported has been known to slip off 
entirely. Do not fire punch bowl flat in the kiln, the weight 
of the sides when hot and soft may make them drop down and 
fire out of shape. Cups with a standard or legs should have 
piece of platten to separate them. Stilts are too wobbly. Tall 
vases or pieces found to be fired more at one end or side 
than the other, should be marked and reversed next time. 
Do not put fresh tint or gold right on the sand which may 
be in bottom of kiln. It roughens it. Dry first. Use 
sheets of platten for firing buttons. It saves room in the 

If you have a No. 4 kiln with one-piece mulfle, do not 
increase the flow until the oil has been dropping and burn- 
ing at least half an hour. If you light kiln when stacking, 



you need not keep the spy-hole open; but if not Hghted 
until after, leave the small door open twenty minutes to 
half an hour. By regulation of drafts the heat may be 
thrown wherever you wish. To make it fire harder near 
the door, open back and right side slide in the burner. 
This throws blaze to the front. Too much oil retards fir- 
ing. An experienced engineer told the writer that if smoke 
came out of the chimney, more oil was turned on than 
could be consumed and the firing was retarded. It looks 
reasonable. There is slight difference of opinion as to this 
fact. Don't fire when the neighbor's washing is on the line. 
They may complain of you. Keep a box or pail of sand 
near the kiln in case of emergency. Water on burning 
oil is not always best. 

If soot drops into the burner don't poke it so that it 
goes near the oil flow pipe as it may cover the opening, 
back up the oil and you will have the oil running onto floor from 

the funnel. A wire bent at one end is good to clean 
out soot. 

For mending cracks in muffle mix fire clay, asbestos, 
cotton and water together. If a piece looses its glaze put 
dusted or highly fluxed color over and fire again. 

Watch your kiln carefully after it begins to get red 
and you will notice a change. It will get whiter inside. 
Leave it only a minute or two after the change. Then 
turn off entirely. The critical time is the last ten min- 
utes. Turning on oil faster at the very last adds to the 
glaze and finish. 

Watch carefully at the last. Let your eye become 
accustomed to the color so that you may note the change 
more easily. Experience and judgment are needed here. 
Get to feel every color, every piece of china. Love your 
kiln as a living thing. Study its moods and caprices and 
with patience and confidence your firing will be perfect. 


Top of vase dull yellow brown. Fleur de lis in several tones of grey violet, 
leaves on several tones of grey green. Ivory white outlines. 


HlEramic studio 

Second Prize — Sydney Scott Lewis, Georgetown, Ky. 

A perfectly fired piece of china should have a uniform 
glaze. The colors should unite with the glaze and be 
a part of it not look as if they were baked on. There 
should be no specks or spots caused by dust or careless 
handling, no chipping off of enamel or paste. The colors 
should not look faded, but pure and clear and clean. The 
grounded surface should not look dull, or oily, or pebly 
and scale in places, the gold bright and smooth and not 
blistered and brown in color with a tendency to rub off. 
The enamels and lustres should be pure and transparent. 
To obtain the above results : 

ist The china must be in the proper condition to be fired. 

2nd. You must have a first class reliable kiln in which 
to fire it. 

3rd. The stacking of the kiln must be done carefully 
and intelligently. 

4th. The firing and cooling of the kiln must be care- 
fully and slowly done. 


It must be free from moisture, dust and lint, oil, paint 
and gold that has run over edges and finger prints. Many 
persons bring pieces to be fired, and if the firers have any 
conscience about the matter at all, they have sometimes 
literally to work some time to get it into a fit condition. 
Often in the bottom of a piece you will find a pasted bit 
of paper and the price mark under the rims of plates and 
other articles, streaks of gold, or color, lustre etc. Some- 
times in vases and pitchers bits of straw or excelsior, this 
will burn and create gas and smoke and injure perhaps 
the whole kiln full of china. 

Paste and enamel should be dry and look dull. Lus- 
tre tinted surfaces and gold should be perfectly dry. 
All pieces when color has been dusted on should be carefully 
wiped, as the dust will fly in the kiln and settle on other 
pieces. In fact have the piece of china as near perfect in 
point of material being well put on and as neatly as possible. 
When that is done the china is ready for firing. 


No matter how perfect the work on a piece of china, 
if it is poorly fired the work is of no avail. To do good 
firing one must have a good kiln. There are many kinds 
on the market. Charcoal, gas and oil. It is generally 
thought that the oil kiln is the best, and the Revelation 
superior to them all. As my experience has been with 
this kiln I shall speak of that. It is clear, convenient, 
easy to fire, very simple if you have a good chimne)^ con- 
nection and strong clean draft. They vary in size from a 
very small to a very large size. 

No. 6 is, I believe, best adapted for studio work. The 
heat is more uniform in a large kiln than in a small one. 
For amateur work, a small studio kiln No. 4 is excellent, 
although I believe No. 3 is taking its place somewhat. 
The kiln should be set up in a clean dry place, as dry as 
possible. It is advisable to have a separate chimne)^, but 
it is possible to use a chimney with another opening provi- 
ded the chimney has a good draft, by closing draft in stove 
while firing. The opening for kiln pipe should be above 
opening for stove. If other houses are very near, the 
chimney should be a tall one, taller than the houses. 

If you use a kiln that has an iron pot, the inside should 
be covered with white wash or slacked lime, put on the 
consistency of milk to prevent the iron from injuring the 

colors, lustres, etc. A good draft is the main thing, unless 
the draft is clean and strong the chimney and kiln get 
clogged with soot, especially if one turns more oil into 
the burner than is readily consumed. Revelation kilns 
will fire glass equally as well as china, but glass should be 
fired alone and a much lighter fire. I have used a No. 4 
Revelation for fire years and have never had a piece broken, 
under or over fired and the glazes have been perfect. I 
fire color, lustre and Belleek at the same time always with 
excellent results. 


Have the muffle clean, free from dust, perfectly dry, 
if there is the least dampness heat the inside throughly 
before stacking. See that all cracks are well stopped with 
cement. The back of the kiln and the bottom are the 
hottest. Remember to place French china where it will 
get the hottest fire, German next, English and Belleek 
the lightest. English china is not advisable for amateur 
firing, it is too soft for over glaze kilns and needs a special 
firing. Some prefer to fire Belleek by itself but if placed 
in the front of kiln and not touched by another piece or 
stilt, it will fire perfectly, never stack another piece on Bel- 
leek as the stilt will stick and in removing pull off the glaze. 
Belleek tankards should be placed upside down on a piece 
of fire clay to prevent cracking. In firing lustres with 
painted pieces put the lustres in hottest part. Blues re- 
quire a hard fire and dark blue will glaze like enamel if 
put on heavy. Carmines and Rose are test colors, and if 
properly fired in the middle of the kiln the rest of the kiln 
will be properly fired. Highly fluxed colors such as apple 
green, pearl gray and mixing yellow go in the top of the 
kiln, harder colors at the back and gold about the middle 
but it wiU fire almost anywhere. Iron reds at the top. 
Hard enamels like Aufsetzweis in the bottom. As the 
bottom is the hottest it sometimes happens that things in 
the bottom are well fired and those on top under fired. This 
might happen with a tall piece: if so, turn upside down and 
refire to get a uniform glaze. Mat colors need a medium 
hard fire. 

In stacking use stilts, flat pieces of fire clay and fired 
out asbestos paper. Never allow one glazed surface to touch 
anotherbutit may touch an unglazed bottom or rim. Plates 
and saucers may be stacked flat one on another with stilts 
between or wedge, but it takes more practice to stack them 
safely on edge, placed flat is safer. If placed on edge 
three together is quite enough, if expert at handling you 
need not use a stilt but place the unglazed edge against 
the glazed surface. But be sure it will stay placed. Trays 
and large flat pieces should be stacked on edge. The piece 
makes a conductor of heat so it will be fired evenly. Cups, 
small articles ma}^ be stacked above one another. Have 
the larger article at the bottom and be sure the stack is 
true and steady or a slight jar may upset it and do much 
damage. Stilts will stick to pieces that have heavily 
grounded color or on edges when the paint is thick. A 
large piece placed diagonally is likely to become wedged 
unless a stilt is placed between the edge of article and side 
of kiln. It is remarkable how many pieces an expert 
stacker can get into a kiln, each piece in the right place. 
There need be no breakage unless the firer is careless, of 
course there might be accidents, but care will tend to elim- 
inate them. After the kiln has been properly stacked 
the door should be tightly closed and the kiln is ready for 







THE Dandelion border is intended to be carried out stems a soft green and the background pale green or grey. 

in three tones of green. If used as a band for a White Moccasin — Try this in three tones of Copenhagen 

vase the ground of vase may be tinted pale green, the Blue, leaving the flower almost white. Use silver or 

lightest tone of the design. platinum for banding and if used on a vase, ground the 

Yellow Moccasin (profile view) — Make the flowers a vase with Copenhagen by dusting. This will make a soft 

clear yellow, Albert Yellow or Jonquil Yellow. Theleavesand grey blue. 


In two shades of brown or green. 


In gold and cafe au lait with cream white outlines. 




See that all openings are closed, that the burner is 
clean. Put a small piece of asbestos fibre in burner to 
use as wick. Turn on oil slowly. As soon as the asbestos 
fibre is saturated with oil apply lighted match. It will 
ignite at once. I^et the oil flow drop by drop for about 
ID minutes so as to heat very gradually. Then let the oil 
flow in a very fine stream for twenty minutes more and 
you will soon have a steady flame and a strong roar if 
your chimney is right. This roar is music to the firer's 
ear. After the oil has flowed in a fine stream for 20 minutes 
you can gradually increase the flow until the bottom of 
the burner is nearly but not quite covered. Watch your 
chimney and if it smokes turn off some of the oil as you 
will not increase your heat, or hasten the firing, but clog 
your kiln chimney with soot. About the end of an hour 
a dull red light is visible, keep a steady fire and it gradually 
turns from red to orange. When the kiln is a dull red 
half way up glass would be fired, but it is very difficult to 
tell just the exact moment when glass is properly fired, 
only experience teaches that. If in firing china there is 
much lustre and colors with much oil, leave the httle sHde 
in door open until the first red heat, to allow the gases to 
escape. If a long piece extends from back to front hold 
the heat a little longer. A Revelation Kiln when properly 
fired is a luminous orange, a color comes just like sunshine, 
then a soft haze making the pieces almost lost to the sight. 

Only through knowledge of your kiln can you tell 
just the moment it is fired. A kiln has a- great deal 
of individuality and must be understood to make the most 
of its possibilities. A good deal depends on local conditions, 
drafts, etc. No one can tell you just how long to fire, how 
rapidly to push the heat, you must learn for yourself. By 
following general directions this is easily learned. Fire 
slowly, you can scarcely fire too slowly if the pieces are 
large. In most cases fire hard. Amateurs as a rule under- 
fire more than they overfire. Above all allow the kiln 
to cool slowly. Breakage occurs in cooling, in passing too 
rapidly from red to black. If there is a damper in the 
pipe turn it on after the fire is out to prevent too rapid 
cooling. An ordinary Revelation kiln consumes about 
i^ gallons of oil and takes from i^ to two hours to 
fire, but it depends on conditions, sometimes it takes 
longer, but rarely less than one and one-half hours. Prof. 
Edw. Orton of the University of Ohio, Columbus, makes 
Pyrometrie cones for over glaze firing, these different 
cones melting at a different temperature. Place cones at 
back and front of kiln and experiment until you know 
just how much heat will melt each cone. In house kilns 
the average heat for firing china is 2,000 degrees Fahrenheit, 
sometimes a little more or less, not so high for glass. 

It is well to speak a little on the effect on colors of an 
over or an under fire. 

Pompadour if fired too hard is gray in tone, under- 
fired it rubs off. The only way to get a good glaze is to 
fire hard, if glaze is not good fire harder, but not the car- 
mines or pinks, they should be put on for last and light fire. 

If the ware has a high glaze before painting it does 
not signify that it needs a hard fire, for instance Belleek. 

Raised enamels should be fired only once, else they wiU 
chip off and remove glaze with them. Flat enamels over 
tint take a lighter fire than over white china, over grounded 
color lighter still. Pinks if underfired are yellowish. 
Ruby underfired is brownish, put on too thick will scale, 
Gold underfired will turn dark and rub off. It will fire 

right at a lower temperature than Ruby Purple. Colors 
if underfired lack glaze and look dirty and will collect dirt. 
Colors such as Ruby Purple, Red Brown, laid on heavy 
and underfired will scale. Iron Reds, Carnation, Pompa- 
dour, Blood Red and Deep Red Brown generally fire all 
right in delicate shades, but sometimes fire out completely, 
or rub off. If the latter, go over with a gold color as car- 

Aufsetzweis and paste stand many fires but if later 
fires are lighter than the first, are apt to chip. Too many 
fires are not good for any wares especially Belleek. Three 
or four are about all that are safe for French, but the re- 
sult might be good if more are necessary. Large pieces 
can have smaller pieces placed in them to be fired, using 
stilts to separate them, do not try this in Belleek. Never 
crowd the kiln, it is best to have it well filled but not crowded. 
Do not fire large trays flat. Carmines are test colors, if 
underfired, yehowish red, overfired, purphsh. They will chip 
and turn yellow if put on too heavy. 

Grays loose their strength in firing. Yellows fire stronger. 

Black fires with a high glaze, Greens change very 
little in firing, glaze easily, regular heat. 

Color that is to have gold worked over it should have 
a strong fire 

Enamels all fire a stronger color than appear on the 
palette except the Reds. 



A beginner in firing might wish to know something comb and brush trays 20cts., chocolate pots, tea cups and 

about the prices to be charged for firing. Of course they saucers 2octs., After dinner cups and saucers .15 Trays .40 

vary. The Revelation Kiln makers send out a price list to .60 Vases .15 to .50 Bowls .20 to .75 Small trays 

that I have found very satisfactory. Plates $1.00 per doz., .05 to .10. 



Paint the background behind the flowers Dark Green; blossoms, Jonquil or Albert Yellow; 
leaves and band at base, Olive Green; lower background Ivory. 




Charles F. Binns. 

THE advent of tin-enamels was the outcome of more 
than one series of events. In very early times 
the desideratum of the potters was a pure black. The 
Greeks, after toying with a black pigment upon their 
red clay resorted to the expedient of coating the clay, 
all over and Homer in his famous hymn to Pallas prays, 
on behalf of the potters "let all their cups and sacred 
vessels blacken well." The Romans, also using a red 
clay, produced black pottery by smothering their fire, 
and white appears to have been almost unknown. The 
reason is obvious. The only white coating available was 
of the nature of a chalk or lime. The surface, though 
Hght in color, was more porous than the body itself while 
the black coloring was fusible and served as a partial glaze. 

There was, in ancient Egypt, an attempt to make 
light colored wares but no white clay was within reach 
and while some tendency in the direction of coated or en- 
gobe wares remained in the near East, the work was exotic 
and difficult to sustain. 

With the advent of Chinese productions, however, 
the scene changed. The delicate, translucent quality 
of porcelain appealed to the aesthetic sense of the world 
as nothing had done before. Black disappeared as dark- 
ness vanishes before light and white wares became the 

But still a large part of the difficulty remained. White 
substances which would stand the fire were hard to find. 
Some rocks and minerals there were such as chalk, mag- 
nesia, talc and quartz, but these could not be easily shaped 
nor would they solidify on burning. Some of them could 
be used as a white coating to conceal the nakedness of a 
red clay and to this purpose they were put but the real 
porcelain clay, the white substance which was plastic 
and which would solidify and vitrify under heat was 
not to be had. 

The result of this two fold condition of the demand 
for white wares on the one hand and of the absence of 
white clay on the other was that every effort was made 
to improve the coating which served to conceal the clay. 
This at first took the form of a slip or engobe covered 
in turn by a clear glaze, but as the knowledge of pottery- 
making spread through the lands conquered by the Mo- 
hammedan power, a further development took place. It 
was found that the glaze itself could be made opaque 
and white and that this would obviate the necessity for 
an under coating and when the Moors conquered Spain 
in the twelfth century their potters found an abundance 
of tin oxide ready to hand. The early wares of the tin- 
glaze type being exported from Maiorca, the name 
Maiolica was given and tin enameled pottery has ever 
since been known by it. A variation was introduced 
in Holland where, at Delft, the tin enamel was successfully 
used in conjunction with cobalt blue. Thus the Delft 
wares are a branch of the maiolica family but with char- 
acter of their own. 

It may be a matter of surprise why this manufac- 
ture succeeded in one place and not in another. The 
composition of the glaze was well known and yet when 
Van Hamme tried to make these wares in England he 
met with very indifferent success. The fact is that part 
of the secret lay in the clay. Those were not the days 
of weighing and mixing. If a potter found a bed of clay 
to suit him, well and good. If he did not he made further 

search. The difference between failure and success often 
lay in the fact that the successful man had stumbled upon 
a deposit of suitable clay. It has since been discovered 
that the clay of Delft contained a great deal of lime and 
the English clay which Van Hamme tried to use con- 
tained none. The first point, then, for the successful 
production of tin-glazed pottery is either to find a clay 
. containing lime or to add lime to a clay which may be 
otherwise suitable. 

It may be well at this point to ask why any one should 
care to make these wares. Are they not out of date and 
antiquated, have they not been supplanted by porcelain? 
Yes, and no. In so far as Delft ware was intended 
to be a substitute for porcelain, then almost unattain- 
able, it has been superseded by the genuine article, but, 
as sometimes happens, the pottery began as an imitation, 
developed a quality and beauty of its own and assumed 
a position from which even porcelain cannot dethrone 
it. Furthermore this ware can be made of almost any 
common clay, with the proper addition of lime already 
mentioned, and can be burned and glazed at quite a low 
temperature. It affords excellent scope for the designer 
and painter and for harmony of tone and color quality 
it is unsurpassed. 

Dutch titles are synonymous with fireplace comfort 
and there is really no reason why these should not be ex- 
tensively made and used now. 

There is yet another reason to justify the making 
of tin glazed wares. The art of the past must have for 
every thoughtful person an absorbing interest. First 
because it was a national art and there is no nation capable 
of such in the twentieth century because every nation 
is open to the world, and second, because such works 
serve to establish a criterion of craftsmanship, a stand- 
ard of technical value. No artisan can be found to-day 
whose work will bear comparison with that done long 
ago. The rush of business, the competition and strug- 
gle for existence, never more severe than now, prevent 
a man doing deliberate and thoughtful work. If, then, 
work can be done of which there is already a school and 
for which there is an accepted standard such work is worth 

Having thus, it is hoped, created an appetite for tin- 
glazed wares the endeavor will be made to set forth 
in some detail the necessary technical procedure in their 

I. The clay. A soft, plastic clay, such as is used 
for making common brick, will answer the purpose ad- 
mirably. It should not be too fusible. That is, it should 
burn to a dense vitreous body at a heat not lower than 
cone r . If it will stand cone 3 or 4 the glaze will be better. 
This clay should be procured in considerable quantity, 
say two or three barrels and should be turned out on a 
large floor to dry. A barn or an attic floor will answer 
well. When dry the clay should be broken small with 
the back of a shovel or almost any kind of a tool which 
will break the lumps. The smaller the better but the 
size of hazel nuts is small enough. Some good whiting is 
now to be obtained and this must be in fine powder. All 
lumps must be pulverized by sifting through a fine sieve, 
about 40 meshes to the inch is not too fine. The whiting 
is now added to the clay in the proportion of one part of 
whiting to eight of clay by measure. The shovel is quite 
accurate enough to measure by. A good way is to spread 
the clay out on the floor and to scatter the whiting evenly 
over the whole. The mixing cannot be too thorough. The 





THE name appears well adapted to this plant and although 
it is not widely known, once seen it seldom passes 
out of the remembrance. The flower's petals are lilac 

or pink with a triangular space of white at the lower part. 
The section just below this is bright yellow and the sta- 
mens are a deep purple black. The leaves are yellow green. 



clay and whiting should be shoveled over to one side and 
then shoveled back, repeating the operation three or four 
times. The whole can then be piled up in a heap or put 
back into the clay barrels, it will keep for ever. 

To prepare for use, a quantity of the mixture should 
be thrown into water to soak. If wanted for casting 
the liquid must be vigorously stirred and strained through 
the 40 mesh sieve. All the lumps may be rubbed through 
but stones must be rejected. It is a good plan to run the 
slip a second time through the sieve so as to secure a perfect 

In order to make a clay stiff enough for building or 
wheel work the slip may be thickened by evaporation or 
the water may be absorbed by plaster. In fact plaster 
of Paris is so necessary in clay-working that every would- 
be potter should be versed in the use of it. A shallow 
plaster bowl or dish for use in stiffening of clay is not 
difficult to make and affords good practice. A barrel of 
plaster* can be bought for about two dollars and will last 
some time. It will not deteriorate if kept in a dry place. 



Clai) ITjound. 

l)ead ojCur 11 tabic 



On the wheel-head or turntable a mound of clay is 
reared of the diameter and depth of the proposed dish. 
It should be about three inches deep and as wide as possible, 
leaving a margin of one inch or a little more. A strip of 
sheet tin or galvanized iron is procured. It should be seven 
or eight inches wide and long enough to encircle the turn- 
table and overlap a couple of inches. This is bent around 
the turntable head and tied firmly with string. This 
will give a circular pan with the clay mound in the middle. 
An estimate must now be made of the amount of liquid 
this pan will hold. Probably the first trial will prove too 
much or too little but a note made will enable a correct 
amount to be prepared the second time. The water is 
to be measured and two and three quarter pounds of dry 
plaster provided for each quart of water. The plaster 
is put into the water and allowed to soak for some min- 
utes and then the whole is gently stirred with the hand. 
Soon a thick creamy feeling will announce that setting 
has begun but this must be allowed to proceed until the 
cream becomes really thick but not pasty. It must flow 
freely. The cream is now poured rapidly into the pan, 
covering the clay mound to the depth of a full inch or 
rather more. If the turntable head itself be of plaster 
the exposed part must be thoroughly soaped or else the 
new plaster will unite with it. When the newly poured 
plaster has set firmly but not quite hard the metal sheet 
should be removed and a groove cut from the plaster on 
the upper angle as marked in the figure. This is tech- 
nically named a "handhole" and is to admit the fingers so 
that the plaster dish can readily be lifted, for of course it 
is upside down and when in use the top as it now is will 

*Calvin Tompkins, 2 Battery Place, New York. 

be the bottom. When quite hard a sharp knock will de- 
tach the newly made dish from the head and the clay can 
be removed. Those who need a good many of these dishes 
and they are always useful, will find it a good plan to make 
a reverse in plaster so as to avoid the use of the clay mound 
over and over. If this be done the first dish must be well 
soaped to prevent sticking and then the metal band is 
tied around it and the whole filled with liquid plaster as 
already described, only that enough must be used to pro- 
vide a thickness of an inch or more on the edge over and 
above the depth of the dish itself. These plaster dishes 
must be well dried and they can be repeatedly used for 
thickening clay as the porous body rapidly absorbs the 
water from the slip. As soon as a dish becomes saturated 
it is dried out and used again. 

(To be continued.) 

IRIS (Supplement) 

Laura Overly. 

First fire: Ground lay vase with Azure Glaze, use 
Fry's Special Tinting Oil. 

Second fire: Paint flowers with Banding Blue and 
Violet, use a bit of Black in Violet for dark shadows. 

Leaves: Yellow Green and Dark Green. 

Third fire: Tint entire vase with thin Copenhagen 
Blue and Violet, dust over leaves and background with 
Copenhagen Grey. 

Paint top of vase very dark, use Dark Green, Violet 
and Copenhagen Blue. 


Green & Co., Chicago, have moved to their new loca- 
tion at 934 Fine Arts Building. 

On May ist., M. T. Wynne will remove to her new 
location at 39 West 21st street, between Fifth and Sixth 
avenues. New York. 


Sabella Randolph 

No. I. Sky dark greenish blue at top, shading 
through yellow to red. Use Dark Green No. 7 with a 
touch of Banding Blue for the dark greenish blue, use 
this also for outlines of poplar and the line of trees along the 
horizon, for yellow use Yellow Ochre and for red, Orange 
or Flame Red. For the middle distance use Ochre with a 
touch of Red and Dark Green No. 7, leaves touches of this 
color through poplar tree, for poplars and foreground use 
Brown Green with a touch of Dark Green No. 7, for the 
large stone at left of poplar use Red and Dark Green No. 7 
thin with a touch of Ochre. Before painting tint the whole 
vase with Ochre and fire, after finishing tint the whole vase 
with Pearl Grey and fire. This will give a harmonious 
color throughout and an even glaze. 

No. 2 . Tint the vase with Grey Green and fire. Second 
fire tint sky lightly with Ochre, go over middle distance 
with another tinting of Grey Green, make line of trees 
along horizon, foreground and outlines a darker grey 
green, poplars and large stones a blue grey green, using 
Dark Green No. 7 with a touch of Banding Blue. Third 
fire tint with Pearl Grev. 







WH are so much in the habit of supposing that whatever 
V is to be known of pottery is known to us that it may 
come-|with somewhat of a surprise to many of our readers 
to learn that at least two kinds of ware are not and never 
have been manufactured in Great Britain, says a special 
contributor to the London Pottery Gazette. These are 
known as tin-glazed ; ware and hard-paste china. Of the 
hard paste china we do not propose to say anything at 
present; but a few notes on tin-glazed ware — not so much 
upon' the historic wares of the past, as on the regular every- 
day make of the present — may not be uninteresting. Since 
man first made ware, the question of how to provide the 
porous, rough, unpleasant-feeling surface of the biscuit 
with a smooth, impervious, easily cleaned skin has been 
a matter of study and experiment. The hard, semi- 
vitreous clays, resisting a high temperature, and rich in 
silex, lent themselves readily enough to salt glazing; but 
this is an expensive, difficult and somewhat risky process. 

The suitable clay was not always to be found, and salt, 
especially in those countries where it is taxed, was a by 
no means economical article to use for the purpose. Some- 
one having a softer and less refractory clay to deal with 
hit upon the use of galena; someone else tried red lead, 
and a vast quantity of cooking ware were and still are made 
on these lines. 

The surface of galena and lead-glazed wares is ex- 
cellent — bright, clean, generally uncrazed and easily washed 
— but it leaves a good deal to be desired; it is transparent, 
and the dark red or yellow of the ordinary biscuit takes 
on a still deeper tone. Then, again, they are both very 
readily attacked by acids, some of the lead glaze being 
easily dissolved by lemon juice. This, however ignorant 
the peasant might be, he discovered, and was eager to find 
a ware free from this serious defect, and more pleasant 
to the eye than the rough red ware. Someone, who, can 
never be known, discovered that by fusing metallic tin 
and lead together, oxidizing the mass, adding to the com- 




bined oxide a little salt and silica, fritting these together 
and grinding up the result to a fine powder, produced an 
opaque glaze that gave to the commonest clays a superior 
appearance. Slowly, inch by inch, as is the case with all 
human discoveries, a finer and finer frit was discovered, 
a purer and purer glaze obtained; till at last a glaze, so 
white, so pure, and brilliant was evolved that it compared, 
and not unfavorably, with the white porcelain of the east. 
Away back in the Middle Ages the Italian potters pro- 
duced results that have never been surpassed, so much 
that for the last two or three centuries this class of ware 
has made no progress whatever. 

The cheapening of white earthenware has doubtless 
had to do with this, for the French, Italian and Iberian 
makers of "tin-glazed" wares have really retrograded 
from the positions of their forefathers. A few, such 
as the manufacturers at Nevers and Blois, make a really 
high-class and artistic ware, but the great majority con- 
fine themselves to making cheap basins, plates and cook- 
ing vessels, sold for a few pence in the markets of their 
little country towns. 

The decoration, of the roughest and crudest char- 
acter, is, as almost all national pottery is, of strong and 
glaring colors; for this glaze readily lends itself to colors 
that are almost the despair of the white earthen ware 
maker. The brilliant scarlet, which is the desire of our 
home potter, is easily produced on this class of goods, 
and the greens, blues and oranges take on a brilliance 
and purity all their own. 

The ware to be seen in any market town in Southern 
France, Spain, Portugal or Italy, is almost invariably of 
an inferior, dirty yellow gray color, and consists of bowls, 
plates and jugs, made on the wheel, and showing in the 
form and outline a certain pleasantness to the eye, which 
is almost always the characteristic of a purely hand-made 
article. The decoration, done with a few sweeps of a 
dauber, is crude; a cottage with a tree, roughly sketched 
flowers, or those primitive forms that the peasant farmer 
of every land seems to like. In Britany one or two fac- 
tories make a quantity of rough ornaments, many of which, 
owing to tourists, are brought over to England as memen- 
toes. These are a little better; but with very few excep- 
tions the ware is of the roughest and crudest character. 

Those who have seen really fine specimens of this 
pottery would scarcely recognize the kinship of the present 
degenerate wares. There are in existence specimen plates 
(the writer has in memory the remains of a dinner service) 
on exhibition in a little place abroad, which it would puz- 
zle any man to distinguish from first-class china or earthen- 
ware, so long as he was not permitted to handle it; and 
which is quite equal in appearance to any first-class white 
ware. Of course, it is softer, and more easily chipped 
and broken, yet the pieces, for there are several, are wonder- 
fully free from crazing, though a century or more old. 

This ware, except in the hands of a few specialists, 
it is probable, will gradually die out of common use. A 
few who work in reproducing copies of the great masters 
of the art, or making ornamental pieces on the same lines, 
may continue for many years to come ; but the ware seems 
likely, as an ordinary article of commerce, to be doomed. 
Its makers are seeking new means and methods; for al- 
though to produce a poor article is very easy indeed, the 
purity and beauty of the best extant specimens are difiicult 
and expensive to attain. The increasing price of tin and 
the cheapening of ordinary white ware must bring it to 
an end. 


Miss E. E. Page, of Boston, goes to Europe in April 
for a course of art study. 






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Under tlie Dianagement of Miss Emily Peacock, Room 2j, 22 East i6th SL, Neiv York. All inquiries i^i regard to the various 
Crafts are to be sent to the above address, but zvill be anstvered in the magazine under this head. 

All questions must be received before ike \Otli day of month /^receding issue and will be answered under "Answers to Inquiries" only. Please do not send 
stamped envelope for reply. The editors will answer questions only in these columns. 


Frank G. Sanford 

IT is the purpose of the fohowing chapter to describe 
the construction of some simple candlesticks in 
sheet metal. There are few tools required and the pro- 
cesses involved demand little skill. Of course one may 
be as painstaking as one wishes or is able, but fair re- 
sults can be gotten by an absolutely untrained worker. 

The writer believes in the use and the mastery of a 
few tools. Although it is true of the Occidental crafts- 
man that in his finer work he depends upon a great many 
delicate tools — all lovers of the beautiful should know 
that a great deal can be accomplished with a small equip- 

With this preface let us consider the needs for simple 
metal work. 

The following equipment with a few accessories men- 
tioned in the text, will be quite sufficient. (See the plate 
illustrating tools lUus. No. i.) 

A strong table or work bench which will not vibrate 
under pounding. (A vise while not necessary is most 

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3V 3" 

6" cVoJncttr . 

exrRA PI pee. 

r%^K c. 

EUTRA piec«. 


A piece of soft sheet brass, gauge 19 or 20, 7x9 inches 
cost about 20c. or a piece of copper ditto cost about 25c. 

A hard wood mallet — length of head 3", one end of 
head ground or cut to a hemisphere. 

A pair of tinner's shears length 10". 

A half round single cut file length 8". 

A medium size round file. 

A small brad or nail set. 

A ball pin hammer head 2V' or 3". 

A small rivet set. 

A pair of wire cutters and pliers combined. 

A block of 2" oak, maple or other hard wood squared 
on one side or more and not less than 9 x 12". 

A section of hard wood log at least 5" diameter about 
8" long and square on one end. 

A round hard wood stick or metal bar f or |". 

An old flat iron or scrap of smooth iron or steel — not 
too thin. 

An ordinary draughtsman's outfit consisting of pen- 
cil, eraser, rule, compass, thumbtacks and triangle. 

The Construction of a Brass Candlestick of three 

The base. 

Consult illustration No. 2. In one corner of the 
7x9 metal sheet describe a 6" circle close to the edges. 

Draw the other plans upon the sheet. Cut out the 
square which contains the circle and then trim the metal 

T00U3 FOR Sl^^P^^ 



away accurately to the curve. A word here about the 
use of the shears. Cut near the point, not at the point 
for it takes far less strength to cut near the point accord- 
ing to a well known principle of leverage. 

File away all splinters and uneven places with the 
flat side of the half round file. 

Describe two circles at half inch intervals inside 
the disk, see A Illus. No. 3. 

Set the log section (see Fig. 13, Illus. No. i) in the vise 
if you have one, if not it may be screwed to a bench. 

Holding the metal disk slightly tipped on the end 
of the log, beat with the mallet between the first and sec- 
ond circle as shown in Illus. No. 3 B. constantly repeating 
this until an even bend is formed of any depth you wish 
as C. The outer edge will wrinkle but can easily be tapped 

Light strokes many times repeated, will accomplish 
more than a few heavy ones. Finish by filing the edge 
even and true. 

The Holder. 

Cut out the second piece measuring 3x3, Illus. No. 
2, and square it even and true at the corners. Mark 
the lines as shown in Illus. No. 4. A and then snip and file 

<. — 

3 - 



to the shape shown in Illus. 4 B. You will find that 
with the three files in your equipment a great variety of 
shapes may be obtained. At the corners punch the 
holes as shown at x x x Illus. 4 B and then cutting ex- 
actly upon the lines to these holes the leg pieces are pro- 
duced. This piece may now be bent and beaten about the 
curved sticks which by the way, should be |" diameter 
— the diameter of the common candle. 

The leg pieces are next bent out to a right angle with 
the pliers and their upper edges beveled with the half- 
round file, Illus. 4 C. 

Holes are then punched in the ends — one hole in each 

The Handle. 

Cut out C Illus. No. 2 and file one end to resemble 
Illus. No. 5 A or any other simple curved pattern. 

Bend up this piece neatly and tightly around the 

Punch holes as indicated. 

All punching should be done upon the end of a hard 
wood block and the raised edges of the hole carefully 
filed down smooth. 

It is essential to good rivetting that these holes be 
exactly the same size as the rivets used. 

Copper rivets may be purchased \" long and about 
I" thick for 40c. a lb. These are the easiest to handle 
but do not look well upon brass. Brass escutcheon pins 
I" thick and f or ^" long may be gotten and cut to \" length 
with the wire cutters. 

All rivetting is done upon the metal block. Place 
the rivet through from underneath and then close it down 
with the rivet set as in Illus. No. 6 A. Tap the top down 
lightly until it resembles B in Illus. No. 6. By no means 
hammer it down smooth and thin as it will then have 
no strength. 



A common accident in rivetting due to too large a to resemble A Illus. No. 8 or by beating upon a leather 

hole, and too long a rivet, is shown in C Illus. No. 6. Fin- or heavy canvas pad filled with sand, like Fig. B. in same 

ish the rivet as D. lUustration. 

The finished candlestick should resemble Ihus. No. B shows the first position and C the forming of the 

7 or those in the photograph. shoulders. 




Clean the metal with any good metal polish, or a 
weak solution of nitric or sulphuric acid and water. 

Sawdust is excellent as a first drier, then polish with 
a coarse cloth. 

Heat the cleaned metal and rub a thin coat of bees 
wax all over to prevent discoloring by the air. 

Another simple form of base like those shown in the 
photo is made by sinking the middle part of the metal 
disk to resemble a dish form. 

This mav be done either over a wood block formed 

The element of beauty in these simple candlesticks 
is obtained by the adjustments of parts, or proportion, 
and in the filing of the smaller parts as the handle and 
spreading feet of the socket. 

The straight sided candlesticks shown in Illus. No. 
II, 12 and 13 are made by beating the sides down over the 
end of the square block. In other respects they are made 
in the manner already described. 



Newoomb Pottery. 


THE Fourth Annual Exhibition of Art Crafts was held 
last December in ithe Art Institute, Chicago, 111. 
It was gratifying to note how much good work was sent. 
There was decidedly more metal work than any previous 
year, and the exhibition of pottery and porcelain was ex- 
ceptionally fine. 

Newcomb College sent a splendid exhibit of pottery, 
woven linens and embroideries, each piece, whether in 
clay, flax or silk, showing thought and care from the be- 
ginning to the end. 

The Robineau porcelains filled two large cases which 
were the central feature of one of the large galleries. In 
the case of light color pieces a white silk mull over a dull 
white made the colors appear as jewels. In the case of 
dark color pieces dark grey silk muslin over light grey 

Silver iNecklaee, set with green onyx— Emily l'\ Peacock. 

The overglaze decoration of porcelain showed rapid 
strides in the right direction. The Atlan Club display 
was excellent, both in design and color, also the work sent 
by Miss Middleton, Miss Dibble, Miss Peck and Miss Cole. 

The Wilro Shop had beautiful illuminated leather, 
and Miss Fleige's work in tooled and cut leather was 
most interesting. The Swastic shop sent also illuminated 

The table silver from the Handicraft Shop, Wellesley 
Hills, Boston, Mass., filled a large case and well represented 
the workers. H. E. Potter and E. Stephan also exhibited 
very fine pieces of table ware, many of their spoons were 
quaint shapes and enamel was used in the handles. The 
exhibition of silver jewelry was most interesting and 
came from the following workers: the Misses Barnum and 
Carson, Miss B. Bennett, L. C. Lavaron, F. E. Mann, J. 
Prewton, Emily F. Peacock, I. W. Sanberg and others. 

Chas. F. Eaton of Santa Barbara, Cal., exhibited lamps 

Porcelain Cou|h —Mi 
Cat design, mat ivory glaze. In^u 


n yellow crystalline gla; 

satin finish made quite a charming contrast to the reds, 
blues and rich greens. Heretofore such expensive settings 
had only been accorded the jewelry but it was thought 
that the porcelains warranted the change, and it is one of 
the features of the Art Institute exhibitions that special 
attention is given to backgrounds. 

The Grueby Faience Co. _ sent a very interesting ex- 
hibit, their panels and tiles were exceptionally^ good. 

heramic studio 


Tiara and Corsage onianienl, colored gold and peacock opals— I.eonide ('. I.avar 

Plat Pin, silver and jade — Essie Myer: 

CInieby Faience Co., Til( 

Tendant, silver with blue agate— B. Bennett. 

Porcelain Vase— Mrs. A. Al>^op-Eobineau. 
Dragon Fly design, mat green and brown glai 


Old weavings made in Bethlehem, Pa., in 1S20. 

in iron, copper and brass repousse, also some very unique 
and practical night lamps. 

H. D. Murphy had some of his original and excellent 
mirror frames, E. G. Starr and Peter Verberg some of their 
well known and beautiful bindings, Mrs. Albee some Ab- 
nakee rugs, and the California and Arizona Indians a col- 
lection of wonderful baskets. 


H. A. — Read the editorial in tlie July 1905 Keramic Studio on the "Con 
ventional" it will be of assistance to you. In a general way conventional 
work on china is any treatment of design not purely naturalistic. 

For school children's clay work we should think a little polishing with a 
tool in the leather hard state and a Uttle color oxide rubbed in would be 
enough finish, but the majolica glazes or the soft Limoge glaze could be used 
They are kept by Drakenfeld & Co of Park Place, N. V. If you fire up to 
cone 1 or 2, the mat glaze recipes given by Prof. Binns in the November 
1905 Keramic Studio could be used. 

The Photo Chromotype Engraving Co. of Philadelphia will do printing 
in colors for you very well. Then there is the American Colortype Co. of 
New York and Binner & Co. of Chicago and many others. 

Mrs. S. A. R. — If your burnish silver has turned dark on your steins try 
any good silver polish, if that will not remove the tarnish, the only suggestion 
we can make is to repaint with Roman Gold which will give a green gold effect 
and will not tarnish. 

E. W.— You will find a study of hops for a stein in the October 190.5 
Keramic Studio, a design for chocolate pot in July 1899 and for tea set in 
May 1900 Keramic Studio. 

Mrs. J. S. D. — For a dinner set it is not necessary that anything but the 
regular dinner and service plates, platters and vegetable dishes be of the 
same design although it is rather better to keep the same color scheme through- 
out, but not absolutely necessary. The salad, game, dessert, fish, oyster and 
coffee sets may be different, also fruit, ice cream and punch and lemonade 
sets should be different. The poppy design in red, gold and black could be 
interesting, you will find an elaborate article on the poppy in the Keramic 
Studio for October 1901 which will be of service to you in designing. 

Mrs. E. L. K. — If you have made your Roman Gold exactly according 
to directions in Keramic Studio of December 190.5, and it can be scratched off 
with the thumb nail, it has been badly underfired. It is not absolutely nec- 
essary to use tar oil with the fat oil for gold, but one half of each is generally 

Mrs. M. McG. — It is impossible to say just what is the trouble with yotu 
silver not knowing whether it was of a reliable make. Whether it is a flat 
decoration or raised, we should advise going over it with gold, as silver is very 
unsatisfactory as a general rule in over glaze decoration, burnish it smooth 
first. There is no reason why the silver should not be mixed the same as 

if I*' 


M. E. Hidbert. 

THESE lilies, the "Anemones", grow on the slopes of 
foot hills but come very late in the spring. 
The petals of the flowers grow from a white to a deli- 
cate lavender in color and are a yellow green where the 
dark marking is and there they are quite hairy. 

The pistil and stamen are yellow and the leaves 
are a blueish green. 


Use Deep Violet of Gold, Brown Green and Moss 
Green, Lemon Yellow and Ochre for the flower. Yellow 
Green, Shading Green and Brown Green in the leaves. 


Permanent Blue, Crimson Lake, Olive Green, Hook- 
ers Green No. i and No. 2 and Gamboge. 



1 ase. Mat Ivory glaze- 
running Into semi-nial 
glaze at the base. 
ChrysanI hemum de- 
sign incised on white 

The Robineau Pottery^ Syracuse^ N* Y, 


April, iqos 




HO l=>UB. CO. 



Devoted Exclvisively to "WKite CHina, BeleeK 
and CHina Decorator's Svipplies 

Sole Distributor of Oaltfornia Ceramic Gold — Eureka 1 Mail Orders filled sam* 
day as received, 

372 McAllister street, san francisco, cal. 


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Beginning witii May the Ideal House, devoted to tiie adornment of, tlie home, 
comes out witli special cover and in double size. Subscription $1 a year. Copy for 
10c in silver. "House Hints" premium and the Ideal House one year, or "50 side- 
walls" and the Ideal House one year, $1.25 post-offlce order. 

T. A. CawtHra & Co., 25 E. 21st St., New YorK 

Sample Sent Free of tKe Ne-wr MontKly Magazine 


If you are redecorating or refurnishing a 
room or a house, this book is 
CLIFFORD & LAWTON, 19 Union Square, New York 

Ready for Delivery 

on April 1, 1906 

The Book of Fruit 

For the china painter and decorator, containing 
the best naturalistic and conventional studies of 
frnit, both in biack-and*white and in colors, which 
have been published in Keramic Studio, with 
ei^ht studies in color and seven monochromes as 

Price, postpaid, $3.00 

Keramic Studio Publishing Co. 


Do you want A Premium of $3.^^ worth of our 
Color Studies? Send postal for details of plan, 


For Amateur Painters can be had of 
Dealers in over 600 different shapes. 
Catalogue sent upon mention of Keramic Studio. 

THE WILLETS M'FG CO., Mannfaoturer. 



^ jliliiiiiiJilii 

I New Gazetteer of the World. 2380 Quarto Pages. New Btographical Dictionary. 

Editor in Chief, W. T. HARRUl, PH.D., LL.D.. U. S. Com. of Education. 

Chief Justice FULLER, U. S. Supreme Court, says: I regard the InternatioDxl as of 
the utmost value In accuracy of definitioa, and have found it in all respects complete 
and thorouRh. 


Latest and Largest Abridginent of the INTERNATIONAL 

Two Attractive Editions 

FREE, "Dictionary Wrinkles." Also Illustrated pamphlets. 

G. 6C. M£,RRIAM CO., Springfield, Mass.. U.S.A. 




Select Powder Colors 

The Best Quality aud Finely Ground. 


For Sale by Leading Art Stores 

China and Water Color Studies to order .*. Mail Orders promptly 
filled .'. Send for Price List 

1104 Auditorium Tower, Chicago, 111. 


LEE ROESSLER, 116 S. HigK St., Columbia, O. 

Monthly Design Competition 


June Competition Closes April 15th. 

The color study for June will be the single yellow wild rose by Ida M. Ferris. It is proposed to fill 
the June number with roses, naturalistic studies, decorative and conventionalized applications. For 
furtherance of this plan the competition has been arranged as follows : 

Naturalistic 5tudy of Roses 

Wild or cultivated, arranged in panel 8 x lo inches, black and white wash drawing. This must be 
accompanied by explicit directions for execution in mineral colors. 

First Prize, $8. Second Prize, $5. 

Decorative Study of Roses 

Wild or cultivated, arranged in panel 8 x lo inches, black and white wash drawing. This must be 
accompanied by color scheme and application to some tall ceramic form. 

First Prize, $12. Second Prize, $8. 

Salad 5et, Bowl and Plate, 

Motif conventionalized. Rose, wild or cultivated, black and white wash drawing to be accompanied 
by a section in color and careful directions for execution in mineral colors. 

First Prize, $ 1 0. Second Prize, $6 

Open to Everyone 

No one is excluded — Non-subscribers, foreigners, former prize-winners, are eligible. Mark with 
fictitious name or sign, same to be on envelope enclosing name and address of competitor* 

A color scheme should be sent with each design, at least a section of the design in colors. Between 
two designs of same merit, the prize will be awarded to the one accompanied by the best color scheme. 

Designs must not be traceable to any existing pattern. All work should be mailed flat. Designs re- 
ceiving mention will be considered for purchase. Send return postage for all designs submitted. 

Each design must be made separately and not overlapping another. Any number of designs can be 
submitted by one person. 

Designs from foreign countries should be sent by mail, not by express or Parcels Post. 

The Jury reserves the right to ivithdra.iv any prize for which there is no sufficiently worthy design. 













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